2. Session Objective
After completion of this session the students
will be able to understands:
• Historical evolution & development
• Concept & definition
• Motive of tourism
• Types of tourism
• Tourism is a temporary movement of people to
destinations outside of the place where they
normally live and work. Tourism is a structured
break from routine life. There are basically 3
phases in tourism –
• Beginning Phase – Moves out of his home
• Middle Phase – the middle period starts when he
comes across new places for experiencing change
• The End – is returning to home
4. VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF TOURISM:
• Tourism can be called as an activity of movement of people and activities of
providers during the course of travel.
• Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinations outside of the
place of where they normally live and work, and their activities during their
stay at these destinations.
• Further tourism can be called not only the activities of provider to a visitor but
it is also a process involving people and is about people, i.e. , knowing people
better. Knowledge, skill and attitude are important factors in providing standard
services and products matching his requirements. Hence, tourism can be called
as a process of organized travel. Tourism is theory and practicing of traveling.
• Tourism is defined as “ the inter relationships arising from the interaction of
tourist, the supplier, the government of the host destination and the residents of
the host destination, in the process of affecting and catering to tourist”.
• Tourism as a product can be defined as “An amalgam of three main
components- attraction of the destination, the facilities of destination and the
accessibility of it.
• According to WTO (World Tourism Organization) –
Tourism is the movement of people away from their
place of residence and work for a period of not less
than 24hours and not more than one year.
Tourism is also defined as an activity in which money
earned by a person in his normal domicile is spent at
a place visited by him.
7. EARLY TRAVEL:
• Earlier travel was essentially to seek food or to
• Travel was also undertaken for trade & war.
• Growth of cities along fertile river banks like
Nile etc encouraged water travel.
• Ancient empires like the Romans helped
shape modern travel.
8. The Empire Era
• At its peak the travel for business and
• Travel to outlining cities was necessary.
• Various amenities were offered to travellers.
• They travelled for pleasure and festivals were
held every year.
• People used to travel to attend these festivals.
9. The Persians
• They started travel initially for military use.
• Later facilities earlier used for military were
transformed to facilitate travel.
• Roads were built, markers were established to
• Safety of travelers was given importance.
• Modes of transport like wagons,
donkeys/mules were introduced.
10. The Greeks
• Greeks were the first, who shaped the modern
• Pleasure travel was popular.
• Travel was advanced by two developments:
• Currency exchange: Greek cities accepted foreign
currency, making it easier for travelers.
• Communication: The Greek empire covered the
entire Mediterranean thus the language was
• They provided all the amenities required.
11. The Romans
• The prosperity of the roman empire was
reflected in the development of travel.
• The Romans included a large group of middle
class who had money and time to travel.
• They built excellent roads, transportation and
• They built rest houses.
12. RENAISSANCE AND GRAND TOUR
• The rise of Italy as intellectual capital of Europe .
• GRAND TOUR – a tour to the principal cities and places
of interest in Europe, formerly said to be an essential
• part of the education of the young man of ‘good
• birth’ and ‘fortune’.
• Main travelers were diplomats, business people, and
• Mainly for career, education, culture, literary, health,
scientific, business, and economic reasons.
13. FATHER OF TOURISM AND TRAVEL
• Thomas Cook is the Father of Tourism.
• His first organized trip was ‘Leicester to
Loughborough ’ in 1841.
• It covered a distance of 22 km for 570
• He acted as an agent by buying tickets in bulk
and selling it to others on a non profit basis.
• This gave him an idea to package tours in a
• He organized the travel arrangements,
accommodations, transport at the
destinations and return to the homeland.
• He organized the first ‘inclusive tour’to Paris
Exhibition in 1855.
• ‘Hotel voucher’ was introduced by Thomas
Cook in 1867 and ‘Circular Note’ in 1873
Which made travel easier.
• First ‘Round the world tour’ in 1872.
15. YEAR MILESTONE
01 4000BC Invention of money by Sumerians (Babylonia)
Dark Era of Tourism
03 AD 1763-1773 Renaissance stage of tourism
04 1820 Introduction of regular steamboat services
05 1830 First passenger train service begins
06 1841 Thomas Cook began running a special excursion train from
Leicester to Loughborough (England)
07 1867 Thomas Cook introduced Hotel voucher
08 1872 Thomas Cook first organized ‘the round the world trip’
09 1873 ‘Circular note’ was introduced by Thomas Cook
10 1888-89 The Savoy, Claridges, and Carlton hotels were opened in
16. 11 1903 Airplane’s first flight at Kitty Hawk, North
Carolina by the Wright brothers
12 1903 The first major hotel company-Trust Houses-
opens a chain of hotels through out Britain
13 1920 Chartered flights appear in tourism
14 AD1945 IATA was established
15 1947 IUOTO was constituted
16 1950 Commercial air transportation increased and air
transportation became cheaper
17 1958 Boeing 707 jet was introduced
18 1966 UFTAA was founded
19 1970 First wide-bodied jet (Boeing 747) appeared in
service(capable of carrying 400 pax)
20 1975 WTO began its legal existence
17. Development in tourism
• Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide in past
• TD has multidisciplinary character and connecting different
• TD has positive influence mainly to a traffic infrastructure,
construction industry, banking etc.
• In terms of financial international trade turn over is located on the
third place (after petroleum and cars industry).
• Economic contribution of tourism captures Tourism Satellite
• Build infrastructure contributes to a LED and urban infrastructure
• Creates new jobs.
• A complete TSA contains detailed production accounts of the
tourism industry and their linkages to other industries, employment,
capital formation and additional non-monetary information on
18. Motivations of tourism
• The wants and needs of tourists are often
regarded as travel motivations. Motivation is
something that stimulates interest or causes a
person to act in a certain way.
• Tourism is based on the distinction between
factors which encourage individuals to move
away from their home setting through tourism
(push factors) and those attributes of a different
place which attract or 'pull' them towards it.
21. Types of Tourism
• Tourism is also defined as an activity in which money earned by a person in his
normal domicile is spent at a place visited by him.
• Tourism can be categorized as following:
• Domestic Tourism: The tourism activity of people within their own country is
known as domestic tourism. Traveling within the same country is easy because it
does not require formal travel documents and tedious formalities like compulsory
health checks and foreign exchange. In domestic tourism, traveler does not face
much language problem or currency exchange issues.
• International Tourism: When people visit a foreign country, it is referred to as
international tourism. In order to travel to a foreign country, one needs a valid
passport, visa, health documents, foreign exchange etc. International tourists may
be inbound or outbound.
• INBOUND: this refers to tourists of outside origin entering a particular country.
Tourists coming from other country/ area to your country/ area.
• OUTBOUND: this refers to tourists travelling from the country of their origin to
another country. Tourists going from their local area to other area/ country.
22. • TOURIST: A tourist is temporarily leisured
person who voluntarily visits a place for the
purpose of experiencing a change.
• People who travel for a variety of reasons and
are out of their local area for more than 24
hours for various reasons such as pleasure/
leisure, cultural activities, visit to historical
23. Factors promoting tourism
• Mode of travel
• Visiting friends and relatives
• Historical place
• Fairs and Festivals
• Leisure time and disposable income