1. Task 2
By Alex Pereira (Director and Screenwriter) & Millie West (Producer and Editor)
2. Job Role 1: Director
In the film industry, a director is responsible for creatively translating the film's written script into actual images and
sounds on the screen. They are ultimately responsible for a film's artistic and commercial success or failure. They are
responsible for making a film as powerful, entertaining and effective as possible. Without a skilful direction, a well-
written film with an excellent cast of actors can still fail. Everyone who plays a part in the production of a film is
important, but the film director is the most vital member of the team.
They work alongside every member of the film production team, from the actors camera operators. They direct
everyone else, asking them to perform certain tasks or act in a certain way, in order to visualise their creative ideas on
the screen. The style, the pace and the impact of a film is dictated by the director. They oversee everything, from
casting and set design to lighting and editing. An example of this is Steven Spielberg, he has worked on many different
projects and is a very famous director, some of the projects he has worked on are ‘Jaws’ (1975), ‘Jurassic Park’ (1993)
and ‘The BFG’ (2016).
3. Job Role 1: Director
To become a director you don’t need to have any formal qualifications although there are numerous training courses
and reference books on directing and studying the art and craft of directing. The best way to get into directing is
usually by starting as a runner on a film set or in a production office and then working your way up throughout the
years. Some skills that you need to become a director are excellent organisational and planning skills, the ability to
make decisions quickly and leadership and motivational skills. The main
I found out about film directors on a variety of different websites. One of these websites was Creative Skillset, it has a
lot of information on how you would get into the industry, the role of a director and what experience you would need in
order to become a director.
For directors there are not a lot of advertisements for jobs as most people who want a director already have one in
mind. There are only advertisements for directors when the project is a lot smaller or for specialised projects. One
place in which jobs can be found is on the Guardian website. It has a variety of roles and has some roles for directors.
4. Job Role 1: Director
The working patterns for a film director are usually very random and scattered, this can lead to very long or short
working hours, this is due to the fact that filming can be done at any time and at any place. Being a director you can
also be expected to work in a variety of locations such as a studios, offices and on set in remote locations.
Film directors don’t tend to earn an annual salary as they are not working on set hours. They are paid on a film-by-film
basis. How much a director can earn really depends on the type of films that they work on. Directors can earn
anywhere between £10,000 for a short film and upwards of £1,000,000 for an internationally successful feature film.
As you become more established as a director, you may start taking a percentage of what the film earns at the box
office, rather than receiving a set fee. This is very good for directors as if the film is successful they can end up making
more money than if they were on a set fee.
5. Job Role 1: Director
One very important legal constraint that a film director needs to follow is labour laws. Labour law defines your rights
and obligations as workers and employers. The EU labour laws, include working conditions, which must be acceptable
for employees or contractors to work, and individuals cannot work more than 48 hours a week on average. Another part
of labour laws are child labour laws as for under 18’s the rules are very different so directors need to be careful.
Another aspect that directors need to focus on is health and safety. They are required to have a management system in
place to control the risk to employees. Potential hazards that could occur need to be noted down in the form of a risk
assessment as well as the procedures that would occur if the hazard happened.
6. Job Role 2: Producer
In a media context, a producer is the person who is responsible for the financial and managerial aspects of making a
film, a broadcast, show, opera or any other staging production. They play an integral role in the television and film
industries. The role of a producer, is to oversee each project from its conception to its completion and beyond. This
means that they are involved in all aspects of its production. During pre production they have the important roles of
approving locations, studio hire, the final shooting script, production schedule and the project's budget. The day-to-day
smooth operation of the team is also down to the producer. One of the ways that they can ensure that all days run
smoothly, efficiently and effectively is by having constant communication and consultations with the Director and other
key staff, on and off set. During post production they may also be involved in the distribution process and the
marketing of the project. As implied, producers usually tend to work closely with directors of a production as well as
other production staff on a shoot. They are also responsible for a have overall control on every aspect of a film's
A good example of a producer is Steven Spielberg. He is extremely well known for producing movies such as Jaws,
Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan and War Horse. Sean O'Connor is a great example of a television producer. In June
2016, he replaced Dominic Treadwell- Collins as the executive producer of EastEnders, and ever since, O’Connor has
been well known for his work on the infamous soap opera.
7. Job Role 2: Producer
There are many qualities that a person needs if they are aspiring to be a producer. One of these includes the ability to
be creative and have visions.To be able to plan, create and organise a new and unique idea that you know audiences
will love, and make that idea into a reality using the resources you have. Another crucial skill one needs to be a
successful producer is to have the ability to be a leader and a manager. This includes presentation and negotiation
skills, having the ability and confidence to present a pitch or an idea to a group of people as well as consult, discuss
and compromise about other ideas that another person may have. Finally having financial skills and the ability to work
with a budget, and stick to it is a necessity in being a successful and professional producer.
To get into the producing industry you don’t need a specific qualification, but some qualifications would be useful to
have to use as a gateway to get a producing job. Having a degree or HND in a relevant subject such as filmmaking,
media production or any other course that is listed on the Creative Skill Set Page, which have been assessed by the film
industry to provide a high level of education, that prepares students for a career in the TV and film industry. These
courses enable you to gain some of the practical skills you'll need and use if and when you become a professional
producer or part of the media industry.
8. Job Role 2: Producer
There are many locations in which a director's job can be advertised. One of these places is The Guardian website. The
guardian offers jobs for both those who wish to pursue a career in either the Film, or in Television sector. To apply for
or browse the job opportunities offered concerning film, go to https://jobs.theguardian.com/jobs/film/. Similarly, to
apply for or browse the job opportunities offered by ‘The Guardian’ regarding television, visit
https://jobs.theguardian.com/jobs/tv/. Another way of becoming a part of the media industry, is by applying for jobs
that may be advertised in either the windows of shops or in articles produced in magazines or newspapers. Some
forms of social media and apps also tend to advertise all forms of jobs, including ones that are media related. In a
media context, companies may advertise ‘runner’ jobs. This can enable people of any age to train on the job and get a
feel for the media industry and what it offers. By starting as a runner or production assistant, trainees get to experience
all parts of a company, from pre production, to production, to post production. It can also enable the on the job trainees
to work their way up the company, business or media industry, if they are seen as trustworthy or reliable, and they can
form themselves a proper career in any section of the production industry, such as the job role of a producer.
9. Job Role 2: Producer
Like any job, there are conditions to being employed as a producer. Working conditions for a producer vary widely. On
the whole, producer’s schedules are not the standard 9-to-5 workday. Producers can set their own hours, although they
must be available to handle any obstacle or issue whenever they may arise . If the producer is also the director of a
production or they simply works closely with the director, then their hours can be very long. Although the work is often
hectic and demanding, it can also offer a great deal of satisfaction.
There are different ways in which one can be recruited to be a producer. Usually top filmmakers will work with the
same people over and over again, as they are known to be dependable, honourable, enthusiastic and good at their job.
If a person is interested in media, or the role of a producing officer yet is new to the industry, as mentioned it is a good
idea to apply for a job as a runner or production assistant. If you get the job that you apply for and excel in it, then there
are increased chances that you will progress not only in your experience, but in your job role entirely - as the apprentice,
you could possibly end up with a career in the media industry as a producer or another part of the production team.
10. Job Role 3: Screenwriter
Screenwriters create screenplays for films.A screenplay is the script of a film, including acting instructions and scene
directions. The screenwriter would usually show some a rough draft of the script to a potential investor. If they then get
backing from an investor they would work closely with a script development team to finish their script and to ensure
there are no mistakes.
Screenwriters are usually freelances that have come up with an idea, then then pitch that idea to to producers to be
sold. Alternatively a producer can commission a screenwriter to create a screenplay from a concept, true story, comic
book, short story etc.
An example of a famous screenwriter is Quentin Tarantino. He has written things such as ‘True Romance’ (1993) and
‘Natural Born Killers’ (1994). He also won the Best Original Screenplay Oscar in 1995 for ‘Pulp Fiction’ (1994).
11. Job Role 3: Screenwriter
You don’t need formal training or a specific qualification to become a screenwriter. Although there are a variety of
courses that you can take to enhance your skills and look more attractive to potential investors. Some of the courses
that could be taken are creative writing and scriptwriting; also experience in journalism, advertising copywriting or
acting can also help.
Most screenwriters usually start by coming up with their own screenplays and ideas, and then try to sell them to agents
and producers. As you build a professional reputation producers might ask you to write scripts for them. Another way
that screenwriters can get noticed is by entering competitions; this is a good way to get noticed by broadcasters and
regional screen agencies. Alternatively a screenwriter could send their work to BBC Writers Room who works with
writers at every stage of their career.
12. Job Role 3: Screenwriter
There are many skills you need to become a screenwriter, these include excellent writing ability, creativity and
imagination, storytelling skills and an understanding of dramatic structure, a willingness to accept criticism and
rejection of your work and good presentation and networking skills.
There is a lot of information online about becoming a screenwriter, on Creative Skillset there is a lot of information on
on how you would get into the industry, the role of a screenwriter and what skills you would need to become a
There are many places where a scriptwriter can find a job, an example of this is on the Guardian Website which has an
advert for a screenwriter. Another place in which jobs are advertised is on the BBC Website, the website has a variety of
job roles, an example of this is a job that has just gone which is for a lead screenwriter.
13. Job Role 3: Screenwriter
Most screenwriters are freelance and self-employed. Which means that they will set your their working hours.They will
usually work from home or an office, but will also attend meetings with agents, script editors and producers.If they part
of a studio-based writing team they will usually work standard office hours.
If you’re freelance, you or your agent will negotiate a fee for each piece of work. Although if you are an experienced
scriptwriter you can be paid differently; generally, if the budget of the film is more than £2m, the screenwriter can
expect to receive a minimum fee of approx. £42,120. If the budget of the film is between £750k and £2m,the
screenwriter can expect to receive a minimum fee of approx. £25,650. If the budget of the film is under £750k, the
screenwriter can expect to receive a minimum fee of approx. £18,900. This is based off of the PACT rate card (1992).
Scriptwriters need to follow certain legislation in order to make sure their work is not copied and to ensure they don't
copy anyone else's work. In this case it would be the Copyright, Design and Patents act (1998). To ensure their work is
not copied writers must copyright their work. A way they can do this is by making sure that the copyright must be
clearly exposed on the front cover and the footer of every page on scripts.
14. Job Role 4: Editor
Editors are one of the most important parts of the team when producing a film, a TV programme, a music video or any
other visual media project. Although this is a more technical and creative role, they are the person who is in charge of
and determines the final content of a production. They select the best takes of raw footage and edit them together to
create scenes.These scenes are then put together to create some sort of storyline or message - the definition of media.
As an editorial team, they must cut files and put them together in a logical sequence to create a film that runs smoothly.
Being critical, they must also decide what is usable and what is not.
Alongside other staff members, editors try and enhance the prospects of a media project. They have the potential to do
this by using standard and professional technologies, as well as an emerging sense of story or meaning, in addition to
the actors' performances. Editors are key heads of departments and they tend to take a supervisory role, being
responsible for assistant editors and trainees.
A great example of an editor includes Kirk Baxter; an award winning Australian editor who is well known for his editorial
skills in shows such as ‘Gone Girl’ and ‘The Curious Case of Benjamin Button’. In addition to Baxter, Tom Cross is also
an Academy Award, BAFTA and Independent Spirit Award winner, for Best Editing in ‘Whiplash’ and ‘Joy’. In addition he
won the Critics Choice Movie Award for Best Editing in the recent, well known and 4 star production, (IMDB) La La Land.
15. Job Role 4: Editor
To become an editor, there are many skills that you need, one of these begin that you need a keen eye for detail and a
critical mind, to be able to make constructive decisions. Patience and concentration is a key skill needed to become an
editor, this is because editing can be a long and critical process. In relation, organisational and time management
skills, including the ability to work under pressure and meet deadlines, are a few of the most important skills one would
need to become an editor. This is because editing a long yet accomplishing task, and a professional editor needs to
work quickly whilst making effective, critical and precise decisions, in time to present the most part of the completed
project to the director and for the producer to then approve it, making it the final cut. Communication skills in both a
written and oral form are key to being successful. To project your thoughts and ideas to other people as well as have
the ability to listen to others, when working well as past of a team - which are all key skills that are necessary, can
strongly aid a victorious media projects being create. As mentioned although editorial side of media production is long,
it is also very rewarding. To see a completed project that you and your team have edited together to show a project that
runs smoothly, is a great achievement. But to be able to work for long and continuous periods of time, you need a high
level of self-motivation, commitment and dedication to keep you going and enjoy the work that you do. Creativity
together with passion and interest in film and video editing is extremely important for an editor or someone who is
aspiring to become one. This is a key way in motivating someone to enjoy the work they do help them achieve to strive
16. Job Role 4: Editor
Similar to applying for the job role of a producer, to become an editor, you do not need a specific qualification but it is
important that you show commitment and determination to get into the industry. It is important that you demonstrate
the skills that are written above, and so it may be helpful to have a degree or HND in a film or media production course
that offers the opportunity to teach these skills. This can include a course in visual art, photography, film or television
or media and communication studies. Again to find courses awarded the ‘Creative Skillset Tick’ in media production
and related to an editorial role, can be found at
When working with software packages such as ‘Final Cut Pro’ that you may well need to familiarise yourself with, it is
advised to take a course in the latest technologies to learn the basics and how it works. Although they can be costly,
this experience can put you at an advantage when applying for a job. A postgraduate qualification isn’t essential to
have to become an editor, but there are relevant courses that are available that will provide you with extra skills. Again
these skills, and the commitment and dedication shown to the course could help when competing against other
applicants for the same job.
17. Job Role 4: Editor
As mentioned, there are many places (and ways) in which media career opportunities arise and can be found. Similarly
to the advertisement of producer jobs in the media industry, editor roles and jobs can be found on the internet. By using
websites such as https://www.productionbase.co.uk/film-tv-jobs/3, those who wish to, are able to browse and apply
for jobs in the areas of media that interest them most. Production base offers a wide range of media related jobs
including job roles which are part of the pre production, production and post production of a project. In addition to
other forms of social media and hard copy advertisements, which as previously mentioned may sometimes enable you,
as the apprentice to start at the bottom and work your way up the industry, another website which is useful to find job
is https://www.filmandtvpro.com/uk. By signing up to Film and TV Pro, apprentices are able to search for and apply for
advertised jobs, which regard all forms of media careers including those such as an editor.
18. Job Role 4: Editor
Some key parts of information that a person should know before applying to be an editor includes that they will be
working closely with the director to craft the finished film. As continuously mentioned, working as part of a team, is a
really important part of the job. It can help to create an incredible prodction, that runs elegantly. Moreover, you may be
asked to run a team of assistants and trainees when dealing with big producions, therefore it is neccesary to have the
magangerial and confidence skills that were mentioned earlier. In addition, editing apprencites should be aware that a
major condition to the job role is that one will spend long hours in an editing suite. As mentioned the role of an editor
means spending hours on end editing in a room and creating perfection, and although it is a long process, it is also
extremely fullfilling. Although the hours tend to be regular office hours such as a 9-5 job, some employers may want an
editor to work around a 50 hour a week basis. The salary of an employed assistant editor for a television or post-
production studio ranges between £18,000 to £25,000. An experianced film or video editor could expect to earn
between £21,000 to £35,000. Finally, a senior level editor could potentially earn between £37,000 to £70,000 but this is
mainly available to senior editors working on big-budget projects.
19. Job Role 4: Editor
Once applying for a job in methods mentioned in the previous slide, once recruited for having relevant and outstanding
skills and qualifications, most editors will start at a lower paid level, and work their way up. One example of this as
mentioned is by an apprentice editor starting as a general runner for a production company. This is similar to a
producer. Once you progress in your job title and role, by working your way up, so will your salary.
Some production companies may use the same, trusted editors time after time, as they are guaranteed to get
incredible project outcomes, but the majority of editors will work as freelancers and will be paid on a contract basis.
This means that editors can be hired on a project to project premise, and may be self employed; rather than be
employed to a production company. Although this does mean that contracts can change, and so can pay, it does
enable to editor to be employed by different companies and for different projects - which can empower then to get a
wide range of editorial experience.
20. How do all of the Job Roles link?
One way in which the director links to all the other job roles is by the fact that the director works alongside every member of the
film production team, from the actors to the camera operators. They direct everyone, asking them to perform certain tasks or act
in a certain way. This is imperative as the director needs to instruct everyone else to ensure things are done the best way.
The Editor works closely with the Director in particular during post production, this is because using teamwork - which is one of
the key skills that an editor needs to be successful, they refine the editing presented by the post production team. To ensure that
the story flows effortlessly from beginning to end, each shot is carefully chosen by the editor and edited into a series of scenes;
this is what creates the film or media project. By working with the Director before shooting begins, they together can decide how
to maximise the potential of the project.
In addition an editor will also work closely with the producer during post production, because they too will help in the consultation
of how they would like the film to look and run. Once checked by the director, the producer must give approval, until they achieve
picture lock or Fine Cut. This is the process whereby the Director and/or Executive Producer give final approval of the edited
media. Similarly the screenwriter plays an important part in the editing process, as they help to decide what order the shots will go
in, to ensure the audience understands the meaning and/ or storyline of the media project - considering they are the ones who
wrote the script, consisting of details such as cuts, fade in, fade outs and scene changes.