3. What is Organizational
One classic definition of organization development comes from
Richard Beckhard's 1969 Organization Development: Strategies
and Models :
Organization Development is an effort that is:
Managed from the top
Increase organization effectiveness and health
Through planned interventions in the organization's "processes,”
using behavioral-science knowledge.
4. Similarly OD is also defined as a systematic process for applying
behavioral science principles and practices in organizations to increase
individual and organizational effectiveness (French, 2008).
So OD is improvement of the organization by developing its human
resource through planned change efforts/interventions at all levels
using human behavior approach.
The tools and techniques of OD can improve an organization's
problem-solving ability, increase its ability to adapt to rapid societal
change, and provide managers an updated set of concepts and methods
for managing their organizations.
It also includes formal organizational restructuring which is frequently
initiated, facilitated and reinforced by the normative and behavioral
The three sub objectives of OD are “changing attitudes or values,
modifying behavior, and inducing change in structure and policy.”
5. THE EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION
In the late 1940s and early 1950s laboratory training methods were
developed and applied by groups of behavioural scientists at Bethel,
Douglas McGregor (Theory X and Theory Y), working with Richard
Backhard, began applying laboratory training methods to industry at
General Mills in 1956 and at Union Carbide in 1957.
At Union Carbide, McGragor and Johan Paul Jones (an internal
consultant) formed the first internal OD consulting group.
6. Techniques of Organisation
Major techniques of organization development:-
Management by Objectives(MBO),
Quality Circles, and
7. 1. Survey Feedback: Information is collected through survey
method. This is the most popular and widely used method of
data collection. The managers use this information collected
through survey for making decisions. The wide range of data is
collected regarding working conditions, quality of work, working
hours, wages and salaries, attitude of employees relating to
2. Team Building: Team Building is another method of
organisation development. This method is specifically designed
to make improvement in the ability of employees and motivating
them to work together. It is the organisation development
technique which emphasizes on team building or forming work
groups in order to improve organisational effectiveness.
8. 3. Sensitivity Training: It is quite popular OD intervention. It is also
known as laboratory training. Under this technique the employees in
groups are asked to interact. The aim of sensitivity training is to help
people understand each other and gain insight so that they feel free
and become fearless.
4. Managerial Grid: This technique is developed by industrial
psychologists duo Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The concept of
managerial grid identifies two major dimensions of management
behaviour. They are people oriented and production oriented
behaviours. Attempts are made to pay increased attention to both the
9. 5. Management by Objectives (MBO):
MBO is a technique of management development which was put
forward for the first time by Peter Drucker in 1954. It is a method of
achieving organisational objectives and a technique of evaluation and
review of performance. Under this method objectives of the
organisation are fixed and responsibility to achieve them lie on the
managers and results are expected from them.
Achievement of organisational objectives is considered as the joint and
individual responsibility of all managers. It also provides a perfect
appraisal system. Performance of the managers is measured against the
specific objectives. It is result oriented technique.
George Odiorne observed that MBO is, “a system wherein superior and
subordinate managers of an organisation jointly identify its common
aims, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of
the results expected of him and use these measures as guides for
operating the unit, assessing the contribution benefits of its members.”
10. 6. Brain Storming: It is a technique where a group of five to eight
managers come together and find a solution to a problem. As the name
suggests it involves storming of the brain to develop creativity in
thinking. It gives rise to new ideas. The principle involves in it is that
any idea, thought or plan put forward in a meeting must be critically
evaluated. The participants are asked to come forward with novel ideas
generated in their mind. It works on a premise that everyone has a
creative mind and capability to generate new ideas.
7. Process Consultation: The technique of process consultation is an
improvement over the method of sensitivity training or T Group in the
sense that both are based on the similar premise of improving
organisational effectiveness through dealing with interpersonal
problems but process consultation is more tasks oriented than
In process consultation the consultant or expert provides the trainee
feedback and tell him what is going around him as pointed out by E H
Schein that the consultant, “gives the client ‘insight’ into what is going
on around him, within him, and between him and other people.”
11. 8. Quality Circles: Under this system a group of 5 to 12 come together
at their own free will during working hours once in a week and discuss
out the problems and suggests solution to the management for
implementation. The supervisors remain present during the meeting.
Quality Circles have their origin in Japan in nineteen sixties which
improved the quality, reduced cost and heightened the morale of the
workers. The success was due to workers’ participation. Total quality
management or TQM is the recent development. This concept was
adopted by the USA in 1980.
9. Transactional Analysis: Transactional analysis helps people to
understand each other better. It is a useful tool for organisational
development but it has diverse applications in training, counselling,
interpersonal communication and making analysis of group dynamics.
Nowadays, it is widely used as OD technique. It helps in developing
more adult ego states among people of the organisation. It is also used
in process consultation and team building.
13. About Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services is an IT services, consulting, and
business solutions organization that delivers real results to
global business, ensuring a level of certainty no other firm
can match. TCS offers a consulting-led, integrated portfolio
of IT and IT-enabled infrastructure, engineering, and
assurance services. This is delivered through its unique
Global Network Delivery Model™, recognized as the
benchmark of excellence in software development. A part
of the Tata Group, India’s largest industrial conglomerate,
TCS has a global footprint and is listed on the National
Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in India.
The Intervention: Culture Building at TCS
In consonance with the TCS belief of “Let us make it a joy
for all our stakeholders”.
balance of fun,
evoking commitment to
Platform for problem
solving, focus on the
Quality, Cost &
20. Account Excellence Program
Meeting all customer requirements
Minimizing processes variances
Reduction in Cost Of Quality
Elimination of waste
Enhanced Customer Support
Efficient Product Service
Flexibility to meet Customer demands & Market changes
Continuous Process Improvements
On-time delivery of major programs
Reflect & Improve
There was a distinct increase in the Associate
Satisfaction Index (ASI) in Darpan 06, which,
interestingly, corresponded to an increase in Customer
Satisfaction Index (CSI) as well.
22. Paradigm Shift: Post OD Scenario
The earlier tendency of self-sacrificing hard work was replaced
by a shift of focus to teamwork and valuing of the employee.
In a nutshell, the OD interventions at TCS have helped build a
culture of fostering systems thinking & creating forums for
dialogue, while encouraging leadership at all levels.
For the organization at large, OD helped to reiterate the merits
of valuing enquiry, expressing differences, and constantly
generating new knowledge.