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A SEMINAR ONCRUISE CONTROL DEVICES (09AN1A0429)
INTRODUCTIONCruise Control Devices The concept of assisting driver in longitudinal vehicle control to avoid collisions has been a major focal point of research at many automobile companies and research organizations. The idea of driver assistance was started with the ‘cruise control devices’‘Adaptive Cruise Control’ (ACC) system An ‘Adaptive Cruise Control’ (ACC) system developed as the next generation assisted the driver to keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front.
PRINCIPLE OF ACC ACC works by detecting the distance and speed of the vehicles ahead by using either a Lidar system or a Radar system. The time taken by the transmission and reception is the key of the distance measurement while the shift in frequency of the reflected beam by Doppler Effect is measured to know the speed.• The second generation of ACC is the Stop and Go Cruise Control (SACC) whose objective is to offer the customer longitudinal support on cruise control at lower speeds down to zero velocity.
CONSTITUENTS OF AN ACC SYSTEM: A sensor (LIDAR or RADAR) usually kept behind the grill of the vehicleto obtain the information regarding the vehicle ahead. The relevant target datamay be velocity, distance, angular position and lateral acceleration. Longitudinal controller which receives the sensor data and process itto generate the commands to the actuators of brakes throttle or gear boxusing Control Area Network (CAN) of the vehicle.
SENSOR OPTIONS Currently two means of object detection are technically feasible and applicable in a vehicle environment. They are: 1. LIDAR 2. RADAR
1.LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) The first ACC system used LIDAR sensor. The first acc system introduced by Toyota used this method. By measuring the beat frequency difference between a Frequency Modulated Continuous light Wave (FMCW) and its reflection. LIDAR system is of low cost and provides good angular resolution although these weatherconditions restrict its use within a 30 to 40 meters range. Fig .Range estimation using FMCW-LIDAR
2.RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) Most of the current acc systems are based on 77GHz RADAR sensors. The RADAR systems have the great advantage that the relative velocity can be measured directly, and the performance is not affected by heavy rain and fog. RADAR is an electromagnetic system for the detection and location of reflecting objects like air crafts, ships, space crafts or vehicles. The currently used ‘Pulse Doppler RADAR’ uses the principle of ‘Doppler effect’ in determining the velocity of the target .
CONTROLLER Depending on the present traffic situation, two types of controls are possible. 1. Speed control 2. Headway control The controller concept is simplified in the flow-diagram
CO OPERATIVE ADAPTIVE CRUISECONTROL [CACC] In CACC mode, the preceding vehicles can communicate actively with thefollowing vehicles so that their speed can be coordinated with each other.
ADVANTAGES1. The driver is relieved from the task of careful acceleration, deceleration and braking in congested traffics.2. A highly responsive traffic system that adjusts itself to avoid accidents can be developed.DISADVANTAGES1. A cheap version is not yet realized.2. A high market penetration is required if a society of intelligent vehicles is tobe formed.
CONCLUSION It will probably take decades, but car accidents may eventually become as rare as plane accidents are now, even though the road laws will have to be changed, up to an extent since the non-human part of the vehicle controlling will become predominant.