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OVERVIEW ON THE
LAW OF TORT
LLB201A
LAW OF TORT A
2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Ability to define what
amounts to a tort
Ability to give examples of
torts
Ability to state the basic
features of a tort
Ability to explain the
functions of a tort
READING:
Ahnaf Azmi, Norchaya Talib on Torts in
Malaysia, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2021),
Chapter 1
Wan Azlan Ahmad & Mohsin Hingun, Malaysian
Tort Law, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2019),
Chapter 1
3
WHAT IS A TORT?
Oxford Dictionary of Law:
• Latin tortus = twisted or crooked.
• “A wrongful act or omission for which damages
can be obtained in a civil court by the person
wronged, other than a wrong that is only a breach
of contract.”
4
WHAT IS A TORT?
Norchaya Talib:
“wrongful act or omission… not authorized by
the law… effect of encroaching on another’s
interest, whether it results in damage or not”
5
WHAT IS A TORT?
Wan Azlan:
“recognition of interests that the civil law
recognizes in the absence of contractual relations
between the tortfeasor and the complainant”
6
WHAT IS A TORT?
Winfield:
“Tortious liability arises from the breach of a duty
primarily fixed by law; this duty is towards persons
generally and its breach is redressible by an action
for unliquidated damages”.
7
WHAT IS A TORT?
Types
Negligence
Nuisance
Occupier’s
liability
Defamation
Strict
liability/Rylands
v Fletcher
Vicarious
liability
Employer’s
liability
Breach of
statutory duties
Intentional torts
8
WHAT IS A TORT?
Basic
elements
Wrongful
act/omission
Interests of
another are
affected
Right to claim
damages
9
WHY TORT?
Functions
Redress/remedy
Damages Injunctions
Deterrant
10
BASIC CONCEPTS
• Intention
• Motive & malice
• Bradford Corporation v Pickles [1895] AC
587
• Allen v Flood [1989] AC 1
• Improper motive
• Intentional doing of a wrongful act.
• Limitation period
• S6(1) Limitation Act 1953
• S2(a) Public Authorities Protection Act 1948
11
BASIC CONCEPTS
• Damage:
• Physical injury
• To property
• To reputation
• Economic loss
• Damages:
• Unliquidated damages
• Liquidated damages
12
SOURCES
• English common law
• S3 Civil Law Act 1956 (wef 1/4/1972)
• Lee Kee Chong v Empat Nombor Elor (NS) Sdn.
Bhd. [1976] 2 MLJ 93
• Jamil bin Harun v Yang Kamsiah [1984] 1 MLJ
217
• Nepline Sdn. Bhd v Jones Lang Wooton [1995] 1
CLJ 865
• Local judicial decision
• Local statues
• Defamation Act 1957
13

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Overview of Tort Law Essentials

  • 1. OVERVIEW ON THE LAW OF TORT LLB201A LAW OF TORT A
  • 2. 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES Ability to define what amounts to a tort Ability to give examples of torts Ability to state the basic features of a tort Ability to explain the functions of a tort
  • 3. READING: Ahnaf Azmi, Norchaya Talib on Torts in Malaysia, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2021), Chapter 1 Wan Azlan Ahmad & Mohsin Hingun, Malaysian Tort Law, (Sweet & Maxwell Asia 2019), Chapter 1 3
  • 4. WHAT IS A TORT? Oxford Dictionary of Law: • Latin tortus = twisted or crooked. • “A wrongful act or omission for which damages can be obtained in a civil court by the person wronged, other than a wrong that is only a breach of contract.” 4
  • 5. WHAT IS A TORT? Norchaya Talib: “wrongful act or omission… not authorized by the law… effect of encroaching on another’s interest, whether it results in damage or not” 5
  • 6. WHAT IS A TORT? Wan Azlan: “recognition of interests that the civil law recognizes in the absence of contractual relations between the tortfeasor and the complainant” 6
  • 7. WHAT IS A TORT? Winfield: “Tortious liability arises from the breach of a duty primarily fixed by law; this duty is towards persons generally and its breach is redressible by an action for unliquidated damages”. 7
  • 8. WHAT IS A TORT? Types Negligence Nuisance Occupier’s liability Defamation Strict liability/Rylands v Fletcher Vicarious liability Employer’s liability Breach of statutory duties Intentional torts 8
  • 9. WHAT IS A TORT? Basic elements Wrongful act/omission Interests of another are affected Right to claim damages 9
  • 11. BASIC CONCEPTS • Intention • Motive & malice • Bradford Corporation v Pickles [1895] AC 587 • Allen v Flood [1989] AC 1 • Improper motive • Intentional doing of a wrongful act. • Limitation period • S6(1) Limitation Act 1953 • S2(a) Public Authorities Protection Act 1948 11
  • 12. BASIC CONCEPTS • Damage: • Physical injury • To property • To reputation • Economic loss • Damages: • Unliquidated damages • Liquidated damages 12
  • 13. SOURCES • English common law • S3 Civil Law Act 1956 (wef 1/4/1972) • Lee Kee Chong v Empat Nombor Elor (NS) Sdn. Bhd. [1976] 2 MLJ 93 • Jamil bin Harun v Yang Kamsiah [1984] 1 MLJ 217 • Nepline Sdn. Bhd v Jones Lang Wooton [1995] 1 CLJ 865 • Local judicial decision • Local statues • Defamation Act 1957 13