• Transportation in India is a varied sector of the economy.
• Transport infrastructure – Roads, Rails airways and waterways.
• Water transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a
barage,boat,ship or sailboat makes over a body of water, such as a
sea,ocean,lake,canal or river.
• Large vessels are economic means of transport of cargo and goods.
• However to unload this cargo the vessel needs to be protected from the
fury of sea.
• This is done in a harbor where ships, boats and barage can seek shelter
from stormy weather in navigable waters well protected naturally or
artificially and is situated along sea shore or river estuary or lake or canal
connected to sea.
Dover Harbor England
• Is an enclosed area of water used for loading, unloading, building or
• Such a dock may be created by building enclosing harbor walls into an
existing natural water space, or by excavation within what would
otherwise be dry land.
Mazagaon Dock Mumbai
• A port is an area in harbor where the actual loading and unloading of
cargo is done. A port usually includes support for ships as well, including
repair areas, stores for provisioning and stocking ships, and similar
• Ships often require a range of services when they dock and an assortment
of firms offer those services, sometimes at a premium in obscure ports
7. Harbor classification- Natural Harbor
• It’s a natural water area protected by fury of sea by natural configuration.
• They are natural formations in the form of creaks and basins.
• These harbors facilities for repairs, storage of cargo and related amenities.
E.g Okha and Mumbai Harbors
San Francisco Bay, California
8. Semi natural Harbor
• These are the harbors where the inlet or a river sheltered on both the
sides by headlands requiring artificial protection only at the entrance.
• The natural location has been made well protected by the addition of
detached breakwaters at their entrances.
Cherbourg Semi natural harbor
9. Artificial harbor
• These are protected area from the effect of waves either by breakwaters
• These artificial harbors walls provide a tract or area of water close to the
shore. This area is known as artificial road-stead.
• Artificial harbors can also be created by enclosing an area or tract by
projecting solid walls called as jetties from sea shores.
Marina del rey – Artificial harbor
10. Types of Harbors based on utility
• Refuge Harbors
• They are solely as haven for ships in the storm.
• These harbors allow all types of ships and crafts in emergency. Like
repairs, quick shelter etc.
• These harbors can also be used for commercial purpose.
Port Sanilac harbor of refuge
12. Types of Harbors based on utility
• Commercial harbor
• Docks are provided with necessary facilities for loading and
• Dry docks are sometimes provided for ship repairs' rivers or even
on island river banks.
• These harbors can be situated on the costs of big rivers.
• They should have spacious accommodation for the mercantile
Darling Harbor Sydney
13. • Military harbor
• These are to accommodate naval vessels. Serves as supply depot.
Types of Harbors based on utility
Pearl Harbor South African navy Simson's town
14. • Fishing Harbors
• These are constantly open for arrival and departure of fishing
• The harbors should have sufficient number of railway sliding and
Types of Harbours based on utility
Port de la selva fishing
Harbour Military Harbor Mumbai
15. Requirements of a harbor
• A careful consideration and survey of the area with a view of ascertaining
what type of stones, gravel etc are present and also the water.
• Provisions of good beaching ground, ample quay space easily accessible by
road or rail is important especially in smaller classes of harbor.
• The entrance of the harbor, the depth and width should be sufficient to
cope up with the density of traffic, degree of protection and the basic
purpose of the harbor.
• The depth of water in the approach channel must be sufficient for
navigation of vessel. However when such ideal conditions do not persists,
proper considerations in the designing must be done. Generally the depth
16. • The turning basin, in which maneuvering of the ship takes place, should
be of area so that the vessel can turn with continuous headway without
the help of tug.
• The harbor area must be clam and thereby contribute to safety of vessel
by providing breakwaters.
• Good holding ground and secure anchorage at various depths for all
commercial purposes including fishing and small squadron of war ships.
• Port and Harbour management should includes measures to prevent
serious harm to people and protection for the marine environment
Requirements of a harbor
17. Selection of Site for a harbor
• Optimization of planning, selection and design processes is essential.
• Connections to land transportation (such as highways, railways, and pipelines).
• Facilities capable of accommodating large containerships require long berth
lengths, large cranes, and railway or highway access.
• Specific attention should be given to the potential loss of critical habitat, and
to morphological changes including coastal erosion and degradation of water
• Careful site selection may reduce the potentially hazardous environmental
impacts and the cost of mitigation and/or restoration, as well as lessen public
• A clear survey about the strata available must be done.
• The site must be selected in such a way that it must be able to provide
maximum facilities to all the vessels visiting.
• Breakwater is a structure which reflects and dissipate the force of wind
• They act as a protective barrier and to enclose harbors and keep the
waters within undisturbed.
• The area enclosed serves as a safe anchorage for ships and so loading and
unloading of cargo takes place in calm water.
• The inside of breakwater when constructed with quay is called as mole.
• A jetty is a piled projection from shore to berth vessels alongside. Its
actually a jetty wharf.
• The one which juts out is a jetty and wharf is a berth,a working platform,
alongside the ship in continuity of the shore.
• The forms and construction of these jetties are as varied as their uses like
curved jettys,converging jetty, diverging jetty etc.
• They invariably extend out into water, and serve either for directing a
current or for accommodating vessels.