5. 4- REASONS for Using Mobile Cloud
•The brain of your service is in Cloud
• Easier to share content and asset
• Easier to maintain the data
• More immune to crashes and deletions
6. What is Mobile Cloud Computing?
• Mobile cloud computing is the combination of cloud computing and mobile
networks to bring benefits for the mobile users, network providers as well as
• MCC at its simplest , refers to an infrastructure where both the data storage and
data processing happen outside of the mobile device.
7. Why Mobile Cloud Computing?
• Mobile devices face many resource challenges(battery life, storage,
• Cloud computing offers advantages to users by allowing them to use
infrastructure, platforms and software by cloud providers at low cost and
elastically in an on-demand fashion.
• MCC provides mobile users with data storage and processing services in
clouds, obviating the need to have a powerful device configuration (e.g.
CPU speed, memory capacity etc.) , as all resource-intensive computing can
be performed in the cloud.
11. MCC Architecture
• Mobile devices are connected to the mobile networks via base stations that
establish and control the connections and functional interfaces between the
networks and mobile devices.
• Mobile users’ requests and information are transmitted to the central
processors that are connected to servers providing mobile network services.
• The subscribers’ requests are delivered to a cloud through the Internet.
• In the cloud, cloud controllers process the requests to provide mobile users
with the corresponding cloud services.
• Extending battery lifetime
• Improving data storage capacity and processing power
• Improving reliability and availability
• Dynamic Provisioning
• Ease of Integration
• Extending battery lifetime:
• Computation offloading migrates large computations and complex processing from
resource-limited devices (i.e., mobile devices) to resourceful machines (i.e., servers in
• Remote application execution can save energy significantly.
• Many mobile applications take advantages from task migration and remote
• Improving data storage capacity and processing power:
• MCC enables mobile users to store/access large data on the cloud.
• MCC helps reduce the running cost for computation intensive applications.
• Mobile applications are not constrained by storage capacity on the devices because
their data now is stored on the cloud.
• Improving reliability and availability:
• Keeping data and application in the clouds reduces the chance of lost on the mobile
• MCC can be designed as a comprehensive data security model for both service providers
• Protect copyrighted digital contents in clouds.
• Provide security services such as virus scanning, malicious code detection, authentication for
• With data and services in the clouds, then are always(almost) available even when the users
• Dynamic provisioning:
• Dynamic on-demand provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis
• No need for advanced reservation
• Mobile applications can be performed and scaled to meet the unpredictable user demands
• Service providers can easily add and expand a service
• Service providers can share the resources and costs to support a variety of applications
and large no. of users.
• Ease of Integration:
• Multiple services from different providers can be integrated easily through the cloud
and the Internet to meet the users’ demands.
20. MCC Applications
• Mobile Commerce:
• M-commerce allows business models for commerce using mobile devices.
• Examples: Mobile financial, mobile advertising, mobile shopping…
• M-commerce applications face various challenges (low bandwidth, high complexity of
devices, security, …)
• Integrated with cloud can help address these issues
• Example:Combining 3G and cloud to increase data processing speed and security level.
21. MCC Applications
• Mobile Learning:
• M-learning combines e-learning and mobility
• Traditional m-learning has limitations on high cost of devices/network, low
transmission rate, limited educational resources
• Cloud-based m-learning can solve these limitations
• Enhanced communication quality between students and teachers
• Help learners access remote learning resources
• A natural environment for collaborative learning
22. MCC Applications
• Mobile Healthcare:
• M-healthcare is to minimize the limitations of traditional medical treatment (eg. Small
storage, security/privacy, medical errors, …)
• M-healthcare provides mobile users with convenient access to resources(eg. medical
• M-healthcare offers hospitals and healthcare organizations a variety of on-demand services
• Comprehensive health monitoring services
• Intelligent emergency management system
• Health-aware mobile devices (detect pulse-rate, blood pressure, level of alcohol etc)
23. MCC Applications
• Assistive technologies:
• Pedestrian crossing guide for blind and visually-impaired
• Mobile currency reader for blind and visually impaired
• Lecture transcription for hearing impaired students
• Other applications:
• Sharing photos/videos
• Keyword-based, voice-based, tag-based searching
• Monitoring a house, smart home systems
24. MCC Issues
• Mobile communication issues:
• Low bandwidth:One of the biggest issues, because the radio resource for wireless
networks is much more scarce than wired networks
• Service availability: Mobile users may not be able to connect to the cloud to obtain a
service due to traffic congestion, network failures, mobile signal strength problems.
• Security & Privacy: Users are worried about the vulnerability to attacks, when
information and critical IT resources are outside the firewall.
25. MCC Issues
• Heterogeneity: Handling wireless connectivity with highly heterogeneous networks to
satisfy MCC requirements (always-on connectivity, on-demand scalability, energy
efficiency) is a difficult problem.To solve this problem IRNA(Intelligent Radio Network
Access) is built up.
26. MCC Issues
• Computing issues:
1. Computation offloading: It is critical to determine whether to offload and
which portions of the service codes to offload.
3. Enhancing the efficiency of data access.
4. Context-aware mobile cloud services.
27. Types of offloading
• Depending on material being offloaded
1. Data Offloading: Data are migrated from one congested network to
2. Computational Offloading: An expensive computational process is
migrated from the mobile device to the server with cloud to improve
performance and battery life.
28. Types of offloading
• Depending On ApproachesToTime Reduction
1. Fine-Grained Offloading (Partial Offloading)
2. Coarse-Grained Offloading (Full Offloading)
29. Offloading Methods
• Current discusses offloading methods in three main directions:
1. Client-Server communication methods
3. Mobile Agents
• MAUI (Mobile Assistance Using Infrastructure) is designed by Microsoft for
Windows phones, which uses the Microsoft .NET Common Language Runtime
• MAUI is a system that enables fine-grained energy-aware offload of mobile code
to the infrastructure.
• MAUI uses the benefits of a managed code environment to support fine-grained
code offload to maximize energy savings with minimal burden on the programmer.
• MAUI decides at runtime which methods should be remotely executed, driven by
an optimization engine that achieves the best energy savings possible under the
mobile device’s current connectivity constrains.
• Mobile applications such as virus scanning, image search with face recognition and
privacy preserving advertisement are demanding more memory space and
processing power from cloud to speed up the system and reduce energy
• CloneCloud applies primarily to application layer virtual machines (VMs), such as
the JavaVM, DalvikVM from the Android Platform, and Microsoft’s .NET. It chooses
application-layerVMs since they are widely used in mobile platforms.
• CloneCloud support one mobile device with one clone.To support full concurrency
between the mobile devices and clones, this will add new features such as thread
synchronization and on-demand object paging.
• ThinkAir is a framework that makes it simple for developers to migrate their
smartphone applications to the cloud.ThinkAir exploits the concept of smartphone
virtualization in the cloud and provides method-level computation offloading.
• Advancing on previous work, it focuses on the elasticity and scalability of the cloud
and enhances the power of mobile cloud computing by parallelizing method
execution using multiple virtual machine (VM) images.
• ThinkAir has been developed for Java and has been based on Android. It eliminates
the limitations induced from CloneCloud by combining the approaches from MAUI
and CloneCloud. However, it does not eliminate the induced overhead due to the
provisioning of virtual machines.
• A cloudlet is a mobility-enhanced small-scale cloud datacenter that is
located at the edge of the Internet.
• The main purpose of the cloudlet is supporting resource-intensive and
interactive mobile applications by providing powerful computing resources
to mobile devices with lower latency.
• It is a new architectural element that extends today’s cloud computing
infrastructure. It represents the middle tier of a 3-tier hierarchy: mobile
device - cloudlet - cloud.A cloudlet can be viewed as a data center in a box
whose goal is to bring the cloud closer.
35. Open Issues and Challenges
• Task Division
• Data delivery
• Low Bandwidth
• Energy-efficient transmission
• LiveVM migration issues
• Concurrency and Synchronization
36. Offloading in the Future
Forecast of mobile data growth (a) Mobile data traffic (b) Cellular traffic and offload traffic
Source: CiscoVNI Mobile, 2015
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