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### Tools Of Data Collection.pptx

• 3. oTools for Data Collection, oData Analysis And oData Presentation
• 4. 01 Questionnare Data collection Tool Table of contents 02 Interview Data collection Tool 03 Types of Data Analysis 04 Types of Data Presentation Data Presentation Data Analysis
• 6. Research data is any information that has been collected, observed, generated or created to validate original research findings. Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic way that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. Data Collection
• 7. Questionnaire Audio and Video Recordings Interviews Tools for Data Collection
• 8. Questionnare “A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.” (Wikipedia) It’s a set of carefully planned written questions related to a particular research topic useful to collect data for one’s research project.
• 9. Questionnare “A questionnaire can be used to assess: -Attitudes -Opinions -Interests -Values Advantages •Less expensive • Can assess a large group quickly + Wide area coverage •Easy to analyze if constructed quickly Disadvantages •Some people give answers they think you want (poor response) •Not very good for getting an in-depth information
• 11. 01 Structured Questionnaire Close ended/ Structured Questionnare includes multiple choice questions in which a respondent has to select one or many responses from a given list of options. Such questionnaire requires limited information.
• 13. Check-list type Questions Dichotomous Questions -It gives 2 Choices oYes/No o Agree/Disagree Do you think there should be a semester break after every semester in this University? Yes l No -Give responents options -May ask for single or multiple answers Example: Which Subject you like the most? a) Stylistics b)RM c) Phonology d) others
• 14. Example ● Which activities do you like to do in your spare time? Place “1” next to the activity that you like to do the most, “2” by the next favorite, and so on to the least favorite.  Watch TV _  Read _  Visit Friends _  Surf the internet _  Shop _ - Respondents are supposed to place things in order Rank Order Questions
• 15. Example: My students are motivated to learn. - Also called a “Likert Scale”. -It gives a statement and asks to choose your response along a scale Rating Scale Questions Strongly Agree Agree Not Sure Disagree Strongly Disagree
• 16. 02 Unstructured Questionnaire Open ended/unstructured Questionnare includes such questions that allow the respondents to write their thoughts and ideas freely. That are without a predetermined set of responses. It calls for free response from the repondents.
• 17. Open ended/Unstructured Questionnaire It helps collect qualitative data in a questionnaire where the respondents can provide a detailed response with little to no restrictions. It is used to explore topic in-depth. They are time consuming to summarize and analyze.
• 18. Complete open Questions Open ended Preference Questions Example: oState 3 subjects you prefer the most? -Why did you choose the subject English for your graduation? Give reason in the box.
• 19. 03 Combined/Semi- Structured Questionnaire Semi-Structured Questionnaire contains the items of both structured and unstructured questionnaire. It contains Multiple Choice Questions as well as open ended free questions. It usually follows the following sequence: a series of close ended questions; scales to ranks, concluded by open ended questions
• 21. Interview An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries. A person who is interviewed (who answers the questions during an interview) is called Interviewee. A person who takes the interview (who asks the questions during an interview) is called Interviewer.
• 23. Structured interview •This is known as formal interview which specifies for job interview. •These are based on structured Close Ended questions. •The questions are asked in a set or standarized order and the interviewer will not deviate from the interview scheduale or probe beyond the answers received.
• 25. Unstructured interview *These are known as informal interview. *These are flexible interview. *These are based on Open- Ended questions.
• 27. Semi-structured interview * Semi-structured interviews are a blend of structured and unstructured types of interviews.
• 28. .
• 29. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interview ● Advantages: ● * Collect complete information with greater understanding. ● *We can introduce necessary changes in the interview schedule based on initial results( which is not possible in the case of questionnaire study or survey)
• 30. Disadvantages of Interview ● *Data analysis-especially when there is a lot of qualitative data. ● *Interviewing can be tiresome for large numbers of participants.
• 31. Audio and Video Recording Audio and Video recording are used in data collection to capture information. Both requires respondent’s permission.  Audio Recording: It is the recording of sound for the purpose of data collection. Audio data recording devices include tape recorders, cell phones, etc.  Video Recording: It is the visual recording of respondents’ image, behavior and overall personality. Its devices include digital cameras, cell phone cameras, etc.
• 33. Data Analysis in research method
• 34. ● Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data.  Three essential things take place during the data analysis process — the first data organization.  Summarization and categorization together contribute to becoming the second known method used for data reduction. It helps in finding patterns and themes in the data for easy identification and linking.  Third and the last way is data analysis – researchers do it in both top-down or bottom-up fashion. What is data analysis in research?
• 35. ● Every kind of data has a rare quality of describing things after assigning a specific value to it. For analysis, you need to organize these values, processed and presented in a given context, to make it useful. Data can be in different forms; here are the primary data types. ● Quantitative data: Any data expressed in numbers of numerical figures are called quantitative data. This type of data can be distinguished into categories, grouped, measured, calculated, or ranked. ● Example: questions such as age, rank, cost, length, weight, scores, etc. everything comes under this type of data. Types of data in research
• 36. Qualitative data: When the data presented has words and descriptions, then we call it qualitative data. Although you can observe this data, it is subjective and harder to analyze data in research, especially for comparison. Example: Quality data represents everything describing taste, experience, texture, or an opinion that is considered quality data. Categorical data: It is data presented in groups. However, an item included in the categorical data cannot belong to more than one group. Example: A person responding to a survey by telling his living style, marital status, smoking habit, or drinking habit comes under the categorical data. Types of data in research
• 37. ● Content Analysis: It is widely accepted and the most frequently employed technique for data analysis in research methodology. It can be used to analyze the documented information from text, images, and sometimes from the physical items. It depends on the research questions to predict when and where to use this method. ● Narrative Analysis: This method is used to analyze content gathered from various sources such as personal interviews, field observation, and surveys. The majority of times, stories, or opinions shared by people are focused on finding answers to the research questions. ● Discourse Analysis: Similar to narrative analysis, discourse analysis is used to analyze the interactions with people. Nevertheless, this particular method considers the social context under which or within which the communication between the researcher and respondent takes place. ● Grounded Theory: This theory is used when you want to explain why a particular phenomenon happened. Grounded theory is applied to study data about the host of similar cases occurring in different settings. When researchers are using this method, they might alter explanations or produce new ones until they arrive at some conclusion. Methods used for data analysis in qualitative research
• 38.  Researchers must have the necessary skills to analyze the data, Getting trained to demonstrate a high standard of research practice.  The primary aim of data research and analysis is to derive ultimate insights that are unbiased. Any mistake in or keeping a biased mind to collect data, selecting an analysis method, or choosing audience sample to draw a biased inference.  Usually, research and data analytics methods differ by scientific discipline; therefore, getting statistical advice at the beginning of analysis helps design a survey questionnaire, select data collection methods, and choose samples.  The motive behind data analysis in research is to present accurate and reliable data. As far as possible, avoid statistical errors, and find a way to deal with everyday challenges like outliers, missing data, data altering, data mining, or developing graphical representation. Considerations in research data analysis
• 39. The first stage in research and data analysis is to make it for the analysis so that the nominal data can be converted into something meaningful. Data preparation consists of the below phases. Phase I: Data Validation Data validation is done to understand if the collected data sample is per the pre-set standards, or it is a biased data sample again divided into four different stages. Fraud: To ensure an actual human being records each response to the survey or the questionnaire Screening: To make sure each participant or respondent is selected or chosen in compliance with the research criteria Procedure: To ensure ethical standards were maintained while collecting the data sample Completeness: To ensure that the respondent has answered all the questions in an online survey.. Data Analysis in Quantitative Research
• 40. Phase II: Data Editing Procedure: To ensure ethical standards were maintained while collecting the data sample Completeness: To ensure that the respondent has answered all the questions in an online survey.. Phase III: Data Coding Out of all three, this is the most critical phase of data preparation associated with grouping and assigning values to the survey responses. If a survey is completed with a 1000 sample size, the researcher will create an age bracket to distinguish the respondents based on their age. Thus, it becomes easier to analyze small data buckets rather than deal with the massive data pile.
• 41. ● After the data is prepared for analysis, researchers are open to using different research and data analysis methods to derive meaningful insights. For sure, statistical techniques are the most favored to analyze numerical data. The method is again classified into two groups. First, ‘Descriptive Statistics’ used to describe data. Second, ‘Inferential statistics’ that helps in comparing the data. ● Descriptive statistics ● This method is used to describe the basic features of versatile types of data in research. It presents the data in such a meaningful way that pattern in the data starts making sense. Nevertheless, the descriptive analysis does not go beyond making conclusions. The conclusions are again based on the hypothesis researchers have formulated so far Methods used for data analysis in quantitative research
• 42. ● Data analysis and qualitative data research work a little differently from the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process. Hence it is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. ● Finding patterns in the qualitative data ● Although there are several ways to find patterns in the textual information, a word-based method is the most relied and widely used global technique for research and data analysis. Notably, the data analysis process in qualitative research is manual. Here the researchers usually read the available data and find repetitive or commonly used words. ● For example, while studying data collected from African countries to understand the most pressing issues people face, researchers might find “food” and “hunger” are the most commonly used words and will highlight them for further analysis. Data analysis in qualitative research
• 58. Thanks Do you have any questions?
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