Business Communication_Parakramesh Jaroli_Pacific University
1. Parakramesh Jaroli_MBA(Dual) I Sem
Business communication is communication that promotes a product, service,
marketing, or organization; relays information within a business; or functions as an official
statement from a company.
Communication is the flow of information and understanding from one person to
another at the same level or at different levels. It is a process which enables management to
allocate and supervise the work of the employees.
Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only
exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning.
“Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create
understanding in the minds of another, it involves a systematic and continuous process
of telling, listening and understanding.” --Allen Louis
Communication has been defined “As the transfer of information from one person to another
whether or not it elicits confidence.” --Koontz and O’Donell
“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons.” --George Terry
Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from
one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people. By using
the bridge of meaning a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding.”--Keith
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Nature of Business Communication
It is a process.
It is inevitable.
Communication could be intentional and unintentional.
Communication is systematic.
A two-way traffic.
Communication is a social process.
A dynamic process.
Communication involves interaction and transaction.
It is spiraling process.
It is contextual.
Needs proper understanding.
Leads achievement of the organizational objective.
It shares thoughts and ideas, which produce response.
It is the life blood of the business.
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Scope of Business Communication
The scope of communication includes:
Information Sharing :
To transmit information from a source to target individuals or groups.
Information can be:
- policies and rules
Changes and development in the organization.
Special rewards and awards.
Settlements with the union.
Major changes in the organization.
Give feedback to employees on their achievements
To the departments on their performance.
Higher management on the fulfillment of goals.
Information is transmitted to ensure that plans are being carried out according to the
original design. Communication helps to ensuring such control.
Information is power. One purpose of communication is to influence people.
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In many cases communication helps to solving problems.
Many meetings are held between the management and the unions on some issues to find
Alternative solutions may be held to solve a problem and evolve a consensus.
For arriving at a decision several kinds of communication are needed.
Facilitating Change :
Change can be brought about effectively by communication.
Group Building :
Communication helps in building relationships. If communication breaks down the group
Gate Keeping :
Communication helps to build linkages of the organization with the outside world.
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Importance of Business Communication
It brings people closer.
It saves time in any formal set up.
It breaks the barrier between individuals / groups.
It results in common understanding of any idea/ thought.
It adds to the knowledge base.
It removes many misunderstanding & misconceptions.
It can act as a means of entertainment (through Audio-visual means).
It can influence the actions of people.
It can change the attitude of people.
Facilitates Planning: Effective planning occurs when everyone responsible for it has
access to complete information affecting areas of planning.
Facilitates Decision Making: Quality of decisions largely depends on the quality of
information. Moreover effective communication system also helps in communicating
decisions to the person concerned.
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Importance of Effective Communication in the Modern Business
Communication is one of the most important facilitators of modern business. In its
broadest sense, the importance of modern business is to effect change, to influence, action
toward the welfare of the organization. It is essential in business, govt., military
organizations, hospitals, schools, committees’ homes; anywhere people deal with one
another. The importance of communication in modern business may be stated follows:
1. Basis of effective leadership: Communication transmits the leader’s idea and
opinions to the followers. Think about political leaders who lead and guide the
people for the betterment of the society or to fulfill any specific purpose.
2. Basis for the movement of ideas and information: It helps to move ideas and
information from one person to another person. It can develop a chain of
understanding through two-way communication.
3. Provision for data for decision making: it helps the manager to obtain data for
decision making, to assist in searching problem, and to know what action are needed.
Therefore, communication acts like a storehouse where data, idea or information are
available to deal with.
4. Smooth and efficient functioning: It helps in all managerial function, such as
planning, organizing, directing, motivating and controlling. It server as a fuel to
managerial operation and function. Therefore, it makes a chain between past, present
and future and helps for effective performance.
5. Delegation of authority and responsibility: It helps in decentralization of authority
and delegation of responsibility to right person. Through downward communication,
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superior delegates authority and responsibility to the subordinates. Proper assignment
of job and division labor calls for better output.
6. Increase in managerial competence: It helps to improve managerial competence
and efficiency. Manager use various techniques or tools to command or control over
resources. Continues tracking is possible in terms of communication.
7. Minimization of cost and time: Efficient communication attempts to minimize time
and cost in case of exchange of information. If any message is required to be
communicated to thousands of people then we have to think about Newspaper,
Television, or Radio which are strong media for communicating any message around
8. Basis information: It acts as a basis of information to each department and helps the
employees to perform their respective jobs. So, any action to be taken requires a basis
and communication between organization or within organization provides such basis.
9. Fulfillment of Organizational objectives: It fulfills the organizational objectives by
co-operation and co-ordination among the managerial and working staffs.
10. Efficient Human Resources Management: Human resources are recruited, trained
and motivated through effective communication. Recruitment involves circular by
the organization towards general people. Then interested candidates apply and on the
basis of their merit, they are recruited by the respective organization and
transformation according to their skillness. The whole activities involve verbal or
11. Creation of Employee motivation and moral: Managers provide incentives to
motivate their subordinates and maintain strong invisible chain. Motivation is based
on situation and therefore what should be the way of motivation required judgement
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by the superior. The perfect motivation towards right person involves effective
12. Establishment of public Relation: The management can create cordial relations
with govt. customers, creditors, shareholders, regulatory bodies, trade unions and the
society as a whole. It ensures sound relation
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1. Sender / Encoder: Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender
makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and
produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training
for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an
organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge
of the sender have a great impact on the message.
2. Encoding: Encoding is the process where the information you would like to
communicate gets transferred into a form to be sent and decoded by the receiver.
3. Channel: Channels are the way you convey your message. These channels include
verbal such as telephone, and face-to-face conversations as well as non-verbal such
as e-mail and text messaging. Each individual channel has its strengths and
weaknesses in terms of communicating.
4. Decoding: Decoding is on the receiving end of communication. This stage is just as
important as encoding. Communication can go downhill at this stage if the receiver is
not practicing active listening skills or if they do not possess enough information to
accurately decode the message.
5. Receiver: Receiver is a person for whom the message is intended or aimed. The
degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various
factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the
reliance of encoder on decoder.
6. Feedback: Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits
the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming
the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal
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(through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written
form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
As stated above that the formal communication network has to do with operational
communication. In an effective organization communication flows in the following
1. Downward Communication: This is the flow of communication form people at
higher level to those the lower level in the organizational hierarchy. This kind of
communication implies the authoritarian structure of an organization. It is used for
purpose as giving instruction-providing information about policies and procedures
giving feedback about performance and indoctrinating or motivating. The kinds of
media used for downward oral communication include instruction, speeches,
meetings, the telephone and even the grapevine. Downward written communication
takes the form of memos, letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy statements, manuals,
and so on.
2. Upward communication: This type of communication travels from subordinates to
superiors and continues up the organizational hierarchy. Unfortunately, managers in
the communication chain who filter the information- especially unfavorable messages
to their superiors, often hinder this flow. Upward flow of communication is also
useful in providing ideas for improvement of activities and information about
feelings on work. Upward communication is primarily non-directive and is usually
found in participate and democratic organization environment. Techniques for
upward communication-besides the chain of command – are suggestion system,
appeal and grievance, complaint system, counseling sessions, joint setting of
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objective, the grapevine, group meetings, the practice of open-door policy, moral
questionnaire, exit interviews and attitude survey. In recent years many companies
have also set up system that give employees a confidential way to get a message to
top management outside the normal chain of command. If an employee has a
problem or an idea. Effective upward communication requires an environment in
which subordinates feel free to communicate.
3. Crosswise Communication: The form of communication includes the horizontal
flow of information (among people on the same or similar organizational levels and
the diagonal flow of information (among persons at different organizational levels
who have no direct reporting relationships. This type of communication is used to
speed information flow to improve understanding and to coordinate activities for the
achievement of organizational objective. A great deal of communication does not
follow the organizational hierarchy but cuts across the chain of command. As
organizations become more diversified and individual tasks become more specialized
the need for communication increases. The organizational environment provides
many occasions for crosswise oral communication. This kind of communication
occurs when, individual of different departments are grouped into task tem or project
organization. In addition crosswise written communication keeps people informed
about the organization. These written forms include the company newspaper,
magazine, or bulletin boards. Because information may not follow the normal chain
of command, proper safeguard need to be taken to prevent potential problems.
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The Informal Communication
Formal organizational chart illustrates how information is supposed to flow. However
in actual practice, chart cannot prevent people from talking with one another. In the
management language it is called as “grapevine”. The informal network is not a single
network but a complex relationship of smaller networks consisting of groups of people. The
relationship is made even more complex by the fact that these people may belong to more
than one group and that group membership and the links between and among groups are
continually changing. As people go about their work they have casual conversations with
their friends in office. Although many of the conversations deal with personal matters,
business matters are also discussed. In fact 80% of the information that travels along the
grapevine pertains to business. Grapevine usually carries far more information than the
formal communication system. Keith Davis states: “People cannot resist the grapevine. It
offers the latest news and usually that news is reasonably accurate. More of the news is about
people, such as their friendship, conflicts and experiences. Since formal communication
carries very little of this type of information we must listen to the grapevine in order to be
fully informed. In addition much of the grapevine occurs by person-to-person contact which
helps us become a part of social groups and receive social satisfaction.”
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Types of Communication-face
Public lectures, etc.
Dynamics of effective face to face communication are.
1. In face to face communication at least two individuals (receiver and sender) should
be physically and mentally present at the place of communication.
2. In face to face communication there should be proper encoding with most appropriate
and pleasing words by sender.
3. In face to face communication there should be proper decoding by the receiver after
receiving the message.
4. In face to face communication there should be some (Partial / full) response or
feedback. Since it is direct, great care should be taken in the selection of the words
which should be appropriate and polite.
In today's business world, much of our communication takes place via electronic
methods such as email and text messages. Often, employees report that it is hard to
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understand the context or meaning behind a message that is received electronically. In
person, this is often easier to do because of visual cues from facial expressions.
Facial expressions include such actions as smiling, frowning, eye rolling, eye contact,
scowling, and appearing bored or interested. Other facial expressions might indicate interest
or excitement or even shock, like opening one's eyes or mouth widely. Winking might
indicate that we are joking about the remark we made, or flirting with the person to whom
we are speaking! Raising our eyebrows often indicates that we are surprised or do not
believe the statement we are hearing.
The interpretations we assign to these facial expressions vary greatly, so we must be
careful when using them to prepare ourselves for the way in which they may be assigned
meaning. Many of the facial expressions we make are ones we are accustomed to from our
own cultural, familial, and business backgrounds. Because we understand facial expressions
differently based on our background and experience, we can easily misunderstand the intent
behind such nonverbal cues. Eye contact is an example of a facial expression that can easily
be misunderstood. Different cultures assign different meanings to eye contact. In America a
moderate level of eye contact is expected in business dealings, while in other countries such
as Libya, eye contact between men and women is impolite.
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Teleconferencing means meeting through a telecommunications medium. It is a generic
term for linking people between two or more locations by electronics. There are at least six
types of teleconferencing: audio, audiographic, computer, video, business television (BTV),
and distance education. The methods used differ in the technology, but common factors
contribute to the shared definition of teleconferencing:
Use a telecommunications channel
Link people at multiple locations
Interactive to provide two-way communications
Dynamic to require users' active participation
Types of Teleconferences:-
1. Audio Teleconference: Voice-only; sometimes called conference calling.
Interactively links people in remote locations via telephone lines. Audio bridges tie
all lines together. Meetings can be conducted via audio conference. Preplanning is
necessary which includes naming a chair, setting an agenda, and providing printed
materials to participants ahead of time so that they can be reviewed.
Distance learning can be conducted by audio conference. In fact, it is one of the most
underutilized, yet cost effective methods available to education. Instructors should
receive training on how to best utilize audio conferences to augment other forms of
2. Audiographics Teleconference: Uses narrowband telecommunications channels to
transmit visual information such as graphics, alpha-numerics, documents, and video
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pictures as an adjunct to voice communication. Other terms are desk-top computer
conferencing and enhanced audio. Devices include electronic tablets/boards, freeze-
frame video terminals, integrated graphics systems (as part of personal computers),
Fax, remote-access microfiche and slide projectors, optical graphic scanners, and
voice/data terminals. Audiographics can be used for meetings and distance learning.
3. Computer Teleconference: Uses telephone lines to connect two or more computers
and modems. Anything that can be done on a computer can be sent over the lines. It
can be synchronous or asynchronous. An example of an asychronous mode is
electronic mail. Using electronic mail (E-Mail), memos, reports, updates, newsletters
can be sent to anyone on the local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).
Items generated on computer which are normally printed and then sent by facsimile
can be sent by E-Mail.
Computer conferencing is an emerging area for distance education. Some institutions
offer credit programs completely by computer. Students receive texts and workbooks
via mail. Through common files assigned to a class which each student can assess,
teachers upload syllabi, lectures, grades and remarks. Students download these files,
compose their assignment and remarks off-line, then upload them to the common
files. Students and instructors are usually required to log on for a prescribed number
of days during the week. Interaction is a large component of the students' grades.
Through computers, faculty, students and administrators have easy access to one
another as well as access to database resources provided through libraries. The
academic resources of libraries and special resources can be accessed such as OCLC,
ERIC, and Internet.
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Administrators can access student files, retrieve institutional information from central
repositories such as district or system offices, government agencies, or communicate
with one another. Other resources can be created such as updates on state or federal
4. Video Teleconference: Combines audio and video to provide voice communications
and video images. Can be one-way video/two-way audio, or two-way video/two-way
audio. It can display anything that can be captured by a TV camera. The advantage is
the capability to display moving images. In two-way audio/video systems, a common
application is to show people which creates a social presence that resembles face-to-
face meetings and classes and enables participants to see the facial expressions and
physical demeanor of participants at remote sites. Graphics are used to enhance
understanding. There are three basic systems: freeze frame, compressed, and full-
Video conferencing is an effective way to use one teacher who teaches to a number
of sites. It is very cost effective for classes which may have a small number of
students enrolled at each site. In many cases, video conferencing enables the
institution or a group of institutions to provide courses which would be canceled due
to low enrollment or which could not be supported otherwise because of the cost of
providing an instructor in an unusual subject area. Rural areas benefit particularly
from classes provided through video conferencing when they work with a larger
metropolitan institution that has full-time faculty.
Through teleconferencing, institutions are able to serve all students equitably.
Move Information - Not People
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Electronic delivery is more efficient than physically moving people to a site, whether it is a
faculty member or administrator.
Save Time: Content presented by one or many sources is received in many places
simultaneously and instantly. Travel is reduced resulting in more productive time.
Communication is improved and meetings are more efficient.
Lower Costs: Costs (travel, meals, lodging) are reduced by keeping employees in the
office, speeding up product development cycles, improving performance through
frequent meetings with timely information.
Accessible: Through any origination site in the world. Larger Audiences: More
people can attend. The larger the audience, the lower the cost per person.
Larger Audiences: More people can attend. The larger the audience, the lower cost
Adaptable: Useful for business, associations, hospitals, and institutions to discuss,
inform, train, educate or present.
Flexible: With a remote receive or transmit truck, a transmit or receive site can be
Security: Signals can be encrypted (scrambled) when it is necessary. Encryption
prevents outside viewers.
Unity: Provides a shared sense of identity. People feel more a part of the
group...more often. Individuals or groups at multiple locations can be linked
Timely: For time-critical information, sites can be linked quickly. An audio or point-
to-point teleconference can be convened in three minutes.
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Interactive: Dynamic; requires the user's active participation. It enhances personal
communication. When used well for learning, the interactivity will enhance the
learning and the teaching experience.
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Videoconferencing is the conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video
conference or video teleconference) by a set of telecommunication technologies which allow
two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio
transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware.
Impact on Business:-
Videoconferencing can enable individuals in distant locations to participate in
meetings on short notice, with time and money savings. Technology such as VoIP can be
used in conjunction with desktop videoconferencing to enable low-cost face-to-face business
meetings without leaving the desk, especially for businesses with widespread offices. The
technology is also used for telecommuting, in which employees work from home. One
research report based on a sampling of 1,800 corporate employees showed that, as of June
2010, 54% of the respondents with access to video conferencing used it “all of the time” or
Intel Corporation have used videoconferencing to reduce both costs and
environmental impacts of its business operations.
Videoconferencing is also currently being introduced on online networking websites,
in order to help businesses form profitable relationships quickly and efficiently without
leaving their place of work. This has been leveraged by banks to connect busy banking
professionals with customers in various locations using video banking technology.
Videoconferencing on hand-held mobile devices (mobile collaboration technology) is
being used in industries such as manufacturing, energy, healthcare, insurance, government
and public safety. Live, visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and
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time, often in locations previously unreachable, such as a manufacturing plant floor a
In the increasingly globalized film industry, videoconferencing has become useful as
a method by which creative talent in many different locations can collaborate closely on the
complex details of film production. For example, for the 2013 award-winning animated
film Frozen, Burbank-based Walt Disney Animation Studios hired the New York City-based
husband-and-wife songwriting team of Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopezto write
the songs, which required two-hour-long transcontinental videoconferences nearly every
weekday for about 14 months.
Although videoconferencing has frequently proven its value, research has shown that
some non-managerial employees prefer not to use it due to several factors, including anxiety.
Some such anxieties can be avoided if managers use the technology as part of the normal
course of business.
Researchers also find that attendees of business and medical videoconferences must
work harder to interpret information delivered during a conference than they would if they
attended face-to-face. They recommend that those coordinating videoconferences make
adjustments to their conferencing procedures and equipment.
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Telephone communication is one of the most important forms of communication within the
company. Although today its use is being replaced by other forms of communication (such
as email), phone use is one of the most common means by which to materialize both internal
and external communications.
It is very important in business because it is the medium through which the first contact
with, or from the company is made. So, before any personal contact, the usual thing is to
make a phone call to arrange an interview or to specify any matter or topic. The interlocutor
at the other end of the line will form an idea about the company depending on the impression
after this first telephone contact.
The Importance of Telephone Communication in Business:-
1. Personal and Immediate: Short of talking with someone face-to-face, a phone call
is the best way to get a personal response. If the person you called is available, you
can take care of business on the spot. With other forms of communication, such as
texting or email, you leave a message and hope for a quick response. Phone calls
have a vocal backup in the form of voice mail. The caller can leave a detailed voice
message, without the restriction of a certain number of characters or typing a text
message on a tiny cell-phone keypad.
2. Effective: Dr. Albert Mehrabian’s 1967 study, “Inference of Attitudes from
Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels,” named three components of effective
communications: body language accounts for 55 percent, voice tone for 38 percent
and spoken words for 7 percent. On the telephone, voice tone give dimension and
emotion to words, increasing the effectiveness of the communication. Certain body
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language, such as smiling and standing while talking, may come through in the
conversation. Texting and emails are simply words open to interpretation by the
receiver, without the benefit of voice tone or body language.
3. Interactive: Teleconferencing calls bring people together from all over the
organization at a fraction of the cost of travel and meeting facilities. Attendees can
phone in using a toll-free number and access code to join a virtual conference room
where members can interact with the moderator and other members. Conference calls
can be used in conjunction with video conferencing to view presentations, ask
questions via the Internet and discuss answers with all attendees.
4. Confidential: Some communications, such as condolences, disciplinary issues,
sensitive and confidential issues, should be handled with a personal phone call.
Taking the time to make a phone call carries more weight than an impersonal text or
email. Without the opportunity for two-way communication, sensitive issues may be
misinterpreted. Text messages and emails become legal documents and can be
retrieved as evidence long after deletion. Some businesses monitor and record phone
conversations between employees and customers for training purposes. Deleted
voice-mail messages may not be retrieved and do not leave a record of the
5. Safe: Making phone calls while driving may be hazardous, but Bluetooth technology
makes hands-free dialing and conversation safe – freeing up travel time to provide
availability for business calls. Texting and emailing while driving are hazardous and,
in some states, illegal.
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Voicemail (also known as voice message or voice bank) is a computer based system that
allows users and subscribers to exchange personal voice messages; to select and deliver
voice information; and to process transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products
and services, using an ordinary telephone. The term is also used more broadly to denote any
system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice messages, including using
an answering machine.
The Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Voicemail in Your Business:-
1. History: Voicemail systems began as a replacement for earlier analog answering
machines, but developed many new features over time due to their digital storage of
messages. Voicemail systems can now be used to route calls and messages to the
proper recipient, or connect telephones to other technologies, such as email and help
desk ticketing systems. Voicemail has become the ubiquitous and expected result
when calling an unanswered phone.
2. Significance: Voicemail systems allow businesses to efficiently route phone calls --
but your customers may not see efficiency in the same way your business does. When
your customer must spend time navigating your voice mail system only be told that
she will receive a call back "as soon as possible," the message is sent that your
employees' time is more valuable than your customers. On the other hand, voice mail
systems are far cheaper than the labor necessary to ensure that all incoming calls are
answered by a human being.
3. Features: As of 2010, modern voice mail system offer technological advancements,
including voice recognition, automatic language translation and incoming call routing
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based on the past history with that phone number. Implement these technologies only
when it is appealing to your customers to do so.
4. Considerations: Determine the amount of incoming call volume you expect from
any marketing or sales endeavor your business undertakes, and what immediate
presentation should be offered to the customer when he calls. When an incoming call
is likely to be a customer ready to make a purchase, a salesperson should handle
those calls to avoid losing sales. A similar argument holds true for incoming support
calls for past sales, as your future relationship with the customer may be at stake.
5. Benefits: A well-implemented voicemail system can provide benefits to the customer
and the business. Customers should be provided with the option to immediately leave
a message at any time, rather than wait on hold or be forced to navigate the system.
This demonstrates a respect for the value of her time -- provided, of course, that their
message gets to the right person regardless, and receives a prompt reply. This
efficiency allows you to lower your staff expenses while maintaining customer
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Importance of Body Language & Grooming in Presentation
Many people who give speeches don’t realize the importance of body language and
nonverbal communication. The truth is that people will see you before they hear you speak,
and how they see you influence how they hear you.
People cannot live without each other, we are social beings. As soon as we are in contact
with others we are communicating. For this we can make use of spoken and written
language. In these ways we make the content of a message clear to each other. However we
can also communicate without words. This kind of communication tells us something about
the relationship between people. Often this is more important than getting the content of the
message across. The communication about this non spoken communication, which tells us
something about the relationship between people, is called Meta-Communication.
A speaker’s posture gives the audience a good idea of his state of mind. Slouching
and slumping makes you seem weak and ineffectual, and will cause the audience to
lose interest in what you have to say. Conversely, standing tall will catch people’s
attention and give them the impression that you know what you’re talking about.
When facing an audience, remember to stand with your back straight and your chest
out. The easy way to do this is to pull your stomach in. This will automatically push
your chest out and pull your shoulders back.
Your stance is also an important part of posture. The key is to stay balanced and
relaxed at all times. Ideally you should stand with your feet apart, at about the length
of your shoulders. For added balance, you may also stand with one foot slightly
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forward. Do not stand with your feet too wide apart or too close together. This will
weaken your balance and make you thoroughly uncomfortable.
2. Eye contact
Looking your audience in the eye is essential for making effective presentations. Eye
contact helps bring about a connection to your audience and makes it difficult for
them to focus on anything else but you. Eye contact connotes confidence, sincerity
and openness, while the lack of it connotes fear, guilt, and dishonesty.
3. Hand Gestures
Gesturing with your hands can be a useful emphatic tool, provided it’s done right.
You can occasionally gesture with your hands in order to underscore a point or direct
your audience’s attention towards something interesting. The operative word here is
occasionally. You are not conducting an orchestra. Gesturing too much can distract
the audience from what you’re trying to say, and may even make you look nervous.
If you are not sure what to do with your hands, it’s perfectly alright not to gesture at
all. You may keep your hands at your sides, on the podium, or holding a microphone.
Instead of gesturing, you can underscore your points by effective pauses, facial
expressions, or a change in speaking tone or inflection.
Words are inadequate:
When we connect with a person, we also have to make it clear to each other how the
content of a spoken message needs to be interpreted. How we do this says something
about the relationship we have with the other person, or think we have anyway. Often
words are inadequate for this purpose. For instance we do not tell each other that
easily how we feel about each other, or how the words of a message need to be
29. Parakramesh Jaroli_MBA(Dual) I Sem
interpreted. To make the meaning of our words clear we use body language. Body
language is a language without spoken words and is therefore called non verbal
communication. We use body language all the time, for instance looking someone in
the eyes means something different than not looking someone in the eyes. In contact
with others it is just not possible to be not communicating something.
Used to express feelings:
Body language is used especially to express feelings. For instance if we do not like
someone, it is often difficult to say that directly to the person. However we can make
it clear either intentionally or unintentionally through body language. The opposite is
also true. We may say that we ARE angry through words yet our body language may
be saying loud and clear that we are NOT. This can be very confusing for the
receiver. This is usually described as giving out double messages - one message in
words and an opposite message in body language. It is also difficult to lie or cover up
our feelings through body language. People may give their true feelings away by not
being aware of their body language. Research has shown that most people pay more
attention to, and believe more readily, their impression of how a person acts through
body language than what is said through words. As a consequence we tend to doubt,
or put a question mark behind, the spoken words if they do not correspond with the
language of the body.
30. Parakramesh Jaroli_MBA(Dual) I Sem
Tips for Using Visual Aids in Presentations and Public Speaking
1. For printed visual aids with several paragraphs of text, use serif fonts (a font is a
typeface) for quicker readability.
2. For computer and LCD projectors use sans serif fonts, especially if the point size
(letter size) is quite small.
3. Arial is a sans serif font. Times is a serif font. (A serif font has the extra little cross-
lines at the ends of the strokes of the letters. Interestingly, serif fonts originated in the
days of engraving, before printing, when the engraver needed a neat exit from each
4. Extensive sections of text can be read more quickly in serif font because the words
have a horizontal flow, but serif fonts have a more old-fashioned traditional
appearance than sans serif, and so stylistically can seem old-fashioned, which does
not fit certain presentations.
5. If you need to comply with a company/corporate typeface (font/letter design) you'll
maybe have no choice of lettering style. If you are creating and delivering the
presentation for a company or organization of any sort then ask if there is a
recommended/compulsory 'house' typeface, and if so, then use it, along with
corporate colour/color schemes and branding. Marketing departments usually keep
6. Generally try to use no more than two different typefaces (fonts) and no more than
two size/bold/italic variants, or the text presentation becomes confused and very
distracting to read quickly and easily.
31. Parakramesh Jaroli_MBA(Dual) I Sem
7. Whatever - try to select fonts and point sizes that are the best fit for your medium and
8. If in doubt simply pick a good readable serif font and use it big and bold about 20-
30pt for headings, and 14 - 16 point size for the body text.
9. Absolutely avoid using upper case (capital letters) in lots of body text, because
people need to be able to read word-shapes as well as the letters, and of course upper-
case (capital letters) makes every word a rectangle, which takes much longer to read,
and becomes uncomfortable and tiring. Upper-case is acceptable for short headings if
you really must use it, but even for headings lower-case lettering is best. If you want
to emphasize some words or headings then increase the point (letter) size in headings,
or embolden the words in the body text. Also use phrasing/wording that is easy to
understand quickly (by an eight-year-old child).
Delivering the presentation is the most important step of the process. This is where you
make the primary contact with your audience. Consider the following points in order to
deliver an effective presentation.
Be prepared for your presentation. Complete the designing phase of the presentation
and practice it a few times before you actually do it. This is the most important part
of your presentation. Know the content of your presentation in and out. When you
know your presentation, you can recover if something goes wrong.
Use true examples to explain your points. If these examples are common to you and
the audience, it will have a great impact. Use your personal experiences to show
them the practical point of view.
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Relax! Stay relaxed and calm during the presentation. Your body language is quite
important for the audience. If they see you tensed, they may not receive what you
say. They may even judge you!
Use humour in the presentation. Use it naturally to make your point. Do not try to
crack jokes when you are not supposed to do it.
Pay attention to details. Remember the old saying; devil is in details. Choose the
place, people and materials wisely.
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1. Hook the audience at the beginning: Every good speech entices the listener at the
beginning of the speech. A group speech is no different. The introduction matters.
2. Introduce the team: Somewhere in the introduction, the cast of characters
presenting should be introduced.
3. Write transitions: Every time members of the team switch into a speaking role, the
speech should include a coordinated transition. Something simple might work: “Next,
Emily will discuss the financial piece of this event.” Followed by a quick, “Thanks,
4. Move: The speaker should take center stage or a position in the foreground of the
delivery area. Other members should flank the speaker by being visually “behind” the
5. Utilize visual aids well: Look at the audience while presenting, not the visual aid.
6. Share the work with visual aids: During a group presentation, the speaker should
not be behind a computer or podium. Switch this job to a current non-speaker.
7. Build in strategic pauses: Rushing through your thoughts is a bad move in
individual speeches, but in group speeches, rushing inspires more rushing. Slow it
down. Pause. Don’t try to fill every moment with sound.
8. Pay attention to each other: There’s nothing that inspires audience boredom like
presenter boredom. If you’re not the speaker, but you’re on the team, at least feign
interest. Watch the speaker, respond nonverbally to the speaker. This sets the tone for
how your audience will view the speaker and his/her information.
34. Parakramesh Jaroli_MBA(Dual) I Sem
9. Conclude the speech: The speech should be tied together at the end with key
repetition of ideas and closing remarks. This is your chance to make the speech a
10. Practice: Rehearse the speech together at least three times. You should be able to
predict the moves of your co-presenters to forgo the awkward stares at each other
when someone misses a cue.
How to prepare a group presentation:-
Follow these steps to devise a good presentation.
1. Organise the structure of your presentation into the sections:
b. Middle sections
2. Allocate sections to each speaker. Make sure that each speaker has approximately the
same amount of information to report. Make sure the presentation is well balanced
a. each speaker speaking for about the same time
b. each speaker only speaking once.
3. Decide where visuals are needed and prepare these visuals. Make sure that your
slides are effective.
4. Keep the message punchy.
a. Avoid long lists of equations and detailed technical information.
5. Give every slide a title.
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6. Prepare the talk. Make the language of your presentation formal enough.
a. Avoid informal language and slang.
7. Prepare your notes.
8. Rehearse with the group.
a. Check the structure.
b. Check the timing.
c. Check your delivery.
d. Make any necessary changes and prepare the final version. Rehearse again.
Giving the presentation:-
1. Create a good impression. Look professional!
Set up chairs for each speaker.
Check equipment (projector, slides).
2. Do not read from your full report.
It looks as if you are very badly prepared.
It turns the presentation into a reading exercise.
It is very hard to do it well!
3. Do not write detailed calculations on the board.
It is very boring for the audience.
It looks as if you are badly prepared.
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It takes up too much time.
4. Avoid changing speakers more than you have to. Too many short sections make the
5. ALWAYS: the first speaker should state the aim of the presentation and provide an
overview of the structure of the presentation. For example: The aim of our
presentation is to …….There are three main parts to our presentation. First,… Next,
6. ALWAYS: each speaker should clearly state the topic of their part of the