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Digital Life and eye Health

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Digital life, although has made our life convenient and easy, it has its own side effects and detrimental health effects. In this presentation we shall go through all the effects of digital life and measures to reduce its effect

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Digital Life and eye Health

  1. 1. Digital Life and Eye Health Dr Prathmesh Mehta Senior Cataract, Cornea & Refractive Surgeon, Ojas eye hospital, Mumbai Ex- Chief Cornea Consultant Chaithanya Hospital, Trivandrum
  2. 2. DID YOU KNOW ● Normally one should blink 12—14 times in a minute.
  3. 3. EYES HELP US TO SEE THE WORLD AROUND US !
  4. 4. EYES HELP US TO SEE THE WORLD AROUND US !
  5. 5. Source: eyecentre.com.au PARTS OF HUMAN EYE Retina
  6. 6. Source: areaoftalmologica.com Slideplayer.com FUNCTIONS OF CORNEA • Performs 33% of focusing • Protects eye from outside world • No blood supply • Cleaned and nourished by tears and aqueous humor
  7. 7. Source: nweyedesign.com Medicine.net WHAT IS TEAR FILM? Tear film is the liquid layer which consists of lipids, water, and mucin that coats the outer surface of the eye, lubricating it.
  8. 8. Source:Rolando M, Zierhut M. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye dise Ophthalmol. 2001;45(suppl 2):S203-S210. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Pflugfelder SP. The normal tear film and ocular surface. In: Pflugfelder S ● A healthy tear film is important for optimal vision and protection of surface tissues of eyes. ● Functions of tear film - ◦ Provides 80% of refractive power along with anterior surface of cornea for focusing ◦ Lipid layer provides lubrication which gives comfort ◦ Mucin layer reduces the shear force related to blink cycle ◦ Protects from insults ◦ Provides nourishment to cornea IMPORTANCE OF TEAR FILM ● A healthy tear film is important for optimal vision and protection of surface tissues of eyes.
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS OF TEAR FILM ● Functions of tear film - ◦ Main focusing part ◦ Lubrication ◦ Prevents friction while blinking ◦ Protects from desiccation ◦ Antimicrobial properties ◦ Nourishment of cornea
  10. 10. Source:rivolieyezone.com HOW ARE TEARS PRODUCED?
  11. 11. Blink Mechanism BLINK • The aqueous layer and the oil layer become thinner between blinks. • The blink restores these layers. BLINK • The blink restores these layers. • The aqueous layer and the oil layer become thinner between blinks. Blink Mechanism
  12. 12. What is Computer Vision Syndrome? (CVS) ◦ It is also known as Digital Eye Strain ◦ It occurs due to constantly focusing the eyes on a computer or other screens for long periods of time resulting in inability of eye muscles to recover from the strain. ◦ It results in chronic dry eye Source: Surv Ophthalmol 50:253–262, 2005.
  13. 13. Source: Internet World Stats Increase in Computer Usage
  14. 14. Source: Surv Ophthalmol 50:253–262, 2005. Why Does CVS Occur? o Computer screens are made up of pixels or tiny dots, which is hard for eyes to focus. The computer user must therefore focus again and again to keep the images sharp. This results in receptive stress of the eye muscles. o Dry eyes occur due to lower blinking rate of users.
  15. 15. Source: Surv Ophthalmol 50:253–262, 2005. CVS just doesn’t occur through use of computers CVS just doesn’t occur through use of computers • Laptop • Television • Smartphone • Tablets • Any other visual aid
  16. 16. Work From Home
  17. 17. Online school
  18. 18. Symptoms of CVS Eye strain
  19. 19. Source: American Optometric Association ◦ Dry eye is a condition where there is excessive evaporation of tears or the eye does not produce enough quality tears to lubricate and nourish the eyes properly ◦ Quality as well as quantity of tears are affected WHAT IS DRY EYE? Inadequate amount of tears Poor quality tears (evaporation)
  20. 20. 14 Lacrimal gland In an Aqueous-deficient dry eye, the lacrimal gland is poorly functioning Not enough tears Thin aqueous layer Dry cornea Dry Eye Symptoms
  21. 21. 14 Evaporative dry eye, the Meibomian Glands are Dysfunctional (MGD) Unstable lipid layer Dry cornea Dry Eye Symptoms Too much evaporation Thin aqueous layer Poor function of meibomian glands
  22. 22. Source: American Optometric Association 8 causes of Dry Eye Surgery
  23. 23. ● AGE • Dry eyes are experienced by majority of people over 65 years ● GENDER • Women have more chances of having dry eyes due to hormonal changes which can be due to pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives and menopause ● MEDICATIONS • Medicines such as antihistamines, blood pressure medications, decongestants and antidepressants can decrease tear production WHAT CAUSES DRY EYES? Source: American Optometric Association AGE Dry eyes are experienced by majority of people over 65 years GENDER Women have more chances of having dry eyes due to hormonal changes which can be due to pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives and menopause MEDICATIONS Medicines such as antihistamines, blood pressure medications, decongestants and antidepressants can decrease tear production
  24. 24. CAUSES…cont.. MEDICAL CONDITIONS • People suffering from diabetes, thyroid problems and rheumatoid arthritis are more prone to have dry eyes ENVIORNMENTAL CONDITIONS • Conditions such as windy and dry climates, exposure to spoke can increase in tear evaporation which increases the risk of dry eye. OTHER FACTORS • Staring at gadget screens for long time resulting in less blinking • Use of contact lenses Source: American Optometric Association MEDICAL CONDITIONS • People suffering from diabetes, thyroid problems and rheumatoi arthritis are more prone to have dry eyes ENVIORNMENTAL CONDITIONS Conditions such as windy and dry climates, exposure to smoke can increase in tear evaporation which increases the risk of dry eye. OTHER FACTORS • Staring at gadget screens for long time resulting in less blinking • Use of contact lenses
  25. 25. CAUSES OF DRY EYE IN KIDS INFLAMMATORY CAUSES • Sjögren’s syndrome, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis CONGENITAL DISORDERS • Familial dysautonomia, Allgrove syndrome POOR NUTRITION Source: reviewofoptometry.com INFLAMMATORY CAUSES •Sjögren’s syndrome, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis CONGENITAL DISORDERS •Familial dysautonomia, Allgrove syndrome POOR NUTRITION
  26. 26. CAUSES OF DRY EYE IN KIDS..cont.. JUVENILE DIABETES SYSTEMIC MEDICATIONS ENVIORNMENTAL FACTORS Source: reviewofoptometry.com JUVENILE DIABETES SYSTEMIC MEDICATIONS ENVIORNMENTAL FACTORS
  27. 27. Big Data LVPEI Study ● Incidence 16500 per million adult population ● 2700 per million population in kids
  28. 28. Big Data LVPEI Study
  29. 29. Big Data LVPEI Study Age- 3rd – 4th Decade Age- 5th – 6th Decade
  30. 30. Source:http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/dryeye/dryeye .asp#7 accessed on 15th January 2012 SYMPTOMS OF DRY EYE
  31. 31. Low humidity chilled environments, cause evaporation from the aqueous layer Daily exposure to dry air can cause uncomfortable situation to progress to a chronic change in the tear film Exacerbation of dry eye symptoms Air condition in cars also cause tear evaporation Why Air Conditioning doubles the risk of dry eye? Source: Ocular Surgery News Europe/Asia-Pacific Edition (Archive), February 200
  32. 32. Frequent Air Travel Exacerbates Dry Eye Symptoms..!!! • Average humidity in aircraft cabin: 9-28% @ 23 to 24° C which is relatively low • It increases tear evaporation • Symptoms have direct correlation with the duration of flight • Occurs in many people who otherwise do not have dry eye complaints or problems Source: Ocular Surgery News Europe/Asia-Pacific Edition (Archive), February 20
  33. 33. Why you should not ignore Dry Eye Symptoms? • Eye infections. Your tears protect the surface of your eyes from infection. Without adequate tears, you may have an increased risk of eye infection. • Damage to the surface of your eyes. If left untreated, severe dry eyes may lead to eye inflammation, abrasion of the corneal surface, corneal ulcer and vision problems. • Decreased quality of life. Dry eyes can make it difficult to perform everyday activities, such as reading. Source: Ocular Surgery News Europe/Asia-Pacific Edition (Archive), February 20
  34. 34. Ten Steps to get relief from Computer Eye Strain
  35. 35. Ten Steps to get relief from Computer Eye Strain
  36. 36. o Computer users should have an eye exam before they start working on a computer and once a year there after (NIOSH). o During your exam, following things are noted: ● Presence of Dry eyes ● Refractive errors 1. Get a comprehensive eye exam Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm NIOSH: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Heal
  37. 37. Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm 2. Use proper light ◦ Bright lights, windows and overhead lights contribute to discomfort glare – adjust these to avoid any glare ◦ Adjust ambient light – not too bright- not too dull
  38. 38. Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm accessed on 15-02-2016 3. Minimize Glare ◦ Glare on walls and finished surfaces, as well as reflections on your computer screen also can cause computer eye strain ◦ Consider installing an anti-glare screen on your monitor ◦ If you wear glasses, purchase lenses with anti- reflective (AR) coating
  39. 39. 4. Upgrade your display ◦ LCD screens are better than old tube style monitors ◦ Choose screen with highest resolution possible ◦ Choose a relatively larger display ◦ Select a display that has a diagonal screen size of at least 17 -19 inches (desktop computers) Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  40. 40. 5. Adjust your computer display settings ● Keep the brightness same as of your surrounding workstation ● Text size and contrast: Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  41. 41. Normal blink rate -14 times /minute. During computer use - 4 to 6 times per/minute Source: Surv Ophthalmol 50:253–262, 2005.
  42. 42. 6. Blink more often Blinking is very important as it moistens your eyes which prevents dryness and irritation. Every 20 minutes, blink 10 times by closing your eyes as if falling asleep (very slowly). This will help rewet your eyes Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm BLINK
  43. 43. 7. Exercise your eyes Constant focus on screens- eye results in strain/tiring/fatigue Look away from your computer at least every 20 minutes and gaze at a distant object (at least 20 feet away) for at least 20 seconds (20- 20-20 rule) Another exercise is to look far away at an object for 10-15 seconds, then gaze at something up close for 10- 15 seconds. Then look back at the distant object. Do this 10 times (prevents accommodation spasm) Don’t forget to blink during the exercise Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  44. 44. 8. Take frequent breaks
  45. 45. 8. Take frequent breaks Two 15 min breaks Additional 4 mini breaks of 5 min recommended by NIOSH By doing so, work output indeed maintained or increased During your computer breaks, stand up, move about and stretch your arms, legs, back, neck and shoulders to reduce tension and muscle fatigue Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  46. 46. 9. Modify your workstation
  47. 47. 10-15 degree makes a difference
  48. 48. 10. Consider computer eyewear Check for any refractive error This is especially true if you normally wear contact lenses, which may become dry and uncomfortable during sustained computer work Computer glasses also are a good choice if you wear bifocals or progressive lenses Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  49. 49. Blue Light
  50. 50. Blue Light ◦ Any source of light gives of blue light – sun, torch, bulb, mobiles, gadgets. ◦ We get plenty of blue light each day from sun, but after sunset we are exposed to it from artificial light sources Ref: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm
  51. 51. Blue Light ◦ Before advent of artificial light, the sun regulated our sleep schedule. But today we are exposed to light all day and night ◦ Dark environment signals our body to start producing melatonin, responsible for making us fall asleep ◦ Exposure to blue light inhibits melatonin production and disrupts circadian rhythm ◦ Compared to fluorescent & incandescent bulb, LEDs can emit significant blue light
  52. 52. Blue Light Blocking Glasses ◦ Does blue light cause damage to the Eye – ◦ The evidence is conflicting and there is no clear cut role yet established in disease causation – ARMD. ◦ As natural lens ages, it gets deposited with yellow chromophores which block UV lights and blue light ◦ So still there is no clear evidence. ◦ There is enough evidence that blue light blocks melatonin secretion, so if you use screen long after sunset, these glasses might help stop you from staying up late.
  53. 53. Tips to stimulate Tear Production Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm Images: Google search Drink plenty of water Include sources of fatty acids in diet (flaxseed, fish oil, almonds) Eat fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin A and E Avoid eating too much of meat, fats and carbohydrates
  54. 54. Artificial Tears ● Computer Vision Syndrome is one of the major reasons for dry eye. ● Dry eyes occurs due to excessive evaporation/ reduced blink rate. ● Consult your medical professional as this can be easily managed by lubricating drops
  55. 55. When to Contact a Medical Professional • Red or painful eyes • Flaking, discharge, or a lesion on eye or eyelid • Previous trauma to eye or Bulging eye • Joint pain, swelling, or stiffness • Dry mouth • Dry eyes not responding to self-care measures within few days Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/cvs/irritated.htm Images: Google search
  56. 56. SUMMARY ● When enough quality tears are not produced by the eyes, there is occurrence of dry eye. ● Due to this, the lubrication and nourishment to the eye is insufficient. ● Computer Vision Syndrome is one of the major reasons for dry eye. ● To avoid dry eye, efforts should be made to use tips which stimulate tear production. ● In case of severe problem, contact a medical professional.
  57. 57. More Green Time Less Screen time
  58. 58. Don’t forget to blink..!! prathmeshgm@gmail.co m Send queries to 9994029908

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