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8 c microbes & disease (boardworks)

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8 c microbes & disease (boardworks)

  1. 1. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 31 KS3 Biology 8C Microbes and Disease
  2. 2. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 31 8C Microbes and Disease Contents What are microbes? Uses of microbes Summary activities How microbes cause disease Fighting disease
  3. 3. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 31 Microbes are very small living things and are sometimes called micro-organisms. Microbes are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. They can only be seen using a microscope. What are microbes? How many different microbes can you name?
  4. 4. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 31 There are three types of microbes: Different types of microbes bacteria viruses fungi microbes
  5. 5. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 31 Bacteria fact file size: 1/1000 mm shape: Bacteria can be spherical, rod-shaped or comma-shaped. structure: Bacteria are single- celled organisms, which do not completely have a nucleus. Some cause disease, but many are useful. reproduction: Bacteria reproduce very quickly. Two can very quickly become four, then eight and so on. Bacteria e.g. Salmonella and Streptococcus
  6. 6. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 31 Bacterium structure
  7. 7. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 31 Viruses fact file size: 1/1,000,000 mm shape: Viruses have regular and geometric shapes. structure: A virus is a simple organism which does not display ALL the characteristics of living things. They are made up of a protein coating and some genetic material. reproduction: Viruses can only grow and reproduce within other living things. Viruses e.g. flu virus and HIV (the AIDS virus)
  8. 8. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 31 Virus structure
  9. 9. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 31 Fungi fact file size: Some fungi can actually be seen with the naked eye, others are slightly bigger than bacterial cells. shape: Fungi come in many different shapes. structure: Fungi have the most complex structures of all the microbes. They feed off other living things. Fungi e.g. Penicillium and yeast
  10. 10. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 31 Fungi (yeast) structure
  11. 11. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 31 8C Microbes and Disease Contents What are microbes? Uses of microbes Summary activities Fighting disease How microbes cause disease
  12. 12. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 31 Microbes have many uses that are based on the fact that microbes can be grown. Fungi can also be used to make food. The meat substitute Quorn is a protein produced using fungi. Bacteria grow in milk to make it ‘go off’.  This type of bacterial growth is used to make milk into yoghurt.  Cheese is another product that is made from milk. Using microbes – bacteria and fungi
  13. 13. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 31 Yeast is a type of fungus and carries out respiration. The respiration of this microbe can be used in different ways in baking bread and in brewing. The aerobic respiration of yeast is used to make bread rise. Yeast uses the sugar in bread dough to carry out aerobic respiration: What gas produced by the aerobic respiration of yeast causes bread to rise? Using microbes – yeast carbon dioxideglucose oxygen water energy
  14. 14. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 31 The anaerobic respiration of yeast is used to make beer and wine. In this case, the yeast respires without oxygen and produces alcohol (ethanol). This process is known as fermentation. Yeast converts the sugar into alcohol by anaerobic respiration: Using microbes – yeast carbon dioxideglucose ethanol energy How do brewers make sure that yeast respire without oxygen?
  15. 15. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 31 8C Microbes and Disease Contents What are microbes? Uses of microbes Summary activities Fighting disease How microbes cause disease
  16. 16. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 31 The diseases caused by microbes and their severity depend on the type of microbe. viruses bacteria influenza (flu) food poisoning mumps sore throats chickenpox tuberculosis (TB)smallpox tetanus polio cholera rabies typhoid German measles whooping cough fungi fungal sinusitis athlete’s foot Onychomycosis (causes discoloured toe nails) viral meningitis bacterial meningitis Microbes can cause disease
  17. 17. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 31 Which type of microbe?
  18. 18. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 31 Microbes can enter the body in many different places. How do microbes enter the body? eyes mouth cuts nose ears How are the diseases caused by microbes spread? genitals skin
  19. 19. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 31 The spreading of microbes and disease is known as transmission. How are microbes spread? A cough or a sneeze can release millions of microbes into the air which can then infect somebody else. 1. Transmission by air Dirty water can transmit many diseases, e.g. cholera, which can be transmitted by drinking. 2. Transmission by water
  20. 20. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 31 How are microbes spread? An animal can carry a microbe from one place to another, e.g. a mosquito which spreads the malaria parasite. 3. Transmission by animals Many microbes can be exchanged from one person to another by direct or indirect contact: 4. Transmission by contact  direct contact by hand;  indirect contact, e.g. by walking on a wet floor already contaminated by someone else who has athlete’s foot;  sexual contact.
  21. 21. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 31  Transmission via breastfeeding If a child is being breastfed, he or she can also pick up microbes from the mother via the mother’s milk. If the mother develops the HIV/Aids infection, it can be passed on to the unborn child through the placenta.  Transmission through the placenta How are microbes spread? There are other forms of indirect contact, e.g. the transmission of microbes from mother to unborn child. 4. Transmission by contact
  22. 22. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 31 The spread of disease can be prevented by making sure that good hygiene is used in key places such as bathrooms and kitchens. Chemicals called antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections. People can be immunized against some diseases by the injection of a vaccine. How is the spread of disease stopped?
  23. 23. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 31 8C Microbes and Disease Contents What are microbes? Uses of microbes Summary activities Fighting disease How microbes cause disease
  24. 24. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 31 Fighting microbes How does the body fight off microbes that cause disease?
  25. 25. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 31 What do white blood cells do? The human body has a number of natural defences against microbes. Noses are hairy inside to trap microbes! Some white blood cells can destroy microbes by engulfing them. Some white blood cells are able to produce chemicals called antibodies. These pairing with matching antigens on the surfaces of microbes and so help the white blood cells to engulf microbes. white blood cell antibody antigen The body also produces white blood cells to help defend it from microbes.
  26. 26. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 31 White blood cell engulfs microbe – animation
  27. 27. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 31 White blood cell and antibodies – animation
  28. 28. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 31 8C Microbes and Disease Contents What are microbes? Uses of microbes Summary activities Fighting disease How microbes cause disease
  29. 29. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 31 Glossary antibiotics – Chemicals prescribed as medicine to kill bacteria inside the body. antibodies – Chemicals produced by white blood cells to fight microbes that cause disease. bacteria – The type of microbes that are single-celled organisms. fungi – The type of microbes that feed off other living things. immune – Resistance to infection caused by a microbe. microbe – A very small living thing. transmission – The spread of a disease from person to person. viruses – The type of microbes that can only grow and reproduce within other living things.
  30. 30. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 31 Anagrams
  31. 31. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 31 Multiple-choice quiz

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