2. Workshop Objectives
I. Understand concept and procedures
of PCM methodology:
・Monitoring and Evaluation
II. Apply PCM methodology to analyze your
problems and identify strategies and actions.
III. Formulate a draft action plan.
5. Project: An undertaking for the purpose
of achieving established objectives,
within a given budget and time period.
Project Cycle: The entire process of an
undertaking a project: from formulation,
implementation to evaluation.
6. PDM (Project Design Matrix)
Narrative Summary Objectively
Measurement of the
performance of the project
objectives and outputs
Sources of data for verifying
Long term development effect
An objective that is expected to be
achieved by the end of project
Intermediate goals that should be
reached to achieve the Project
Specific actions intended to
produce the Outputs through
effective use of the Inputs.
Physical, financial and human resources to carry out
7. Project Design Matrix (PDM)
• Is a matrix with 16 boxes (4x4)
• Is a summary table of the projects (=
Objectives, Activities, Inputs and
• Shows logical interrelationships among
8. Features of PCM Method
10. PCM Workshop-House Rules
1. Write your own ideas on a card
2. Write only one idea per card
3. Describe in specific and brief sentences
4. Stick to the facts and avoid abstractions and
5. Write your ideas on the cards before discussing
6. Obtain consensus when removing cards from the
7. Don’t ask who wrote a particular card.
Traffic Sign Cards
Skip now and come back
Disagreement Not required further
discussion or analysis
12. Steps for Participatory Planning
Analytical Stage Planning Stage
What are the
What are the
13. Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis
To identify the issues, problems, and
current conditions of the target area
through analysing the area and local
residents targeted for assistance, related
groups, related organizations/ agencies.
14. Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis
1. List all stakeholders and categorise
(beneficiaries, negatively affected groups,
potential opponents, decision makers,
implementers, supporting groups, etc.)
2. Select key stakeholders and analyse their
characteristics, problems, needs, etc.
3. Identify the target group(s).
Beneficiaries Who will likely benefit from the
Who will be negatively affected
by the project.
Who may oppose or obstruct
Decision Makers Whom with decision-making
Who will likely cooperate with
Implementers Who will implement the Project
Detailed AnalysisName of Group Characteristics:
Women in a
mothers in a
17. Step 2: Problems Analysis
To analyse Negative conditions that are
affecting the life of target group and
Visually represent the causes and
effects of these conditions existing in
the project area and/or sector.
18. Step 2: Problems Analysis
1. Select the core problem
2. Identify the direct causes of the core problem
3. Develop the problems tree downwards (add
4. Identify the direct effects of the core problem
5. Develop the problems tree upwards (add
20. How to write Problem cards
1. Indicate existing problems
2. Write problems-negative conditions
3. Write one problem per card
4. Describe the problems in a sentence.
5. Try to avoid “No”
6. Do not include cause and effect in one
22. Objective Tree
Salary is low
House rent is
Children do not
Family moves to
Wife has part-
23. Step 3 Objective Analysis
1. Rephrase all problem cards into desirable and
realistic conditions (objectives)
2. Revise the statement if not realistic
3. Delete cards when inappropriate
4. Add new cards that are necessary and
5. Ensure that “cause-effect” relations have
become “means-ends” relations
24. Step 4: Project Selection
Family moves to
Wife has part-
Project for Increasing
of House Income
Project for Increasing of Income Sources
Project for Decreasing of Expenditures
25. Step 4: Project Selection
• Identify several sets of approaches (means-ends
• Comparing the approaches based on criteria:
(Policy Priority, Needs, Inputs, Feasibility,
Effectiveness, Sustainability, Negative
• Select the approach to be undertaken by the
26. Step 4: Project Selection
Approach A Approach B Approach C
Target Group DHMT CHEWs CHWs
Policy Priority High Middle Middle
Needs High High High
Inputs Low High Low
Effectiveness High High High
Sustainability Middle Low Middle
28. PDM: Narrative Summary
Nutrition of children below 5 is improved.
Appropriate services are provided at the MCH Center.
1 MCH Center is established.
2 Capacities of health workers are strengthened.
3 Health &Nutrition Education Program is provided to
Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 3
Is Project Purpose the direct
effect to the target group？
Are enough Outputs set to
reach Project Purpose?
3-5 years after the end of the Project.
At the time when the Project ends.
29. PDM: Pre-conditions and
Influential external conditions required
for the project success, but beyond
control of the project.
= not sure (50/50), therefore, need
to be monitored
Necessary conditions that should be
fulfilled before a project is started.
30. Vertical Logic (Causal Link) of PDM
IF --- THEN
31. Step 6:Formulation of POs
• Activities (often more detailed than PDM)
• Expected results (Activity indicators)
• Time frame (Schedule)
• Responsible persons
PDM Detailed Project Work Plan
32. Plan of Operations (Example)
Output 2: Capacities of health workers are strengthened.
Activities Indicators Time
2-1 To prepare for
2-2 To formulate a task
2-3 To develop
2-4 To develop training
2-5 To train trainers.
2-6 To select the target
2-7 To implement training
to the selected HWs.
Training program is
prepared by Oct.’12.
7 members are
for each level is
One training manual
for each level is
1 trainer at each
district are selected.
10 HWs at each
target facilities are
50 HWs in total are
• What: An ongoing process to check the
progress of a project against its plan
and modify the plan if necessary.
• By Whom: Project’s implementers.
・ Based on: PDM and PO
1.Execution of activities
2.Achievement of Outputs
3.Achievement of Project Purpose
4.Change in Important Assumptions
Successful Project Performance results from regular monitoring based on PDM
and PO and timely follow-up.
➢Are activities implemented as
as planed in terms of time
schedule and indicators
set in PO?
➢ Are objectives of the Project
(Outputs and Project Purpose)
likely to be achieved within
the Project period as set in PDM?
➢ What are contributing factors and
and constraining factors (including
changes in important assumptions)?
Activities Indicators Time
36. Basic Process of Monitoring
Check the Progress in comparison with plan
Finding the solutions and revise the plan
Systematic and objective assessment of
a plan and the outcomes of an on-
going or completed
project, program or policy
What (Definition ofDAC-OECD)
By Whom: Evaluators (for external evaluation)
Project implementers (for internal evaluation)
Five Evaluation Criteria
Relevance, Effectiveness, Efficiency,
Impact and Sustainability
38. Five Evaluation Criteria
Criteria Basic Ideas
Relevance Are the “project purpose” and “overall goal” still
Effectiveness Whether the “project purpose” has been achieved, and
how much contribution did “outputs” make?
Efficiency To what extent have “inputs” been converted to
Impact What positive or negative, either direct or indirect
effects have happened?
Sustainability To what extent will the recipient country's
organizations be able to retain the positive effects of
Successful Project Performance results from well-design of the Project
【Relations between Project Design Criteria and Five Evaluation Criteria】
Project Selection Criteria Five Evaluation Criteria
・ Policy Priority
・ Needs of Target Groups/Community
. Feasibility (Duration/Budget)
・ Negative Impact
42. 1. Front Page
Project Title, The Main Organizer of the Project,
Target Group of the Project, Project Site(s),
Duration of the Project
2. Main Body
・Problems to be solved
3. Attachment: PDM and PO
44. Problems to be solved
Your knowledge/skills of Stakeholders Analysis
and Problem Analysis can be applied to this
1) Identify a target group
2) Analyze Problems of the target group
3) Identify the core problem
4) Make a problem tree, paying attention to cause-
effect relations among the problems.
45. Project Strategies
Your knowledge/skills of Objective Analysis
and Project Selection can be applied to this
1) Make Objective Tree based on Problem
2) Select the approach on the Objective Tree.
3) Identify Project Purpose and Outputs
46. Major Activities
➢ Identify Activities to reach identified
➢ Be sure that activities are listed so as
to match an appropriate Output.
➢ Activities are listed in chronological
Output 1 Output 2
Activity 1-1 Activity 2-1
3 objectives: at the end of the workshop, you will
Know the concept of PCM and methodologies
PCM stands for Project Cycle Management)
2) Acquire skills of applying PCM methodology to find your problems and identify strategies and actions in areas of soil diagnosis.
3) Come to apply PCM methodologies to draft your action plan .
Output of the workshop is: PDM (Project Design Matrix)