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Environmental Engineering-
Civil Engineering
Department,
Indus University.
Submitted to:
Prof.Gowtham B
PRESENTED BY:
Priy...
Introduction:
 Indian soils are generally deficient in
fertilizing elements namely nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium and...
Types of Fertilizers:
1) Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers
 e.g. :- urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium
nitrate, amm...
Manufacturing Process:
1) Ammonia synthesis:
 A mixture of pure nitrogen and pure hydrogen in
proportion of 1:3 by volume...
 The reaction is exothermic and ammonia thus generated is
used in urea manufacture.
2) Urea synthesis:
 Naphtha or natur...
 Crystals are separated by centrifugation ,dried and
remelted.
 Molten urea is pumped into top of prilling tower and is
...
7
Sources of Waste Water:
1) Process water
2) Process intermediates.
3) Final products.
4) Oil bearing wastes from compresso...
Characteristics of Fertilizer’s Wastewater :
9
Layout of Treatment plant:
10
Vortex Diode for
Hydrodynamic cavitation:
 Vortex Diode: A fluidic diode based on the difference
in fluid flow between th...
Layout:
12
 Industrial wastewater samples were obtained from
different locations and plants from a local Fertilizer
industry and wer...
CAVITATION
WITH VORTEX
DIOD
PHYSICAL
PROCESS
FORMATION
OF CAVITIES
& BREAK
DOWN OF
PATICALS
CHEMICAL
PROCESS
OXIDATION
REA...
50
20050
40050
60050
80050
100050
120050
140050
125000
946
460 130 44 17085
76
0 0 0 0
ppm
Results of Cavitation on efflue...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2
1710
86
1330
530
276
0 0
80 30 35 98
ppm
Results of Cavitation on effluents
I...
Conclusion:
 Hydrodynamic cavitation using vortex diode appears to
be an effective method for the treatment of industrial...
REFERENCES:
 Industrial wastewater treatment for fertilizer
industry- A case study By Vinay M. Bhandari, Laxmi
Gayatri So...
19
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Waste water treatment for fertilizer industry

Presentaion consits of basic idea about the treatment process of the w//w, mainly come from fertilizer industris. Introduction,m types of fertilizers, layout and procees of synthesis includerelevant information about topic.On every unique as well as efficient process for effective reducton of C.O.D and NH3-N. Details of pre as well as post procees effect on every stream is giveing the importance to process importance.

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Waste water treatment for fertilizer industry

  1. 1. Environmental Engineering- Civil Engineering Department, Indus University. Submitted to: Prof.Gowtham B PRESENTED BY: Priyank .Trivedi – 110 Waste water treatment for Fertilizer Industry 1
  2. 2. Introduction:  Indian soils are generally deficient in fertilizing elements namely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and do not give high yields.  It is, therefore, essential to feed these soils with chemical fertilizers so that their productivity increases. The significant contribution made by the chemical fertilizers can be seen from the impact of the Green Revolution on Indian agriculture.  A modest beginning with respect to manufacturing of chemical fertilizers was made in 1906 when the first super-phosphate factory was set up at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu. The actual growth of fertilizer indsutry is mainly a post-Independence phenomena..  The setting up of the Sindri plant by the Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd. (FCI) in 1951 was a turning point. 2
  3. 3. Types of Fertilizers: 1) Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers  e.g. :- urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride 2) Multi-nutrient fertilizers  consist of two or more nutrient components. 3) Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers  provide both nitrogen and phosphorus to the plants. 4) NPK fertilizers  NPK fertilizers are three-component fertilizers providing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. 3
  4. 4. Manufacturing Process: 1) Ammonia synthesis:  A mixture of pure nitrogen and pure hydrogen in proportion of 1:3 by volume is compressed under 200 atmospheric pressure and passed through chamber (catalyser) heated to 500-550 0C, containing finely divided iron (which acts ascatalyst) and molybdenum (acts as promoter).  Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia.  These gases containing ammonia and unreacted nitrogen are cooled under pressure, when ammonia is liquefied and other gases are recycled to the reaction chamber to get more ammonia. 4
  5. 5.  The reaction is exothermic and ammonia thus generated is used in urea manufacture. 2) Urea synthesis:  Naphtha or natural gas is treated with steam and hot air to produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.  CO2 is separated and sent to urea synthesis plant.  Separation is done by using potassium carbonate, monoethanolamine , diethanolamine and caustic soda.  Ammonia from ammonia synthesis is reacted with CO2 to form urea.  The liquid is filtered and subjected to Vaccume crystallization. 5
  6. 6.  Crystals are separated by centrifugation ,dried and remelted.  Molten urea is pumped into top of prilling tower and is sprayed against current of hot air.  Spherical prills of area are formed at the bottom of the tower, where they are collected.  Hydrogen and naphtha are send to the ammonium synthesis plant.  Carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Sources of Waste Water: 1) Process water 2) Process intermediates. 3) Final products. 4) Oil bearing wastes from compressor and boiler house. 5) Wash water from scrubbing tower 6) Cooling tower and boiler blowdown 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Fertilizer’s Wastewater : 9
  10. 10. Layout of Treatment plant: 10
  11. 11. Vortex Diode for Hydrodynamic cavitation:  Vortex Diode: A fluidic diode based on the difference in fluid flow between the situations with fluid entering the chamber tangentially a producing there a rotation and with the fluid entering axially, when the rotation is absent. This type of diodes particularly suited for operation at relatively low operating frequencies. because star-up of the rotation in the chamber takes a considerable time. 11
  12. 12. Layout: 12
  13. 13.  Industrial wastewater samples were obtained from different locations and plants from a local Fertilizer industry and were used for effluent treatment as such without any pre-treatment or addition of chemicals.  The effluents were characterized for their initial COD, ammoniacal nitrogen and other physical/chemical parameters. Adsorption equilibria studies were carried out using different adsorbents at ambient conditions.  Cavitation technique was employed using Vortex Diode and using different pressure drop conditions. The temperature of bulk liquid was maintained by circulating coolant through coils in the holding tank.  Effect of flow rate and pressure drop was studied and samples were withdrawn for analysis at regular intervals. 13
  14. 14. CAVITATION WITH VORTEX DIOD PHYSICAL PROCESS FORMATION OF CAVITIES & BREAK DOWN OF PATICALS CHEMICAL PROCESS OXIDATION REACTION (H2O2 and OH) MINERALISATION OF IMPURITIES 14
  15. 15. 50 20050 40050 60050 80050 100050 120050 140050 125000 946 460 130 44 17085 76 0 0 0 0 ppm Results of Cavitation on effluents C.O.D INITIAL C.O.D FINAL 15
  16. 16. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2 1710 86 1330 530 276 0 0 80 30 35 98 ppm Results of Cavitation on effluents INITIAL NH3-N FINAL NH3-N 16
  17. 17. Conclusion:  Hydrodynamic cavitation using vortex diode appears to be an effective method for the treatment of industrial wastewaters.  Being a destructive method and requiring no regeneration/ reagents/ catalyst, hydrodynamic cavitation may be advantageous over other conventional treatment methods.  Hydrodynamic cavitation using vortex diode requires substantially less space as compared to methods such as coagulation/clarification, biological treatment etc.  A very high removal of COD and AN can be obtained using adsorption and hydrodynamic cavitation-vortex diode. 17
  18. 18. REFERENCES:  Industrial wastewater treatment for fertilizer industry- A case study By Vinay M. Bhandari, Laxmi Gayatri Sorokhaibam and Vivek V. Ranad Lecture notes of Dr. Shrikant Jahagirdar. 18
  19. 19. 19

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