Dr. Parveen Vashisth
Assistant Professor, CDLU Sirsa
Management By Objective
MBO is formal set or procedure that establishes and review
progress toward common goals for managers and
Steps in MBO
• To establish long-term and short-tem organizational goals
• To establish long-term and short-term objectives for each
manager, clarifying the key performance standards
• Periodic review of performance
• Encouraging managers to accept responsibility
The need for planning will be recognized
It provides for objectives and accountability for performance
It encourages participative management
It helps in job enrichment
It provides for a good feedback system
• Planning is determining the objectives and formulating the methods to
achieve them. It is more simply said than done. A job well planned is half
done. During planning one needs to ask oneself the following:
What am I trying to accomplish i.e. what is my objective?
What resources do I have and do I need to accomplish the same?
What are the methods and means to achieve the objectives?
Is this the optimal path?
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do it who
is to do it.
Types of Planning
Short Term Intermediate Long Term
Take Time to Plan
Planning can be Top to Down or Bottom to Top
Involve and Communicate with all those Concerned
Plans must be Flexible and Dynamic
Evaluate and Revise
A Systematic & detailed plan of Action.
Process of Planning
1 • Determination of Goals & Objectives
2 • Discovering the environmental changes
3 • Developing the alternatives
4 • Detailing the alternatives
5 • Deciding on best alternative
6 • Describing the plan details
7 • Discussing the plan outcome
To See at Future
“what will happen if the firm tries to implement a given strategy
in a given possible environment”
Importance of Forecasting:
Develop situational awareness
Better customer service
Better utilization of services
Types of Forecasting
Short-term forecasting (Less than 18 months)
The process of designing jobs, grouping the jobs into units and
establishing pattern of authority between jobs & units.
Process of Organizing
Determine what is to be
done/ Division of Work
Decide how much Authority
to Designate/ Authority,
Decide the Levels at which
Decisions are to be made /
Decide how to Achieve
It refers to filling and keeping filled posts with people.
1. Related to Human being.
2. A separate managerial function.
3. Essential at all managerial levels.
4. Related to social responsibility.
5. Effect on external & internal environment.
Scope & Process of Staffing:
1. Determining requirement of Man-power.
7. Performance Appraisal
It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring people in
1. It initiates Action
2. Take place at every level of management
3. Continuous Process
4. Flows from Top to Bottom
1. It initiates Action
2. Integrate employees efforts
3. It is mean of motivation
4. It facilitate to implement changes
5. Create balance in organization
Elements of Directing
To establish a harmony between various parts of a system.
Nature of Coordinating
An ordely arrangement of group efforts
Essence of Management
Equal importance at all managerial levels
It is more than mere cooperation.
Need & Importance of Coordinating
Division of work
Interdependence of different processes
Clash of interest
Complexities of large scale organization.
Principles of Coordination
Difficulties of Coordination
1. Difference b/w organizational & individual goal
2. Difference b/w goals of individuals
3. Difference in work progress evaluation
4. Complicated organizational Structure
Process of taking steps to bring actual results & desired results closer together.
To Evaluate the Work Progress
Apply to corrective Measures
To Gain Maximum Cooperation of HR
To maximize utilization of Material & Machine
To fix responsibility
To motivate employees
To face the changing environment
To check & avoid undesirable activities
2. Measurement of
of Actual with
5. Taking Corrective
Feed Forward Control-Control that attempts to
identify and prevent deviations before they occur is
called feed forward control, sometimes called
preliminary or preventive control.
Concurrent Control-Control that monitors ongoing
employee activities during their progress, to ensure
they are consistent with quality standards, is called
Feedback Control-In this case, the control takes
place after the action. Sometimes called post-
action or output control
Establish Standards of Performance
Measure Actual Performance
Compare Performance to Standards:
Take Corrective Action
Effective controls are timely.
Control standards should encourage compliance.
Setting effective standards is important
Use management by exception.
Employees should get fast feedback on
Do not over rely on control reports.
Fit the amount of control to the task.
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