5. 1. He could have been elected.
2. He could have become popular
because of his victory in war or he
could have simply defeated
someone using force.
3. He would have performed such
yagnas, to control over large
territories and strengthen their
position. When raja of the Jana
performed such yagnas, he was
recognized as the raja of Janapada.
6. With increase in population, some Janapadas became larger and
more powerful than others and were called mahajanapadas.
Some of these Janapadas and mahajanapadas, were ganasanghas or
republics ruled by representatives elected by people.
Some of them were kingdoms ruled by kings who were
Mahajanapaadas fought war with each other to
extend their territories and gain greater quality.
9. o Magadha corresponds to the present
oThe most important ruler of
Magadha was Bimbisara of Haryanka
o Bimbisara was a very ambitious and
oHe ruled for 52 years from about 544
BCE to 492 BCE.
oHe followed the policy of expansion.
(conquering and entering into
10. Bimbisara governed his kingdom well.
His capital was at Rajagriha.
He had a lot of interest in the administration
of his kingdom.
he chose his ministers, who were his close
advisors and helped in smooth running of his
He travelled far and wide in his kingdom to
keep himself informed.
He built good roads to encourage trade.
In areas he conquered, he often sent
representatives to look after the disturbances
that occurred periodically.
after the conquest of Anga, he sent his son
Ajatashatru, there as its governor.
12. It is said that Bimbisara was killed
by Ajathashatru, who ascended the
throne in 492 BCE and ruled till 460
He further expanded his kingdom
by annexing the territories of Kosala
He shifted capital from Rajagriha
He was a great warrior.
13. Geographical and Natural factors that
helped Magadha to rise into power.
1. The rivers Ganga, Son and Gandak, which
flowed through region and made it fertile.
2. They provided enough water for daily needs
and acted as means of trade and transport.
3. There were forests that provided timber and
elephants for army.
4. Copper and iron deposits in the region were
used to make tools and weapons and to add
to Magadha’s wealth.
15. The territory of Vajji extended from the
north of river Ganga up to the Terai region of
Vaishali was the capital of Vajji.
A unique aspect of the administration of
the Vajji Mahajanapada was that its
administration was carried out through an
assembly called the Ganasangha.
The Vajji had a form of Republican
The Vajji Janapada consisted of 8 clans.
18. Under the monarchial rule, the king was very powerful and supreme
authority of the land.
He was responsible for protection of the people and undertook all
measures to fortify the kingdom from enemies.
He had a strong army to expand its territories.
He was advised by the gramini (head of the village) and the purohit.
The Amatyas(ministers) and the Senapathi (commander of the
army)helped him in the administration.
Payment of tax (bali) was made compulsory and was collected by
balisadhakas (tax collectors)
The right to collect taxes made the king rich and powerful.
He used the money for the army, payment of salaries, building
roads and other welfare activities.
19. The political system of the Ganasanghas differed from
that of monarchies.
Here the King was not the absolute ruler but
considered as first among Equals.
One among the able bodied ruling man was elected
as their leader or rajan.
The administration consisted of a council of nine man.
1. raja (the ruling chief)
2. The Uparaja ( the deputy chief)
3. The Senapati (the commander of army)
4. The Bhandagarika (treasurer)
important people from each district were chosen to
represent their people in the sangha or the assembly.
These representatives were called Gana Mukhyas.
21. Agriculture was the main occupation of the people.
The land was owned by the village as a whole or, in some cases,
by a headman or a tribal chief who possessed a large amount of
Grahapati or the master of the household who owned the large
area of the land.
the Grahapatis got the land tilted by Dasas (slaves), Karmakaras
(labourers) and Shudras.
People captured in wars were made to work for the higher caste
Peasants paid one sixth of what they produced as taxes to the
The royal officials were responsible for colleting taxes.
Taxes could be paid either in form of grain or money.
22. Craft towns- Rajagriha,
Pataliputra, Vaishali and
important learning centers-
Port towns- Champa and
trading centres- Benares
23. As population increased, trade
traders acquired a lot of wealth
through various economic
the goods produced by the
craftspeople, such as textiles, pots,
iron tools and ivory, were carried
over a long distances by the
25. 1 . Crafts such as cart and chariot making, weaving, metal works,
agricultural tools and implements.
2. This era has a special type of pottery called the Northern Black
Polished Ware. (NBPW).It was made of fine material and had a
glossy surface.It was probably used by the richer people and was
one of the major items of the trade.
3. Weaving was mostly done by women.
4. The craftspeople organized themselves into guilds or shrenis to
help each other.
5. The profession was usually hereditary and son learnt the craft
from the father.
26. The varna system became more rigid.
The divide between ruler and ruled became more
The Brahmanas and the kshatriyas enjoyed the status
of the upper class.
The vaishyas or the trading class were able to build
their economic influence through trade and crafts.
The shudras and the landless peasants had no rights
and had to serve the upper castes.