• At the end of the session, learners should be
• 1. Understand etymological meanings of religion
• 2. Identify key elements of religion
• 3. Enumerate types of religion
• 4. Differentiate religion and spirituality
• 5. Distinguish between god-centered and non-
god centered forms of sacredness
• 6. Describe forms of divine absolutes
• 8. Identify Approaches to the Study of Religions
• 8. Identify Reasons for Studying World Religions
• A Latin word (religare or religio)
that means “to tie or bind.”
• To bind humanity and the divine
• To bind humans into a
community that is bound with
• Re: again
• Lig: to join
This origin suggests that there was
unity between human and the
divine, and religion is the way for
humans to rejoin or re-establish
• A social institution that involves
a unified system of beliefs and
practices that recognize the
• Sacred: things that set apart from
society as extraordinary, inspiring
awe, and deserving of reverence.
• Profane: the mundane everyday
parts of life.
• Rituals: forms of symbolic practice
that highlights faith.
a. Refers to a set of beliefs
that is both coherent and
a.1. coherent: interrelated
(the beliefs in a system
influence or affect one
a.2 comprehensive: accounts
for a wide range of
Mental states that advance claims or knowledge about the
world, and are expressible in the forms of statements.
Ex. Belief in
belief in god
Belief in the
Refers to assertions, claims, or thoughts about things that are
held to be true.
1.1. Beliefs (coherent and comprehensive)
2. Spiritual World
a. Refers to the transcendental world (outside
the physical or the natural).
b. Is known or accessed not by means of
scientific methods, but by visions, revelations,
and mystical expressions (faith-based)
c. It opposes materialism (the belief that
reality is just physical, or that the real world is
the world that is known through the methods
a. Inherent sacredness
- spiritual in nature
- it has value on its own (or has value by
ex. God/s, souls, holy spirit
b. Derived sacredness
- the value is derived from something
that has inherent sacredness.
ex. Symbols, statues, relics, scrolls,
4. Ethical Codes
- guidelines concerning how
humans ought to relate to the
divine, treat one another, behave
towards one another, God, gods,
ad revered teachers.
- shared by community of
believers, involves an
consisting of a hierarchy of
6. Sacred Writings
a. Contain the main teachings or
doctrines, central stories, ethical
codes, and prophecies.
Tanach (Jewish Bible)
7. Central Stories
- Creation stories
- Flood stories
- Stories of prophets
- ceremonies that re-enact sacred
stories, and various activities.
ex. Singing of Psalms
Can a person who goes to church
every Sunday be considered
Can a person who is spiritual be
What does it mean to be
religious? To be spiritual?
• Can refer to an ultimate or
immaterial reality; an inner path
enabling a person to discover
the essence of their being; or
the deepest values and
meanings by which people live
• It is distinct from institutional
A) HOLISTIC (FULLY
INTEGRATED VIEW TO LIFE),
(B) QUEST FOR MEANING
(INCLUDING THE PURPOSE
(C) QUEST FOR THE SACRED
(BELIEFS ABOUT GOD), AND
(D) SUGGESTS A SELF-
• An act of participation in a
communal practice and
interpretation of the divine
belief and worship.
RELIGION VERSUS SPIRITUALITY
• Latin religare: “to bind
• Organizes the collective
spiritual experiences of
group of people into
system of beliefs,
practices, and rituals
• Tradition, oral and written
• Latin spiritualitas: “breath”
• Broader concept than religion--
dynamic, personal, experiential
• Quest for meaning and
• Personal quest for answers to
ultimate questions about life,
• Gives one a sense of peace/joy
SPIRITUALITY gives the individual autonomy over his or
her interpretation of the soul or spirit, whereas
RELIGION implies participation in a communal practice
and interpretation of divine belief and worship.
It should be noted that many religious traditions contain a
“spiritual” element to them.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY
1. There are NO RULES to Spirituality
2. Spirituality is based only on love and not fear
3. Religion tells you the truth, Spirituality lets you
4. Religion tends to separate, Spirituality tends to
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY
4. Religion usually talks about punishment or
threat of hell, Spirituality only talks about
5. Spirituality encourages a person to walk his
own path and set a journey of enlightenment
COMPATIBILITY & INCOMPATIBILITY OF
SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGIOUSNESS
One can be spiritual and religious at the SAME TIME.
Spirituality is an essential component of religiousness such that
one cannot be religious without being spiritual in some way.
While there can be nonreligious spirituality and religiousness
involves more than spirituality, it can be maintained that
spirituality in the context of religious spirituality is essential to
There is a need to qualify that the kind of spirituality that is
essentially involved in religiousness is the religious kind.
Religiousness is substantive (substance-oriented) while
Spirituality is functional (function-oriented).
Substance refers to beliefs or doctrines or practices/rituals
while Functionality refers to the goals of uniting with the
sacred, living a meaningful life and having a harmonious
Religiousness is institutional and objective(communal
worship) while Spirituality is personal and
subjective (individual worship)
Religious persons express their faith in the context of
community or organized group while Spiritual
persons express their faith as individuals.
ALL RELIGION has truth in it and many people can be truly
beautiful souls and religious at the same time, but ultimately
anything that separates you or creates division is not good for your
soul and definitely not good for the GREATER GOOD of
Spirituality reminds us that we are NOT SEPARATE, there are NO
BORDERS, NO RACES and NO CULTURAL DIVIDES..