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language, a system of conventional spoken, manual (signed), or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves.

language, a system of conventional spoken, manual (signed), or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves.


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Language (1)[1].pptx

  1. 1. Group 01 Presentation Presented to: Mr. Muhammad Asad Javed
  2. 2. Content:  Language development  What is language?  How is it different from speech?  Age ranges  Factors of language  Variations in language  Language diversity  Immigrant education  Culture and Diversity
  3. 3. What is Language?  Language is interconnected with “Culture”  Culture create words for the concept  Children develop language by trying to make sense of what they hear, looking for patterns and making up rules  Reward and correction aids in helping the development of language
  4. 4. Language a basic instinct?
  5. 5.  We take the process of learning language for granted it seems like a basic instinct like breathing or blinking  In fact it is the most complex ability that a human being will ever master  Language is a communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of signals, such as voice, sound, gestures or written symbols  Language is an instinct driven by specifically human evolutionary adaptations
  6. 6. Many psychologists disagree  Language does not emerge from a unique instinct but operation of general processes of  Evolution  Cognition  Social processes  And facts about the human body
  7. 7.  Many factors plays an important role in language development  Biological  Cultural  Experiential
  8. 8. How language is different from speech?  Speech is the sound of spoken language and includes the formation of a sound, the nature of the sound quality and the rhythm and flow of the sound  However language is the words we use and how we use them to share ideas and get what we want  Everyone enjoys hearing their child cooing or forming raspberry sounds. But did you know how important those “simple” sounds are? From infancy, children explore their mouths and begin to make sounds, that eventually become recognizable speech sounds, and then, speech sounds build to develop into language. The connection is obvious but there is a difference:  Speech is the “sound” of spoken language and Language is the “words” we use and how we use them to share ideas
  9. 9. Age range and milestones of language development:  2-3 years: identifies body parts call self “me” instead of name, uses short sentences, matches 3-4 colors, knows big and little, likes to hear same story repeated, form some plurals, answer “where” questions  We can encourage language development by playing simple games, repeat new words over and over, describe what you are doing, have the child deliver simple messages for you, show them you understand what they are saying, expand what the child says e.g. “More Juice” say “You want more juice?”
  10. 10.  3-4 years: can tell a story, sentence length of 4-5 words, vocabulary about 1000 words, knows last name, several nursery rhymes  To encourage language development at this age you might talk about how objects are same of different, help the child to tell stories by using books and Pictures, encourage play with other children  4-5 years: uses past tense, vocabulary about 1,500 words, identifies colors, shapes asks many questions like why? and who?  Help the child sort objects and things to encourage language development at this age, teach them how to use telephone, let them help you plan activities for holidays, let them tell and make up stories for you
  11. 11.  5-6 years: average 6 year old has vocabulary of about 10,000 words, they can define objects by their use, knows addresses, understands same and different  We can encourage their language development by praising the child when they talk about feelings, thoughts, hopes, fears, sing songs, rhymes, talk to them as you would to an adult  At every age the key to encourage language development is to listen and show your pleasure when the child talks to you, carry on the conversation, ask questions, read books to them
  12. 12. Factors of language
  13. 13.  Some students learn a new language more quickly and easily than others.  some language learners are successful by virtue of their sheer determination, hard work and persistence. However there are other crucial factors influencing success that are largely beyond the control of the learner.  These factors can be broadly categorized as internal and external.
  14. 14. There are two main factors of language  Internal factors  External factors
  15. 15. Internal factors Internal factors, known as individual difference factors are learners  Age  Personality introvert learner and extrovert learner  Motivation Intrinsic , extrinsic
  16. 16.  Cognition  Native language for example, a Dutch child will learn English more quickly than a Japanese child.
  17. 17. External factors
  18. 18. External factors are those which characterize the particular language learning situation.  Curriculum  Instruction  Culture and Status
  19. 19.  Access to Native speaker Native speaker is someone who speaks a language with native proficiency. They have learned that language from childhood or it's the first language they could speak.
  20. 20. Diversity in language Development Dual-language Development:  Children learning two languages simultaneously when they are growing up. Additive Bilingualism:  If you mastered your own first language, then added a second or third language  You kept your first language and added another
  21. 21. Conti…  If family members and community value’s childes first language then child keeps his/her first language when a second language is learned  But if a child experiences a discrimination against the first ;language he/she may ;leave the first language behind as proficiency is gained in a new language  Immigrants are more likely to experience
  22. 22. What is subtractive bilingualism?
  23. 23. Conti…  If you are exposed to two languages from birth( bilingual children) reach the language milestone in both languages on the same schedule as monolingual children  But overtime, these children can become fully and equally bilingual if the dual-language exposure:  Beings early in life(before age 5)  occurs across a wide and rich range of context  Is systematic, consistent and sustained in home and community
  24. 24. What Research says about Brain and Bilingualism?
  25. 25. Second-Language Learning  When and how should you learn a second language?  You must have to remember the distinction between critical periods for learning and sensitive periods, when we are especially responsive to learning.  The earlier people learn a second language the more their pronunciation is near native.  This is because from birth to 4 months, infants can discriminate at all the basic sound building blocks from any of the world’s 6,000 or so languages.  After about 14 months they lose their capability  For adolescent's it is almost impossible to learn a new language without speaking it with an accent
  26. 26. Benefits of Bilingualism  Bilinguals are correlated with increased cognitive abilities such as 1. Concept formation 2. Creativity 3. Theory of mind 4. Cognitive flexibility 5. Attention and executive functioning  Bilinguals have Advanced metalinguistic understanding  Much better phoneme awareness skills
  27. 27. Language loss Heritage language  It is the language spoken in student’s home or by older relatives when the larger society outside the home’s speak different language.  Rather than losing one language to gain another, the goal should be Balanced bilingualism being equally fluent in both languages.
  28. 28. Singed Languages  People who can communicate in both a spoken and a signed language or in two different signed languages and considered bilinguals ( Petitto, 2009)  There are number of other parallels between spoken languages and other signed languages.  Many signed languages are used around the world:  American sign language(ASL)  Signed English (United States, Ireland, New Zeeland, Australia, Great Britain)  In fact, research with children learning a signed language and a spoken language from infancy demonstrate that “being exposed to two languages from birth and in particular, being exposed to a signed language and a spoken language from birth does not cause a child to be delayed or confused. (Petitto & Kovelman, 2003
  29. 29. Contextualized & Academic Language  Academic language is the wide range of language used in elementary and secondary school and universities.  Academic language includes the general words and concepts used in many concepts such as: 1. Analyze 2. Evaluate 3. Summary 4. Factor in statistics 5. Factor the equation  Academic language is associated with abstract, higher-order, complex concepts(Vogt, Echevarria & short 2010).
  30. 30. Conti…  Proficiency in a second language that has two aspects: 1. Face-to-face communication (takes 2-3 years) 2. Academic school of language such as reading and grammar (takes 5-7 years)
  31. 31. Immigrant students
  32. 32. Four students profiles:  Balanced bilinguals: These students speak, read, and write well both in their first language and is English. They have the academic knowledge needed to continue learning in both languages and the skills and attitudes to do so  Monolingual/literate students: These students are literate in their native language (at or above grade level when working in their native language), but speak limited English
  33. 33. Conti..  Monolingual/preliterate students: These students are not literate. They may not read or write in their native language or they may have very limited literacy skills, they speak limited English. Limited  Bilingual: These students can converse well in both languages, but for some reason they have trouble learning academically. They may have underlying challenges such as learning disabilities or emotional problems. Further testing often is helpful to diagnose problems.
  34. 34. Generation 1.5  The term 1.5 generation or 1.5G refers to individuals who immigrate to a new country before or during their early teens. They earn the label the “1.5 generation”  Ear learners
  35. 35. Conversational language  Using appropriate language, listening ,understanding idioms.  2-3 years =good skills  5-10 years = mastery
  36. 36. How to Promote language learning?
  37. 37.  Provide structures, frameworks, scaffolds, and strategies  Teach relevant background knowledge and key vocabulary concepts  Give focused and useful feedback  Keep students involved and engaged  Shoe authentic respect for students, culture and language
  38. 38. listening speaking Reading Writing Successful learning
  39. 39. Myth Truth Takes a little time 2-3 years for oral 5-7 for academic language All bilingual maintain both languages It takes a great effort to maintain high level skills in both languages Needs to speaks l2 at home in Oder to learn fast Both languages in many contexts
  40. 40. Errors  In first year
  41. 41. What is culture?  Culture is a term that refers to a large and diverse set of mostly intangible aspects of social life.  culture consists of the values, beliefs, systems of language, communication, and practices that people share in common and that can be used to define them as a collective.
  42. 42. What is diversity?  Diversity is the existence of variations of different characteristics in a group of people.  These characteristics could be everything that makes us unique, such as our cognitive skills and personality traits, along with the things that shape our identity. Example  age,  Gender  Religion  sexual orientation  cultural background
  43. 43. What do you understand about cultural diversity in education setting?
  44. 44. Students may differ in:  Race  Ethnic and religious group  Language  Economic status  Family background
  45. 45. Do you agree that two students are the same?
  46. 46. Multicultural education  According to Banks and Banks (1995): Multicultural education is designed to increase educational equity for all students.  How Cultural Norms in Education Differ Around the World?  Japan: Parents take teachers out  United Kingdom: Students who wear slippers have better grades  Korea and Japan: Napping during school is encouraged
  47. 47. How socioeconomic status SES effects?
  48. 48.  Psychological health  Physical health  Education  Academic achievement  Career aspiration
  49. 49. Successful teachers  Provide guided or coached practice of what is being learned  Provide help in the organization of students learning  Reward approved and appropriate behaviour  Teaches students the correct procedures to every function in the class
  50. 50. Thank you