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Anti-herpes virus

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Anti-herpes virus

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Anti-herpes virus

  1. 1. Antiviral drugs S. Parasuraman, M.Pharm., Ph.D., Associate Professor Faculty of Pharmacy AIMST University, Malaysia
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • 1.7.1 Anti-Herpes Virus At the end of this session, the student would be able to discuss the: – list drugs used for the management of herpes virus infection. (CLO1) – describe the mechanism of action, pharmacological actions, pharmacokinetic features, therapeutic uses, adverse effects, interaction and contraindications of Anti-Herpes virus drugs. (CLO1)
  3. 3. Antiviral Drugs • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. They lack both a cell wall and a cell membrane, and they do not carry out metabolic processes. • Viruses use much of the host’s metabolic machinery, and few drugs are selective enough to prevent viral replication without injury to the infected host cells.
  4. 4. Antiviral Drugs • Anti-Herpes virus: Idoxuridine, Trifluridine, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir, Ganciclovir, Valganciclovir, Cidofovir, Foscarnet, Fomivirsen • Anti-Influenza virus: Amantadine, Rimantadine, Oseltamivir, Zanamivir • Anti-Hepatitis virus/Nonselective antiviral drugs – Primarily for hepatitis B: Lamivudine, Adefovir dipivoxil, Tenofovir – Primarily for hepatitis C: Ribavirin, Interferon α
  5. 5. Antiviral Drugs • Anti-Retrovirus: – Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): Zidovudine (AZT), Didanosine, Stavudine, Lamivudine, Abacavir, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir (Nt RTI) – Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delavirdine – Protease inhibitors: Ritonavir, Atazanavir, Indinavir, Nelfinavir, Saquinavir, Amprenavir, Lopinavir – Entry (Fusion) inhibitor: Enfuvirtide – CCR5 receptor inhibitor: Maraviroc – Integrase inhibitor: Raltegravir
  6. 6. Anti-Herpes Virus Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), it is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Herpes Simplex Virus Structure Genital Herpes
  7. 7. Anti-Herpes Virus • At the end of this session, the student would be able to: – list drugs used for the management of herpes virus infection. (CLO1) – describe the mechanism of action, pharmacological actions, pharmacokinetic features, therapeutic uses, adverse effects, interaction and contraindications of Anti- Herpes virus drugs. (CLO1)
  8. 8. Herpes Virus Herpetic gingivostomatitis Herpes labialis Herpes genitalis Herpes gladiatorum Herpesviral encephalitis Herpes esophagitis
  9. 9. Anti-Herpes Virus Anti-Herpes virus: Idoxuridine Trifluridine Acyclovir Valacyclovir Famciclovir Ganciclovir Valganciclovir Cidofovir Foscarnet Fomivirsen Herpes simplex virus is divided into two types: • HSV-1 causes primarily mouth, throat, face, eye, and central nervous system infections. • HSV-2 causes primarily anogenital infections Anti-Herpes virus active against the Herpes group of DNA viruses which include Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV), Epstein- Barr virus (EBV), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
  10. 10. Anti-Herpes Virus • Acyclovir : • Acyclovir is the prototypic antiherpetic therapeutic agent. • Acyclovir is active only against herpes group of viruses; Herpes simplex virus-1 is most sensitive followed by Herpes simplex virus-2 > varicella-zoster virus = Epstein–Barr virus, while Cytomegalovirus is practically not affected.
  11. 11. Anti-Herpes Virus • MOA: Acyclovir inhibits viral DNA synthesis
  12. 12. Anti-Herpes Virus • Pharmacokinetics: Acyclovir is administered by intravenous (IV), oral, or topical routes. The drug distributes well throughout the body, including the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Acyclovir is partially metabolized to an inactive product. Excretion into the urine occurs both by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.
  13. 13. Anti-Herpes Virus • Use of acyclovir: • Genital Herpes simplex (caused by type-2 virus) • Mucocutaneous H. simplex (caused by type-1 virus) • H. simplex encephalitis (type-1 virus) • H. simplex (type I) keratitis • H. simplex (type I) keratitis • Herpes zoster • Chickenpox
  14. 14. Anti-Herpes Virus • Valacyclovir: The valyl ester, valacyclovir, has greater oral bioavailability than acyclovir. it is the drug of choice in herpes zoster. • Famciclovir: It is an ester prodrug of a guanine nucleoside analogue penciclovir (the active metabolite of famciclovir). Famciclovir inhibits H. simplex, H. zoster but not acyclovir-resistant strains.
  15. 15. Thank you

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