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LEARNING OUTCOMES
 Ability to identify the stages of the development of
the law on duty of care
 Ability to describe the different tests to determine
a duty of care
 Ability to assess the different tests to determine a
duty of care
2
READING
 Ahnaf Azmi, Norchaya Talib on Torts in Malaysia,
(Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2021), Chapter 6
 Wan Azlan Ahmad & Mohsin Hingun, Malaysian
Tort Law, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2019), Chapter 6
3
DEVELOPMENT OF THE LAW - UK
Neighbour
principle
2 stage test
Composite
test
4
Neighbour principle
 Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562:
“…persons who are so closely and directly affected by
my act that I ought reasonably to have them in my
contemplation as being so affected…”
5
Neighbour principle (cont’)
 Objective test
 “Closely & directly”?
 Home Office v Dorset Yacht Co. Ltd. [1970] AC
1004
6
2 Stage test
Anns v Merton London
Borough Council [1978]
AC 728
Existence of a DOC
Policy
considerations
negating DOC
7
2 Stage test (cont’)
 Applied in:
 McLouhglin v O’Brien [1982] 2 All ER 298
 Attia v British Gas PLC [1987] 3 All ER 455
 Junior Books Ld. V Veitchi Co. Ltd. [1983] 1 AC
520
8
2 Stage test (cont’)
 Criticized in:
 Governors of the Peabody Donation Fund v Sir
Lindsay Parkinson & Co. Ltd. [1985] AC 210
 Leigh & Sillivan Ltd. V Aliakman Shipping Co.
Ltd. [1986] 2 All ER 145
 Yuen Kun-Yeu v AG of Hong Kong [1987] 2 All ER
705
 Rowling v Takaro Properties Ltd. [1988] 1 All ER
163
9
Composite test
 Caparo Industries plc v Dickman [1990] 1 All ER
568, L. Bridge:
 No need to prove the situation falls squarely into
any of the recognized categories.
 Establish that DOC arises because it falls within
existing policy and decisions in analogous cases.
10
Composite test (cont’)
 Application:
 Marc Rich & Co. AG v British Rock Marine
Co. Ltd. [1995] 3 All ER 307
11
Current position
Damage: reasonably foreseeable
Close & direct relationship of
proximity
Fair, just & reasonable to impose a
DOC.
12
Malaysian position
 Development of the law:
 Sathu v Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co. Ltd.
[1961] 1 MLJ 318
 Lok Kwan Moi & Ors v Ramli bin Jamal &
Ors & Government of Malaysia [1984] 1 MLJ
46
 Sivakumaran a/l Selvaraj & 2 Ors (Suing
through their mother and next friend, Selvi
a/p Muthusamy) & Anor v Yu Pan & Anor
[1995] 1 AMR 490
13
Malaysian position (cont’)
 Foreseeability of damage?
 Zazlin Zahira lwn Louis Marie & 2 lagi [1994] 4
CLJ 637
 Champion Motor 91975) Sdn. Bhd. v Tina
Travel & Agencies Sdn. Bhd. [1997] 1 AMR 809
 Dr. Abdul Hamid Abdul Rashid & Anor v
Jurusan Malsyaia Consultants (Sued as a
Firm) & Ors [1997] 1 AMR 637
14
Malaysian position (cont’)
 Uniphone Sdn. Bhd. v Chin Boon Lit & Anor
[1998] 6 MLJ 441
 Arab-Malysian Finance Bhd. v Steven Phoa
Cheng Loon [2003] 2 AMR 6
 Majlis Perbandanran Ampang Jaya v Steven
Phoa Cheng Loon & Ors [2006] 2 AMR 563;
[2006] 2 MLJ 389
15
Malaysian position (cont’)
Current
position
Foreseeability
of damage
Proximity of
the
relationship
fair, just and
reasonable to
impose a DOC
16
 Generally the Plaintiff is the one who suffers loss
 Issue: foreseeability of that loss
 Foreseeability = proximity?
PLAINTIFF?
17
 Kris Angsana Sdn. Bhd. v Eu Sim Chuan [2007] 5 MLJ
13
 Bourhill v Young [1943] AC 92
 Haley v London Electricity Board [1964] 3 All ER 185
 Goodwill v British Pregnancy Advisory Service [1996]
1 WLR 1397
 Chong Kok Weng & Anor v Wing Wah Travel Agency
Sdn. Bhd. [2003] 5 CLJ 409
Who can be the plaintiff? (cont’)
18
 Zazlin Zahira Kamarulzaman (Budak) Menuntut
Melalui Bapa Dan Penjaganya Hj Kamarulzaman bin
Mohd Ali lwn Louis Marie Neube Rt Ambrose a/l J
Ambrose & 2 lagi [1994] 4 CLJ 637
 Pendaftar dan Pemeriksa Kereta-kereta Motor,
Melaka v KS South Motor Sdn. Bhd. [2000] 2 AMR 1838
 Sri Inai (Pulau Pinang) Sdn. Bhd. v Yong Yit Swee
[2003] 1 AMR 20
Who can be the plaintiff? (cont’)
19
RECENT DEVELOPMENT
 Thene Arulmani Chelvi a/p Arumugam v London
Weight Management Sdn Bhd [2019] 8 AMR 216, CA.
 Tokio Marine Insurans (M) Bhd v WCT Construction
Sdn Bhd & Anor [2018] 11 MLJ 83, HC
20

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5. NEGLIGENCE - DUTY OF CARE (GENERAL PRINCIPLES).pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES  Ability to identify the stages of the development of the law on duty of care  Ability to describe the different tests to determine a duty of care  Ability to assess the different tests to determine a duty of care 2
  • 3. READING  Ahnaf Azmi, Norchaya Talib on Torts in Malaysia, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2021), Chapter 6  Wan Azlan Ahmad & Mohsin Hingun, Malaysian Tort Law, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2019), Chapter 6 3
  • 4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LAW - UK Neighbour principle 2 stage test Composite test 4
  • 5. Neighbour principle  Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562: “…persons who are so closely and directly affected by my act that I ought reasonably to have them in my contemplation as being so affected…” 5
  • 6. Neighbour principle (cont’)  Objective test  “Closely & directly”?  Home Office v Dorset Yacht Co. Ltd. [1970] AC 1004 6
  • 7. 2 Stage test Anns v Merton London Borough Council [1978] AC 728 Existence of a DOC Policy considerations negating DOC 7
  • 8. 2 Stage test (cont’)  Applied in:  McLouhglin v O’Brien [1982] 2 All ER 298  Attia v British Gas PLC [1987] 3 All ER 455  Junior Books Ld. V Veitchi Co. Ltd. [1983] 1 AC 520 8
  • 9. 2 Stage test (cont’)  Criticized in:  Governors of the Peabody Donation Fund v Sir Lindsay Parkinson & Co. Ltd. [1985] AC 210  Leigh & Sillivan Ltd. V Aliakman Shipping Co. Ltd. [1986] 2 All ER 145  Yuen Kun-Yeu v AG of Hong Kong [1987] 2 All ER 705  Rowling v Takaro Properties Ltd. [1988] 1 All ER 163 9
  • 10. Composite test  Caparo Industries plc v Dickman [1990] 1 All ER 568, L. Bridge:  No need to prove the situation falls squarely into any of the recognized categories.  Establish that DOC arises because it falls within existing policy and decisions in analogous cases. 10
  • 11. Composite test (cont’)  Application:  Marc Rich & Co. AG v British Rock Marine Co. Ltd. [1995] 3 All ER 307 11
  • 12. Current position Damage: reasonably foreseeable Close & direct relationship of proximity Fair, just & reasonable to impose a DOC. 12
  • 13. Malaysian position  Development of the law:  Sathu v Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co. Ltd. [1961] 1 MLJ 318  Lok Kwan Moi & Ors v Ramli bin Jamal & Ors & Government of Malaysia [1984] 1 MLJ 46  Sivakumaran a/l Selvaraj & 2 Ors (Suing through their mother and next friend, Selvi a/p Muthusamy) & Anor v Yu Pan & Anor [1995] 1 AMR 490 13
  • 14. Malaysian position (cont’)  Foreseeability of damage?  Zazlin Zahira lwn Louis Marie & 2 lagi [1994] 4 CLJ 637  Champion Motor 91975) Sdn. Bhd. v Tina Travel & Agencies Sdn. Bhd. [1997] 1 AMR 809  Dr. Abdul Hamid Abdul Rashid & Anor v Jurusan Malsyaia Consultants (Sued as a Firm) & Ors [1997] 1 AMR 637 14
  • 15. Malaysian position (cont’)  Uniphone Sdn. Bhd. v Chin Boon Lit & Anor [1998] 6 MLJ 441  Arab-Malysian Finance Bhd. v Steven Phoa Cheng Loon [2003] 2 AMR 6  Majlis Perbandanran Ampang Jaya v Steven Phoa Cheng Loon & Ors [2006] 2 AMR 563; [2006] 2 MLJ 389 15
  • 16. Malaysian position (cont’) Current position Foreseeability of damage Proximity of the relationship fair, just and reasonable to impose a DOC 16
  • 17.  Generally the Plaintiff is the one who suffers loss  Issue: foreseeability of that loss  Foreseeability = proximity? PLAINTIFF? 17
  • 18.  Kris Angsana Sdn. Bhd. v Eu Sim Chuan [2007] 5 MLJ 13  Bourhill v Young [1943] AC 92  Haley v London Electricity Board [1964] 3 All ER 185  Goodwill v British Pregnancy Advisory Service [1996] 1 WLR 1397  Chong Kok Weng & Anor v Wing Wah Travel Agency Sdn. Bhd. [2003] 5 CLJ 409 Who can be the plaintiff? (cont’) 18
  • 19.  Zazlin Zahira Kamarulzaman (Budak) Menuntut Melalui Bapa Dan Penjaganya Hj Kamarulzaman bin Mohd Ali lwn Louis Marie Neube Rt Ambrose a/l J Ambrose & 2 lagi [1994] 4 CLJ 637  Pendaftar dan Pemeriksa Kereta-kereta Motor, Melaka v KS South Motor Sdn. Bhd. [2000] 2 AMR 1838  Sri Inai (Pulau Pinang) Sdn. Bhd. v Yong Yit Swee [2003] 1 AMR 20 Who can be the plaintiff? (cont’) 19
  • 20. RECENT DEVELOPMENT  Thene Arulmani Chelvi a/p Arumugam v London Weight Management Sdn Bhd [2019] 8 AMR 216, CA.  Tokio Marine Insurans (M) Bhd v WCT Construction Sdn Bhd & Anor [2018] 11 MLJ 83, HC 20