• Apart from commonalities, people are
different in the way they appear and behave.
• As a human being each one of us shows certain specific
patterns of thinking, feeling and acting.
• They represent who we are and provide the basis of our
interaction with other individuals.
• In everyday life we often find people who are called
“aggressive”, “jolly”, “happy” and so on.
• These are impressions of people which we carry with us and
use while interacting with them. It is in this sense that we
frequently employ the word ‘personality’.
• The term personality is used in the apparent features
of a person.
• Psychologists use it to the characteristic pattern of
thinking, feeling and acting.
• By characteristic pattern we mean the consistent and
distinctive ways our ideas, feelings and actions are
• When we talk about personality we usually refer to
the totality or whole of the person.
‘Personality’ as the essence of the person.
• The characteristics or blend of characteristics
that make a person unique
Weinberg & Gould
It is the consistent psychological patterns
within an individual that affect the way they
interact with others and the situations they
Determinants of Personality
• There are several factors that influence the shaping
of a personality.
• One can understand which behavior has influence on
the personality characteristics of an individual
• A brief review of such personality characteristics are
given as :
Some characteristics of behaviour are genetic.
Some traits like physical height, slimness,
intellectual capacity, ability to learn, and logical
power are also inherited. All such inherited
traits have a significant influence on behavioural
• The culture in which people are brought up in
their lives and they type of socialization
process such as socio economic status of the
family, number of children in a family, birth
order, education of the parents, friends and
peer group pressures, religious practices, the
type of schooling and recreational activities
etc play a critical role in shaping our
• The type of specific situation which a person
encounters also equally shapes the type of
• Popular characteristics including shy,
aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal
and timid. Those characteristics, when they
exhibited in large number of situations, are
called personality traits or enduring
characteristics that describe on individual’s
Big Personality Traits
• There are five Big Personality Traits which
have a significant impact in individual’s life.
They are as follows:
• Extroverts are sociable, lively, and gregarious and seek
• Such individuals are likely to be most successful
working in marketing division, public relations etc.
• Where they can interact face to face with others.
• Introverts are quite, introspective and intellectual
people, preferring to interact with a small intimate
circle of friends.
• Introverts are more likely to be successful when they
can work on highly abstract ideas (R&D work) in a
relatively quite atmosphere.
• This refers to the extent to which individuals
agreeing and cooperating with others. Highly
agreeable people are cooperative, warm and
• People who score low on agreeableness are
antagonistic. This characteristic is very important and
critical in attaining a successful achievement in their
• This refers to the extent to which people are
responsible and dependable in their work and life. A
highly conscientiousness person is responsible,
organized, dependable and persistent. They are likely
to move upward direction very quickly and attain
remarkable achievement in their life. Those who
score low on this dimension are easily distracted,
disorganized and unreliable.
• This refers to the extent to which people have the
ability to withstand stress. People with positive
emotional stability tend to be calm, self confident
and secure. Those with highly low level of emotional
stability tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed and
Openness to experience
• This refers to the extent to which people are more
imaginative and intellectualism. Individuals tend to
vary widely ranging from conservative to creative or
artistic. Extremely open people are creative, and
artistically sensitive. Whereas not so open category
personnel are very conservative and find comfort in
the familiar or routine activities.
• An entrepreneurial band and they do not mind taking risks to
receive the rewards that go along with their work. The type A
personality is usually independent, direct, and to the point.
• A manager with type A personality will always try to influence the
subordinates. They dislike routine nature of work and get their
subordinates involved (through delegation) in performing routine
jobs. The type A personality enjoys change but fears routine,
repetitive, protocol-bound jobs.
• This personality construct is evident in entrepreneurs, business
owners, managers in those involved in other challenging jobs that
require direct handling. The type A personality is, therefore, known
for its leadership qualities.
• People with type B personality love to be part of groups, and
in an organization they become the centre of attention.
• They love excitement and are often impatient and
demanding, being of a high-energy type.
• As they want to be in the limelight, they do very well in sales,
advertising, marketing, public speaking, party planning, travel,
and other similar positions.
• They are supportive of subordinates. Since they prefer being
liked by others, if others neglect them, they take it rather
personally. The type B personality is usually known for its
• Personality People with type C personality thrive on
details and accuracy, and show seriousness about
• Accountants, engineers, computer programmers, and
analysts belong to this type.
• They are usually very neat, dress fashionably, and are
calculated and precise in just about everything they do.
• They do not like hype and prefer to depend on verifi
able facts for decision making.
• Since they are consistent in their actions, they follow a
charted procedure. Their actions are reliable.
• Do not like change and prefer doing the same thing
repeatedly within a set of guidelines.
• They easily get motivated by security and benefits.
• They are punctual, consistent, and supportive of
others, and usually feel happy and content with
• They usually take on clerical assignments
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