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Ports and Shipping Security
Mike Ircha, PhD, P.Eng.
Adjunct Research Professor, Carleton University
Professor Emeritus, University of New Brunswick
Senior Advisor, Association of Canadian Port Authorities
Introduction
Shipping underlies global economy:
• global economic growth: 3.5% in 2010
• world fleet: 1.3 billion DWT in 2010
- 60% increase from 2000 (container fleet: 264%)
Global container port throughput:
• 231,689 TEU in 2000
• 541,000 TEU in 2010 (234%)
Introduction
Container growth led to larger ships:
• post-Panamax ships (6,000+ TEU) now common
• Emma Maersk - largest ship, 14,800 TEU
• new build order for 18,000 TEU ships
Canadian ports essential for trade, handling:
• 280+ million tonnes, worth $162+ million
Canadian ports transship U.S. cargo creating a need
for complementary security programs
14 ircha
Maritime Security
Historically, piracy was a ship-to-ship attack for
cargo and passengers
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
• piracy - a universal crime, punishable in every
state
In 2010: 53 ships hijacked and 1,181 seafarers
captured in 445 attacks
Maritime Security
Terrorism undermined definition of piracy:
• 1985 hijackers of Achilles Lauro sought political
and religious goals
• IMO - 1988 Suppression of Unlawful Acts against
the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA):
- violence on board
- damaging or destroying a ship or cargo
- damaging navigation equipment
ISPS Code
September 11, 2001- demonstrated a clear need for
marine security
December 2002 – IMO added:
• new offences to SUA, and
• International Ship and Port Facility Security
(ISPS) Code to the International Convention for
the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
ISPS Code
ISPS Code included:
• mandatory requirements for governments, ports,
ships and shipping companies
• guidelines for developing multi-layered risk
assessment security plans
National governments:
• set security threat levels
• provide instructions and information on threats
• approve/certify security plans
ISPS Code
Ships and ports required to:
• develop nationally certified security plans
• designate ship and port security officers
• provide onboard equipment:
- security alert alarms
- GPS and ship ID number for long Range
Identification and Tracking (LRIT)
• ensure security awareness, access control, training
• provide communications to coordinate ship/port
response
ISPS Code
Port and ship security plans were to be in place by
July 1, 2004
IMO global ISPS compliance survey:
• ships - 86%, ports - 69% (2004)
• all major Canadian ports compliant
• by 2005, ports 97% and ships 90%+ compliant:
No noticeable disruption in world trade.
U.S. Maritime Security Response
“America’s ports have become more secure since 9/11. The
primary emphasis in port security has gone from preventing
cargo theft, to protecting people and facilities from terrorism.
That's a major shift.” (Kurt Nagle, AAPA, 2006)
U.S. went beyond ISPS Code:
• Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA)
• Container Security Initiative (CSI)
• Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism
(C-TPAT)
• Security and Accountability for Every Port Act
(SAFE)
U.S. Maritime Security Response
MTSA (2002):
• implemented ISPS Code
• established Area Maritime Security Committees
• undertook security plan vulnerability assessments
to ensure:
- security patrols
- restricted areas and access controls
- appropriate identification procedures (TWIC)
- presence of surveillance equipment
U.S. Maritime Security Response
Container Security Initiative (CSI) (2002):
• extended screening out to foreign ports
• electronic manifests 24 hours prior to loading
• U.S. Customs in foreign ports
• radiation and gamma/x-ray screening (about 5%)
• electronic seals
• Halifax, Montreal and Vancouver - 1st to join CSI
• 58 world ports participate
CSI containers not re-inspected on U.S. arrival
U.S. Maritime Security Response
Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-
TPAT) (2001):
• voluntary program to secure U.S. supply chains
• by 2008, some 8,150 companies enrolled
• joint private/public development:
- security criteria
- sharing best practices and procedures
• U.S. Customs teams visit partner/vendors
• parallel Canadian program
U.S. Maritime Security Response
Security and Accountability for Every Port Act
(SAFE) (2006):
• TWIC, CSI, C-TPAT
• interagency operational centers
• Port Security Grant Program:
- training, communication, equipment, facilities
• 100% container screen in foreign ports by 2009
- EU concluded SAFE costly, disrupts trade, and
doesn’t improve security
- technical problems led to an extension to 2014
Canadian Maritime Security Response
ISPS Code:
• Transport Canada lead department
• CPAs initially concerned about lack of TC guidance
• Marine Transportation Security Regulations (June
2004), currently under review to:
- address gaps, ambiguities, omissions
- clarify interpretations
- harmonize with partners (particularly with U.S.)
Canadian Maritime Security Response
Maritime Security Contribution Program (2004):
• $115 million for ports ($1.7 billion in U.S.)
• security initiatives include:
- fencing, CCTV cameras, equipment
- access control, restricted areas, secure
communications
• gamma/x-ray/radiation portals for containers
• $432 million to federal departments and agents:
- Marine Security Operations Centers
- on-water security presence, communications
Canadian Maritime Security Response
Marine Transportation Security Clearance Program
(2003):
• background checks for port workers
• controversial consultations, resulted in:
- risk-based criteria for specific duties
- smaller restricted areas
- independent appeal review mechanism
- minimum information for fair assessment
• need for national/international TWIC:
- sailor's shore leave
14 ircha
Gamma/X-Ray Image
Conclusion
Canada’s maritime sector has enhanced security:
• programs complement U.S. initiatives
• Transport Canada responsible for ISPS and other
marine security programs
Additional port security enhancements are needed:
• but added security must be balanced with efficient
trade flows
• further federal funding needed to remain
competitive with US counterparts

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14 ircha

  • 1. Ports and Shipping Security Mike Ircha, PhD, P.Eng. Adjunct Research Professor, Carleton University Professor Emeritus, University of New Brunswick Senior Advisor, Association of Canadian Port Authorities
  • 2. Introduction Shipping underlies global economy: • global economic growth: 3.5% in 2010 • world fleet: 1.3 billion DWT in 2010 - 60% increase from 2000 (container fleet: 264%) Global container port throughput: • 231,689 TEU in 2000 • 541,000 TEU in 2010 (234%)
  • 3. Introduction Container growth led to larger ships: • post-Panamax ships (6,000+ TEU) now common • Emma Maersk - largest ship, 14,800 TEU • new build order for 18,000 TEU ships Canadian ports essential for trade, handling: • 280+ million tonnes, worth $162+ million Canadian ports transship U.S. cargo creating a need for complementary security programs
  • 5. Maritime Security Historically, piracy was a ship-to-ship attack for cargo and passengers UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) • piracy - a universal crime, punishable in every state In 2010: 53 ships hijacked and 1,181 seafarers captured in 445 attacks
  • 6. Maritime Security Terrorism undermined definition of piracy: • 1985 hijackers of Achilles Lauro sought political and religious goals • IMO - 1988 Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA): - violence on board - damaging or destroying a ship or cargo - damaging navigation equipment
  • 7. ISPS Code September 11, 2001- demonstrated a clear need for marine security December 2002 – IMO added: • new offences to SUA, and • International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
  • 8. ISPS Code ISPS Code included: • mandatory requirements for governments, ports, ships and shipping companies • guidelines for developing multi-layered risk assessment security plans National governments: • set security threat levels • provide instructions and information on threats • approve/certify security plans
  • 9. ISPS Code Ships and ports required to: • develop nationally certified security plans • designate ship and port security officers • provide onboard equipment: - security alert alarms - GPS and ship ID number for long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) • ensure security awareness, access control, training • provide communications to coordinate ship/port response
  • 10. ISPS Code Port and ship security plans were to be in place by July 1, 2004 IMO global ISPS compliance survey: • ships - 86%, ports - 69% (2004) • all major Canadian ports compliant • by 2005, ports 97% and ships 90%+ compliant: No noticeable disruption in world trade.
  • 11. U.S. Maritime Security Response “America’s ports have become more secure since 9/11. The primary emphasis in port security has gone from preventing cargo theft, to protecting people and facilities from terrorism. That's a major shift.” (Kurt Nagle, AAPA, 2006) U.S. went beyond ISPS Code: • Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) • Container Security Initiative (CSI) • Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) • Security and Accountability for Every Port Act (SAFE)
  • 12. U.S. Maritime Security Response MTSA (2002): • implemented ISPS Code • established Area Maritime Security Committees • undertook security plan vulnerability assessments to ensure: - security patrols - restricted areas and access controls - appropriate identification procedures (TWIC) - presence of surveillance equipment
  • 13. U.S. Maritime Security Response Container Security Initiative (CSI) (2002): • extended screening out to foreign ports • electronic manifests 24 hours prior to loading • U.S. Customs in foreign ports • radiation and gamma/x-ray screening (about 5%) • electronic seals • Halifax, Montreal and Vancouver - 1st to join CSI • 58 world ports participate CSI containers not re-inspected on U.S. arrival
  • 14. U.S. Maritime Security Response Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C- TPAT) (2001): • voluntary program to secure U.S. supply chains • by 2008, some 8,150 companies enrolled • joint private/public development: - security criteria - sharing best practices and procedures • U.S. Customs teams visit partner/vendors • parallel Canadian program
  • 15. U.S. Maritime Security Response Security and Accountability for Every Port Act (SAFE) (2006): • TWIC, CSI, C-TPAT • interagency operational centers • Port Security Grant Program: - training, communication, equipment, facilities • 100% container screen in foreign ports by 2009 - EU concluded SAFE costly, disrupts trade, and doesn’t improve security - technical problems led to an extension to 2014
  • 16. Canadian Maritime Security Response ISPS Code: • Transport Canada lead department • CPAs initially concerned about lack of TC guidance • Marine Transportation Security Regulations (June 2004), currently under review to: - address gaps, ambiguities, omissions - clarify interpretations - harmonize with partners (particularly with U.S.)
  • 17. Canadian Maritime Security Response Maritime Security Contribution Program (2004): • $115 million for ports ($1.7 billion in U.S.) • security initiatives include: - fencing, CCTV cameras, equipment - access control, restricted areas, secure communications • gamma/x-ray/radiation portals for containers • $432 million to federal departments and agents: - Marine Security Operations Centers - on-water security presence, communications
  • 18. Canadian Maritime Security Response Marine Transportation Security Clearance Program (2003): • background checks for port workers • controversial consultations, resulted in: - risk-based criteria for specific duties - smaller restricted areas - independent appeal review mechanism - minimum information for fair assessment • need for national/international TWIC: - sailor's shore leave
  • 21. Conclusion Canada’s maritime sector has enhanced security: • programs complement U.S. initiatives • Transport Canada responsible for ISPS and other marine security programs Additional port security enhancements are needed: • but added security must be balanced with efficient trade flows • further federal funding needed to remain competitive with US counterparts