2. Precision: Precision means reproducibility while
accuracy means closeness of an experimental result
with the true value or actual result.
Accuracy: Accuracy is the difference between the true
value and the value of experimental result.
Impurities: Impurity is the undesirable foreign material,
which may be toxic or may not be toxic, present in
Limit test: limit test are quantitative or semi-quantitative
tests designed to identify and control small quantities or
impurities, which are likely to be present in the
3. Titrate: the substance to be determined is called as the titrate.
Titrant: The substance of known concentration is called the
Titration: the process of determining the volume is called as
End point: The point at which the reaction is complete is
called the end point.
Indicator: Some auxiliary substance that is due to detect the
end point of the titration is called the indicator.
Standard solution: The solution of known concentration is
known as the standard solution.
4. Molarity: It can be defined as the number of moles of solute
present in one litre of the solution. It is represented by “M”.
Normality: It is the number of gram equivalents of solute
present in one litre of the solution. It is represented by “N”.
Molality: The molality of a solution is given by the number of
moles of solute per 1000 g of the solvent. It. Is represented by
5. Hematinic: Hematinic are substance requirde in the
formation of blood and are used in the treatment of anemias.
Gastro-intestinal agents: The pharmaceutical compound
used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorder are known
as ‘Gastro-intestinal agents’.
Antacids: Antacids are agents that counteract the acidity.
Antacids are compounds used to nutralize excess of gastric
hydrochloric acid that may be causing pain and possible
ulceration in GIT.
Topical agents: The term ‘topical’ means pertaining to a
particular spot. Topical compound are applied on body surface
and show their pharmacological effect primarily at the surface
to which they are applied.
6. Antimicrobials: antimicrobials are the drugs which cause suppression of
the growth of micro-organisms. E.g- Bacteria, fungi, protozoans, etc.
Disinfectant: It is a chemical agent which destroys microorganisms, but not
usually bacterial spores.
Antiseptic: It is a chemical agent which destroys or inhibits the growth of
Bactericide: It is a chemical agent that kills the bacteria, but not necessarily
Bacteriostatic: It is a chemical agent that inhibits the multiplication of
Germicide: It is a chemical agent that destroys pathogenic micro-organism.
7. Sterilization : It is the process of destroying all micro-organism and
their pathogenic products. This process renders the treated object
completely free from micro-organisms.
Anticaries agent: Prevention of dental decay. E.g- Sodium fluoride.
Cleaning agent(polishing agent/ dentifices): these are used with
toothbrush to clean and polish the teeth. E.g- Calcium carbonate.
Denture cleaners: dentures are also known as false teeth where
prosthetic devices are used replace missing teeth which are
surrounded by soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
Denture adhesives: a material use to adhere to oral mucosa is
called as denture adhesive.
8. Mouthwashes: they are medicated liquid (mainly antiseptics)
used for cleansing the mouth or treating affected mucous
Medicinal Gases: Medicinal gases are the gaseous
substance which are, or may be, taken into the body by way of
the nose and trachea (through the respiratory system).
Heterocyclic compound: Heterocyclic compound ate those
which possess acyclic or ring structure with atleast two
different kinds of atom(including carbon atom) in the ring.
General anaesthetics: General anaesthetics are the C.N.S.
depressant drug that produce a partial or total loss of the
sense of pain, accompanied by loss of consciousness.
9. Hypnotics: hypnotics are the drugs which depress C.N.S. and
produce sleep, resembling natural sleep in normal dose.
Sedatives: sedatives are C.N.S. depressants but do not
induce (produce)sleep in normal dose but calms the nerves.
Antipsychotics (Tranquilizers or Neuroleptics): Psychoses
means mental conditions characterized by disturbances in
Anticonvulsants(antiepileptics): the term epilepsy is derived
from greek word ‘Epilambanein’ which means ‘to seize’ (i.e. to
take sudden possession). It my be defined as paroxysmal
(sudden), self-sustaining and self-limiting cerebral
Antidepressant: The drug which are used to elevate mood
are called antidepressant.
10. Anti-arrhythmic agents: The agent which are used to correct
cardiac arrhythmias are called as anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Hypertension: Hypertension means high systematic blood
pressure due to defect in the haemodynamic funstion.
Vasodilators (Antianginal agent): The drugs causing dilation
of blood vessels are called vasodilators.
Diuretics: Diuretics are the drugs which increase the rate of
urine excretion by kidneys, primarily by inhibiting tubular
reabsorption of sodium and its osmotic equivalent amount of
11. Hypoglycemic agents: The drug which are used to lower
blood sugar are called hypoglycemic agent. They are used to
treat diabetes mellitus ( Latin word mellitus means honey)
Analgesics: the drug which decrease sensitivity (awarness) of
pain by depressing CNS without loss of consciousness are
called analgesics(true analgesics)
Mycosis: disease caused by any fungus is known as mycosis.
Urinary tract anti-infective agents: urinary anti-infectives are
medicines used to treat or prevent infections of the urinary
tract, which is the passage through which urine flow from the
kidneys out of the body.
12. Tuberculosis (TB): Tuberculosis is an acute or chronic communicable
disease. It is caused in human by mycobacterium tuberculosis of hormonis
of homonis type, but can also be caused by bovine type.
Antiviral: Antiviral are the drugs that help your body fight off certain
viruses that can cause disease.
Antimalarials: The drugs which are used for treatment of protozoal
Antibiotics: antibiotics are chemical substances derived from or
metabolically produced by living oragnisms, which are capable of inhibiting
the life process of other micro-organism, in small concentration.
Neoplastics: Neoplasm(Neo=new; plasm=form) is the medical term for
cancer or tumour which menas ‘a relatively autonomous growth of tissue’.