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Pert 2 Verb and Adjective

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Pert 2 Verb and Adjective

  1. 1. BAHASA INGGRIS VERB, ADJECTIVE, By : I Nengah Putu Mardika, S.Pd
  2. 2. SUBJECT MATERIAL 1. Greeting, Verb and Simple Present 2. Adjective, Adverb, and Pronounce 3. Simple Present , present countinuous and simple future 4. Pronoun, simple past, convestarion, dialogue 5. Review simple past, practice, passive 6. Review tenses and presentation 7. QUIZ 8. MID TEST 9. Passive and Modal 10. Vocabularies, tenses, noun and verb 11. Passive + model 12. Review Tenses 13. Review Passive voice dan mode 14. Conjunction 15. Comperative and superlative adjective 16. UAS
  4. 4. Classes of Verbs The auxiliary verbs (auxiliaries) To be, To have To do Can, could, may, might, must Ordinary Verbs: To work To sing To pray
  5. 5. be, have, do, need and dare have infinitives and participles like ordinary verbs, but can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will and would have neither infinitives nor participles and therefore have only a restricted number of forms
  6. 6. Ordinary Verbs: Principal parts of the active verb Affirmative Negative Present infinitive To work Not to work Present Continuous infinitive To be working Not to be working Perfect infinitive To have worked Not to have work Perfect continuous To have been infinitive working Not to have been working Present participle and gerund Working Not working Perfect participle and gerund Having worked Not having worked Past participle Worked
  7. 7. In regular verbs the simple past and the past participle are both formed by adding d or ed to the infinitive. Sometimes the final consonant of the infinitive has to be doubled, e.g. slip, slipped For irregular verbs, The present participle and gerund are always regular and are formed by adding ing to the infinitive. The rule concerning the doubling of the final consonant of the infinitive before adding ing applies here also.
  8. 8. Ordinary Verbs : Active sentence He works He is working He has worked He worked He was working He had worked He will work He will be working
  9. 9. Affirmative Contractions The auxiliaries be, have, will, would are contracted as follows: Am 'm have 've will 'II is 's has 's would 'd are 're had 'd Note that : 's can be is or has and 'd can be had or would: He's going = He is going. He's gone = He has gone. He'd paid = He had paid. He'd like a drink = He would like a drink. These contractions are used after pronouns, here, there, some question words , and short nouns: Here's your pen. The twins've arrived. The car'd broken down. Affirmative contractions are not used at the end of sentences: You aren't in a hurry but I am. (I'm would not be possible here.)
  10. 10. Negative of Tenses The simple present tense: third person singular does not/doesn't + infinitive; other persons do not/don't + infinitive. The simple past tense negative for all persons is did not/didn't + infinitive. Contractions are usual in speech: He does not/doesn't answer letters. They do not/don't live here. I did not/didn't phone her. She did not/didn't wait/or me. The negative of all other tenses is formed by putting not after the auxiliary. Contractions are usual in speech: He has not/hasn't finished. He would not/wouldn't come.
  11. 11. Negative contractions The auxiliaries be, have, will, would, shall, should, do are contracted as follows: am not 'm not is not isn’t or 's not are not aren't or 're not I'm not going and Tom isn't going/Tom's not going. We aren't going/We're not going. have not and has not contract to haven't and hasn't, but in perfect tenses 've not and 's not are also possible: We haven't seen him/We've not seen him. He hasn't/He 's not come yet. Will not contracts to won't, though 'll not is also possible, shall not contracts to shan't: I won't go/I'll not go till I hear and I shan't hear till tomorrow. Other verb forms are contracted in the usual way by adding n't. Negative contractions can come at the end of a sentence: I saw it but he didn't.
  12. 12. Study the sentences below! What it’s mean? • He didn't didn't eat eat anything anything <=> He ate nothing. • He He doesn't doesn't ever ever complain complain <=> He never complains. We haven't seen anyone • We haven't seen anyone <=> We have They seen no didn't one. speak much • They didn't speak much <=> They hardly spoke at all/They hardly ever spoke.
  13. 13. INTERROGATIVE FOR QUESTIONS AND REQUESTS Does Peter enjoy parties? Did he enjoy Ann's party? Simple present tense interrogative: does he/she/it + infinitive; do I/you/we/they + infinitive. Have you finished? Are you coming? Simple past tense interrogative: did + subject •+• infinitive. In all other tenses the interrogative is formed by putting the subject after the auxiliary
  14. 14. NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE Did you not see her? Is he not coming? Didn't you see her? Isn't he coming?
  15. 15. Using Negative Interrogative The negative interrogative is used when the speaker expects or hopes for an affirmative answer: Haven't you finished yet? Don't you like my new dress? CHILD : Can't I stay up till the end of the programme? I could wait ten minutes. ~ Couldn't you wait a little longer? The negative interrogative is also used in question tags after an affirmative sentence: You paid him, didn't you? She would like to come, wouldn't she?
  16. 16. Adjectives Kinds of adjectives Participles used as adjectives Agreement
  17. 17. Kinds of adjectives : a) Demonstrative: this, that, these, those b) Distributive: each, every; either, neither c) Quantitative: some, any, no ; little/few; many, much; one, twenty d) Interrogative: which, what, whose e) Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their f) Of quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, good, heavy, square
  18. 18. Participles used as adjectives Both present participles (ing) and past participles (ed) can be used as adjectives. Care must be taken not to confuse them. Present participle adjectives, amusing, boring, tiring etc., are active and mean ‘having this effect’. Past participle adjectives, amused, horrified, tired etc., are passive and mean 'affected in this way'. The play was boring. (The audience was bored.) The work was tiring. (The workers were soon tired.) The scene was horrifying. (The spectators were horrified.) an infuriating woman (She made us furious.) an infuriated woman (Something had made her furious.)
  19. 19. Agreement: Adjectives in English have the same form for singular and plural, masculine and feminine nouns: a good boy, good boys a good girl, good girls The only exceptions are the demonstrative adjectives this and that, which change to these and those before plural nouns: this cat, these cats that man, those men Many adjectives/participles can be followed by prepositions: good at, tired of.
  20. 20. Position of adjectives: attributive and predicative use Adjectives in groups (a) - (e) above come before their nouns: this book which boy my dog Adjectives in this position are called attributive adjectives. Adjectives of quality, however, can come either before their nouns: a rich man a happy girl or after a verb such as : (a) be, become, seem: Tom became rich. Ann seems happy. (b) appear, feel, get/grow (= become), keep, look (= appear), make, smelt, sound, taste, turn: Tom felt cold. He got/grew impatient. He made her happy. The idea sounds interesting. Adjectives in this position are called predicative adjectives. Verbs used in this way are called link verbs or copulas.
  21. 21. Adverbs
  22. 22. Kinds of adverbs Manner: bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well Place: by, down, here, near, there, up Time: now, soon. still, then, today, yet Frequency: always, never, occasionally, often, twice Sentence: certainly, definitely, luckily, surely Degree: fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very Interrogative: when? where? why? Relative: when, where, why
  23. 23. Form and use Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives: grave, gravely immediate, immediately slow, slowly Spelling notes a) A final y changes to i: happy, happily. b) A final e is retained: extreme, extremely. Exceptions: true, due, whole become truly, duly, wholly. c) Adjectives ending in able/ible drop the final e and add y: capable, capably sensible, sensibly d) Adjectives ending in a vowel + l follow the usual rule: beautiful, beautifully final, finally
  24. 24. Exercise - 01 Make the sentences (a) negative and (b) interrogative 1. They have eggs for breakfast. 2. He needs a new coat. 3. He used to sell fruit. 4. They have to work hard. 5. She does the housework. 6. He needs more money. 7. He had a row with his boss. 8. She had a heart attack. 9. Her hair needed cutting. 10. He does his homework after supper. 11. She has a singing lesson every week. 12. She had to make a speech. 13. He does his best. 14. He has to get up at six every day. 15. The children have dinner at school. 16. She dared him to climb it. 17. You did it on purpose. 18. He dares to say that! 19. They had a good time. 20. The drink did him good.
  25. 25. Exercise - 02 Put the following verbs into the past tense. (Auxiliaries are used both by themselves and as part of certain forms and tenses of ordinary verbs.) Use had to as the past tense of must and didn't need as a past tense of needn't. 1. He isn't working hard. 2. She doesn't like cats. 3. I can't say anything. 4. We must read it carefully. 5. He won't help us. 6. He can lift it easily. 7. It isn't far from London. 8. Isn't it too heavy to carry? 9. He needn't pay at once. 10. He hopes that Tom will be there. (He hoped . . .) 11. How much does this cost? 12. He says that Ann may be there. (He said . . :) 13. How old is he? 14. Do you see any difference? 15. I do what I can. 16. How far can you swim? 17. I must change my shoes. 18. Tom dares not complain. 19. I don't dare (to) touch it. 20. Have you time to do it?
  26. 26. Exercise - 03 Additions to remarks, using auxiliary verbs Add to the following remarks) using (and )so+ the noun/pronoun in brackets + the auxiliary. If there is an auxiliary in the first remark repeat this; if not use do/does/did. 1. I have read it. (John) 2. He is a writer, (she) 3. Tom can speak Welsh, (his wife) 4. She ought to get up. (you) 5. I should be wearing a seat belt. (you) 6. John will be there. (Tom) 7. The first bus was full. (the second) 8. I bought a ticket, (my brother) 9. You must come. (your son) 10. This bus goes to Piccadilly. (that)
  27. 27. Exercise - 04 Fill each of the following gaps with a suitable auxiliary or auxiliary form. 1. Schoolboy to friend: I left my book at home. . . . I share yours? 2. I'm taking swimming lessons. I hope to . . . to swim by the end of the month. 3. You . . . better take off your wet shoes. 4. I'm sorry I'm late. I . . . to wait ages for a bus. 5. Teacher: You . . . (obligation)read the play, but you . . . (no obligation) read the preface. 6. I knew he was wrong but I . . . (hadn 't the courage)to tell him so. 7. You're getting fat. You . . . to cut down on your beer drinking. 8. He . . . to smoke very heavily. Now he hardly smokes at all. 9. The new motorway . . . opened this afternoon, (plan) 10. I've come without any money. . . . you possibly lend me Ј5?
  28. 28. Exercise - 05 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. 1. Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds. 2. You can't see Tom now: he (have) a bath. 3. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. 4. What she (do) in the evenings? ~ She usually (play) cards or (watch) TV. 5. I won't go out now as it (rain) and I -(not have) an umbrella. 6. The last train (leave) the station at 11.30. 7. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 8. Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own clothes. 9. Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays. 10. I'm afraid I've broken one of your coffee cups. — Don't worry. I (not like) that set anyway.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Auxiliaries used to form tenses are normally unstressed. The stress falls on the main verb.
  • In English a negative sentence can have only one negative expression in it. Two negative expressions give the sentence an affirmative meaning: Nobody did nothing means that everyone did something.
  • This is formed by putting not after the ordinary interrogative:
  • I don't have 2 doesn't need 3 didn't use 4 don't have 5 doesn't do
    6 doesn't need 7 didn't have 8 didn't have 9 didn't need 10 doesn't do II doesn't have
    12 didn't have 13 doesn't do 14 doesn't have 15 don't have 16 didn't dare 17 didn't do
    18 doesn't dare 19 didn't have 20 didn't do
    Introgrative :
    1 do they have 2 does he need 3 did he use 4 do they have 5 does she do
    6 does he need 7 did he have 8 did she have 9 did her hair need 10 does he do 11 does she have
    12 did she have 13 does he do 14 does he have 15 do the children have
    16 did she dare 17 did you do 18 does he dare 19 did they have 22. did the drink
  • 1 wasn't 2 didn't 3 couldn't 4 had to 5 wouldn't 6 could 7 wasn't 8 wasn't
    9 didn't need to 10 hoped that Tom would 11 did 12 said that Ann might 13 was 14 did 15 did...
    could 16 could 17 had to 18 dared 19 didn't 20 had
  • 1 So has John. 2 . . . is she. 3 . . . can his wife. 4 . . . ought you. 5 . . . should you. 6 . . .will Tom. 7
    . . . was the second. 8 . . . did my brother. 9 . . . must your son. 10 . . . does that
  • 1 can/could 2 be able 3 had 4 had 5 must, needn't 6 didn't dare 7 ought/will have 8
    used 9 is to be 10 could
  • 1 don't build, use 2 is having 3 drinks, is drinking 4 does she do, plays, watches 5 is raining, haven't 6 leaves 7 speaks, don't understand 8 is making, makes 9 wears 10 don't like