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  1. Religion and Belief Systems
  2. Religion • Is a social institution that answers questions and explains the seemingly inexplicable. It provides explanation for why many things happen and demystifies the ideas of birth and death.
  3. Animism • Refers to the belief of innumerable spiritual beings concerned with human affairs and capable of helping or harming human interests. Animistic beliers were first competently surveyed by Sir Edward Burnett Taylor in his work Primitive Culture (1871), to whom is owed the continued currency of the term. While none of the major world religions is animistic (though they may contain animistic elements), most other religions are (those of tribal people). For this reason, an ethnographic understanding of animism, based on field studies of tribal people, is no less important than a theoretical one, concerned with the nature or origin of religion. The belief that all objects have spirits is animistic.
  4. Importance of Animism in the Study of Culture and Religion • Animism denotes not a single doctrine or creed but a view of the word consistent with a certain range of religious beliefs and practices, many of which may survive in more complex and hierarchical religions. Modern scholarship’s concern with animism is coequal with the problem of rational or scientific understanding of religion itself. After the age of exploration, Europe’s best information on the newly discovered people of America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania often came from Christian missionaries. To the intellectual of that time, profoundly affected by Charles Darwin’s new biology, animism seemed a key to the so- called primitive mind-to human intellect at the earliest knowable state of cultural evolution.
  5. Monotheism • Refers to the belief of the existence of one god, or in the oneness of God; as such, it is distinguish from polytheism, the belief in the existence of many gods, and from atheism, the belief that there is no god. Monotheism characterizes the traditions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and elements of the belief are visible in numerous other religions.
  6. Polytheism • Is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. The word comes from the Greek words poly + theoi, literally “many gods”. Most ancient religions were polytheistic, holding to pantheons of traditional deities, often accumulated over centuries of cultural interchange and experience. Present-day, polytheistic religions include Hinduism, Shinto, some forms of Wicca, Vodun, and Asatru.
  7. • Polytheists divide their world up into a variety of domains and assign gods to each: a god of the sea, a god of the sun and so forth. In their efforts to cover their bases, polytheist end up with conflicting gods. A god of war and a god of peace, a god of virginity and a god of fertility, a god of creation and a god of destruction. Things that might please the god of war might upset the god of peace. Rites of fertility would directly opposed to rites of virginity. In short, pretty much anything a person can do might please one god and anger the other. This seem a recipe for chaos, but we must remember that life, and indeed the world itself, is chaotic.
  8. Institutionalized Religion • Also known as organized religion, is a social organization in which beliefs systems and rituals are systematically arrange and formally established. It is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices. • The term organized religion is frequently used in mass media to refer to the world’s largest religion groups, especially those known by name internationally, and it also refers to organization with which one can legally or officially affiliate oneself.
  9. Most of the world subscribes to one to the following religion: • Christianity – The most widespread world religion, Christianity was derived from Judaism. It is based to the belief that Jesus Christ is the son of God and the redeemer of the mankind. There are many different Christian denominations. • Islam – followers of this religion is called Muslims. They believe that the true word of God was revealed to the prophet Muhammad around 570 A.D. God in Islam is the same god as the Christian and Judaic deity.
  10. Most of the world subscribes to one to the following religion: • Hinduism – This is the oldest major world religion, dominant in India. Hindus do not worship a single person or deity but rather are guided by a set of ancient cultural beliefs. They believe in the practice of karma, which is the wisdom of health of one’s eternal soul. Karma can be strengthened with good acts and harmed by bad acts. Hindus believe that karma plays a role in the reincarnation, a cycle of continuous rebirth through which, ideally, the soul can achieve spiritual perfection. The state of person’s karma determines in what form he of she will be reborn.
  11. Most of the world subscribes to one to the following religion: • Judaism – is a monotheistic religion that predates Christianity, built in the belief that the Israelites are the “chosen people” of God. • Buddhism – most of the Buddhists live in Japan, Thailand, Cambodia and Burma follow the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, a spiritual teacher of the sixth century B.C.E. Buddhism, like Hinduism, does not feature any single all-powerful deity but teaches that by avoiding materialism, one can transcend the “illusion” of life and achieve enlightenment.
  12. Types of Religious Groups • Church – is a religious group integrated with society. • Sect – is a religious group that sets itself apart from society as a whole. • Cult – is a religious group that is outside the standard cultural norms, typically centered on a charismatic leader. Example: The Roman Catholic is well integrated in the society. Example: The Amish of Pennsylvania are a classic sect. Though Christian, they choose to set themselves apart from the rest to the society by their lifestyle, which avoids many aspects of modernity. Example: The People’s Temple, a cult that emerged in the 1970s, was led by a man named Jim Jones. He started his cult in Sab Francisco, and then convince several hundred followers to move with him in Jonestown, Guyana. He claimed to be a god and insisted on strict loyalty. In 1978, he and 973 of his followers committed a mass suicide.
  13. Separation of Church and State • The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines declares: ”The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.” (Article II, Section 6). • “No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights”. (Article III, Section 5) • “No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion.
  14. Activity: Complete the table below: Religion Founding Person / Place Belief in god(s) Holy Books Code of Conduct After life Other Beliefs Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity Islam
  15. Thank You

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. When families attend religious services or put up decoration in honor of a holiday, they are teaching their children about their religion and how to observe it. By engaging in these activities and traditions, children are united with others in the same religion. In this way, families teach their own culture as well as the culture of the society at large.
  2. Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are five of the biggest religions in the world. Over the last few thousand years, these religious groups have shaped the course of history and had a profound influence on the trajectory of the human race. Through countless conflicts, conquests, missions abroad, and simple word of mouth, these religions spread around the globe and forever molded the huge geographic regions in their paths.
  3. Article III forbids the government from passing any law concerning religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, guarantees free exercise of religion and forbids the use of any religious test for public office. Churches and religious institutions are tax-exempt. No public money may be spent in support of any religion. The teaching of religious classes in public schools is permitted with the written consent of the parent so long as there is no cost to the government.