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If history has anything to teach us, it is not to fear the future. No other public service profession has been as quick to adapt to technological change. Imagine a Rip Van Winkle librarian falling asleep in 1969 and waking up today. He would be amazed at how much more powerful catalogers and reference librarians are with computer keyboards at their fingertips and awestruck at how quickly a patron in Nome can get a book from almost anywhere. After hunting in vain for the card catalog, he would be completely blown away by the keyword searching capability of the OPAG and scratch his head at DVDs, audio playaways, and videogames, but be warmly reassured by shelves of books and children's librarians wielding puppets and playing with felt boards. Most of all, he would be overwhelmed by the crowd of patrons using the library for a hundred different purposes.
But change as a law of nature is very apparent in the present library environment. Rapid technological developments affect almost every activity in the library. This was made more apparent by the discussions and arguments about a “paperless society” as it took a considerable amount of space in a number of publications. Clearly, this is the path taken by many libraries when they began allocating separate funds for developing non-print and electronic collections. Sandler, in 2009 shared this perspective about libraries: “ Libraries are not about books, they were, are, and will be about facilitating, communication across space and time. Books have been a way to do that historically, but today there are other, often better, ways to accomplish this. Libraries need to become facile at supporting all sorts of media, and they must continue to embrace the new, or face the consequences of losing relevance to the mainstream culture.” Overtime, libraries have evolved in the context of their institutional roles, financial resources and format inclusions. In terms of collection, Gorman in 2010 gave a discerning summary on the evolving nature of library collection: “ The definition of a library collection has expanded over the last 25 years to comprise at least four levels: locally owned physical documents, physical documents owned by other libraries but available through ILL; purchased or subscribed to electronic documents and “free” electronic documents.” These levels present several major developments in the library, i.e. establishment of resource-sharing networks, interlibrary systems, union catalogs, the exponential rise on the use of digital and online materials for education and scholarship and the growing popularity of open access.
A digital library can link e-learners to library catalogues, licensed journal databases, electronic book collections, selected internet resources, electronic course reserves, and tutorials, and to forums for communication and interaction with others. Digital library permits e-learners to access library and networked resources and services anytime and anywhere that an Internet connection and computing equipment are available. support the range of goals that are already alive in the classroom, rather than simply modify information. How can digital libraries and their use open up an e-learner’s inquiries, rather than bring them to closure? How might they enhance an e-learner’s critical thinking, rather than dulling it? How might they assist in teaching e-learners search processes, rather than mystifying or suppressing this instruction? Without asking the real value of using digital libraries or any educational technologies, educators risk failing to see their transformative potentials, and at worst, they risk importing a contrary set of values that are embedded in such systems from their histories in other locations. For digital libraries, such an implicit value could be summarized as “complete information access leads to better education”, just as it may lead to better academic research and work. However, the many educators and librarians who have stacked unused textbooks and shrink-wrapped software packets in the corners of their rooms know that access is only a beginning. E-learners’ use of different technologies, whether they are traditional materials or digital resources available via the internet, will be informed by and in turn will help construct the kinds of values that retain significance in education. As long as the educator and the assignment follow the status quo, any related source of information is likely to be a smart choice by e-learners according to their assessment of what to do for Digital libraries and e-learning
In the e-learning environment, digital libraries are considered as a federation of library services and collections that function together to create a digital learning community. The range of supported materials includes curricula and courseware materials, lectures, lesson plans, computer programs, modelling and simulation, intelligent tutoring systems, access to remote scientific instruments, project based learning, tools, results of educational research, scientific research reported both formally in journals or informally in websites, raw data for student activities, and multimedia image banks.
Hybrid libraries are mixes of traditional print material such as books and magazines, as well as electronic based material such as downloadable audio books, electronic journals, e-books, etc. Hybrid libraries are the new norm in most public and academic libraries. [ citation needed ] It seems that the term "hybrid library" was first coined in 1998 by Chris Rusbridge in an article for D-Lib Magazine .  Hybrid libraries evolved in the 1990s when electronic resources became more easily available for libraries to acquire for public use. [ citation needed ] Initially these electronic resources were typically access to material distributed on media such as CD-ROM or searches of specialised databases. OCLC helped push libraries towards acquiring digital resources by providing a centralized technology resource for participating libraries. Now, with the widespread availability of digital content, it includes Internet resources and documents which are online, such as eprints. Hybrid libraries are the new norm for many archivists as well. Digitization has changed the way archivists have gone about preserving historical items. Archivists are now using digital technology to preserve items that were once only preserved by things like microfiche. Archivists now use things like digital imaging which make it possible for researchers to see historical items online. The emergence of the hybrid library has put a new emphasis on copyright issues for many libraries. The complicated and changing copyright laws in both the United States and the European Union have made it a challenge for many libraries to make sure their patrons are using the digital items lawfully. Hybrid libraries need staff that are trained in helping patrons navigate the vast amount of information available in the digital age. Librarians working in hybrid libraries have training in electronic media as well as the traditional print forms.
Current practices present diverse viewpoints in describing advantages and disadvantages, accessibility and ease of doing search, budget issues, intellectual property rights and copyright, selection criteria, archiving and preservation and electronic resource management (ERM).
Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management authored by Peggy Johnson and published in 2009 and Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment, edited by Di Su of the City University of New York and published in 2007 provided thorough discussions on how to manage and survive the dilemma that is electronic resource. These are just two of the vast number of publications dealing mostly with the management issues of having electronic resources in the library. Digital resource and the Internet contributed a vast amount of sources for research and are being made available in electronic format. The co-existence of both print and electronic still characterizes many libraries. Continuing subscription to either formats provide the lifeline to sustain scholarly communication and research. Paperless library remains a topic for debate and dealing with electronic materials is a persistent issue among all types of libraries.
General criteria to consider when you are involved in making selection decisions include: Subject matter What subjects do you need to collect in to build up your collection? How suitable is the subject, style, and reading level of an item for your user community? How accurate is the information? Construction quality Is the item well made and durable? For books and periodicals, does the item have good print quality? Is the paper of appropriate quality? For audio-visuals, will the item stand up to multiple use? Potential use What will the demand for the material be? What level of use justifies its acquisition? How relevant is the item to the community? Relation to the collection How will the item strengthen the library's collection? (Will it fill a gap, complement something that's already there, or provide an alternative opinion to what is already covered?) Are the materials available elsewhere in the community? Is there fair coverage of opposing viewpoints? Bibliographic considerations What is the reputation of the publisher? Is the type of publication and the format appropriate for your library? What is the reputation and/or significance of the author? What do the book reviews say about the item? Cost All libraries have limited budgets and have to make very careful decisions about how to allocate these funds during the selection process. One approach to the selection process is to rank the materials desired for selection. More expensive items that are ranked highly might still be purchased, but then the library would probably be unable to purchase as many items. These decisions can be difficult to make, but prioritizing patron needs is always a good way to start.
Purpose, Scope and Audience. What is the purpose of the periodical, what does the periodical actually include, and who is the intended audience? This can be determined by examining the table of contents, the range of writers, authors, and editors, and the vocabulary used in the articles. Accuracy. How accurate is the material in the periodical? It should be factually correct and relatively objective. This can be determined by evaluating the writers, the publisher, and the subject matter. For more technical periodicals, an expert opinion is a good idea. Local Interest. Does the title have some interest to the local community? Format Issues. What is the quality of the printing and the paper? Are illustrations of good quality? Do there seem to be more ads than text? Indexing. Is the title indexed in a service to which the library subscribes? Cost. How much does the subscription cost? Will back issues be needed? If so, how much will it cost to bind them or obtain them on microform? Demand. Will a title be used enough to justify subscription? Availability. Is the title readily available through interlibrary loan or from a library with which you have a resource sharing agreement?
a generic term that includes microfilms and microfiche a format not liked much by so many people because of the perception that it is very difficult to use the format that libraries resort to so that they can save storage space a good format for materials that are seldom used also good alternative format for rare and archival materials.
16 mm or 35 mm film to motion picture standard is used, usually unperforated. Roll microfilm is stored on open reels or put into cassettes. The standard length for using roll film is 30.48 m (100 ft). One roll of 35 mm film may carry 600 images of large engineering drawings or 800 images of broadsheet newspaper pages. 16 mm film may carry 2,400 images of letter sized images as a single stream of micro images along the film set so that lines of text are parallel to the sides of the film or 10,000 small documents, perhaps cheques or betting slips, with both sides of the originals set side by side on the film.
The amount of your budget that is allocated for audiovisual materials The durability of the item The visual and audio quality of the item The ease of repairing the item if it is damaged and the procedures for handling damage caused by patrons. The ease of repairing the item when it is damaged Type of equipment required The likelihood that the audiovisual technology is long-lasting
Still pictures Filmstrips usually 16mm or 35mm; a series of single-frame still photographs on a strip of film a somewhat dated format more commonly still in existence in some children’s section of public libraries come in either sound or silent format Slides photographic slides typical of the family collection of 35mm slides mountings can be of paper, plastic, metal or glass most commonly found in special libraries with scientific, medical and art museum work collections Transparencies overhead transparencies: text or diagrams on cellophane sheets that are projected with a magnified light designed to aid in the presentation of graphic materials to small and medium-sized groups publishers often include these based on or using illustrations from their books Flat pictures include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials school libraries often include pictures from magazines and other sources museums and college libraries often have extensive collection of posters usually housed in special collections little bibliographic control scanning technologies provides control and order
Points to consider: Scale Type of projection The information represented The amount of detail and its accuracy The use of color and symbols Use and placement of nomenclature
Audio-recordings have been a very important commodity for library collections throughout most of this century and include musical productions, books on tape, and language learning, as well as lectures, instructions, and inspirational messages. They are distributed in various formats, although the most common today are cassette tapes and compact discs (CDs). While not yet widespread in many libraries, VCD and DVD technology is starting to become more prevalent and maybe important for audiovisual collections in the future. Some of the most popular audio materials in libraries are spoken books-on-tape or "talking books." These may also be available in CD format. Also useful are language learning cassette tapes. If your community includes many bilingual or multi-lingual people, you may consider acquiring language cassette tapes that facilitate language learning in English, Spanish, and other languages of local interest.
Printed Music Music sheets and scores (full size or miniature) Problem of sourcing and bibliographic control Models, realias and dioramas Cost and storage are some of the limiting factors in including these formats in the collection Some questions to consider: Are objects less than life size reproduced in an appropriate scale? Is the scale sufficient to illustrate the necessary details? When horizontal and vertical scales must be different, is the distortion so great as to create a false impression? Are the colors accurate? Are the objects durable enough to withstand the type of handling they will receive? Games Some public libraries would include games and toys to attract new users, children especially Games used for simulated teaching
Digital libraries offer a wide range of new access opportunities that are absent in the traditional environment. However, the desire for physical browsing, the need for immediate help from a “real person” and the desire for communal space for learning-make a case for the importance of the traditional service environment.
Treating Print in a Hybrid Library Environment
Issues, Dilemmas and Directions
1. gain a better understanding of the current trends in
collection development and management of print
2. become aware of the key issues, problems, and
challenges in acquiring and managing print
3. recognize the strategies of developing hybrid
“Libraries are changing. Funding limits and
customer demands are transforming staffing
levels, service models, access to resources,
and services to the public. Administrators
and taxpayers are seeking more efficient
ways of delivering services to achieve
greater returns on financial investments”. --
Michael E. Casey and Laura C. Savastinuk -- Library
∗“fast paced, driven by rapid changes in
information technology, profuse with
new digital resources, budget
constraints, changes in teaching
practices and learner policies and
priorities” (Horava, 2009).
Libraries of today
∗ Demonstrating value and its significant place
in the organization
∗ Defining library services
∗ Reconfiguring library spaces
∗ Preparing for the future
The library’s mission
∗ Resources and services that contribute to
∗ Evidences to measure success, impact and value
∗ Redefining and understanding the meaning of
“library use” and communicating the ways in
which library resources and services contribute
to the institutions’ outcomes
∗ Direction and rescue users from information
∗ Link – user community to library catalogs,
databases, e-book collections, select internet
resources, e-course reserves, tutorials and to forums
for communication and interaction
∗ Access to networked resources and services–
The library that provides…
∗ The tasks, functions, and responsibilities now understood to
be the portfolio of collection development librarians include
selection of materials in all formats, collection policies,
collection maintenance (selection for weeding and storage,
preservation, and serials cancellations), budget and finance,
assessment of needs of users and potential users, liaison and
outreach activities related to the collection and its users,
collection use studies, collection assessment and evaluation,
and planning for cooperation and resource sharing
Collection development (Johnson, 2008)
∗ Electronic information access system that offers the user a
coherent view of an organized, selected, and managed body
of information – (Lynch,1995)
∗ Organizations that provide the resources, including the
specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual
access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and
ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital
works so that they are readily and economically available for
use by a defined community or set of communities – (Digital
Library Federation, 1998)
∗ mix of traditional print material, as well as
electronic based material
∗ Evolved when electronic resources became
more easily available for libraries to acquire
for public use
∗ With staff trained in electronic media as
well as the traditional print forms
∗ Physical browsing/ “touch and feel” a real
∗ Getting immediate help from a “real” person
∗ an ideal place to study
∗ Provides a communal space for learning
∗ Getting more detailed information from
traditional sources (e.g. books)
∗ Access to archival and older sources of
Perceived advantages of traditional
∗ Sum total of library materials :
∗ government publications,
∗ thesis and dissertations
∗ patents, standards and specifications
∗ Electronic resources “e”13
∗ Retention of retrospective copies of print
greater than fifteen years of age may not be
necessary in most libraries
∗ preference to maintain print copies of titles
may be motivated by reasons outside of
actual usage or patrons needs
∗ Consideration of remote or off site storage
trends in collection development and
management of print resources
∗ Clearly, there is a tremendous economic and user-
driven push to access the library's collections
∗ The Library is no longer just a repository for print
collections and a quiet place to study, but a center for
learning, communication, and interaction.
∗ The shift from maintaining large and costly print
collection towards the concept of access (instead of
Print vs. Digital
∗ Access (remote, 24/7, quick and wider)
∗ Availability – no worries about a source
being loaned out
∗ Multiple use for single sources
∗ Search capability
∗ LINKS to additional information
Perceived advantages of digital libraries
∗Access to the collection
∗Collection development policies
Collection Development Basics
∗Relation to the collection
SELECTION CRITERIA IN GENERAL
Some questions to ask to help in the evaluation of
works of fiction:
∗ Is it true to life?
∗ Has it vitality and consistency in character
∗ Is the plot original?
∗ Is dramatic interest sustained?
∗ Does it stimulate?
Selection of Fiction
∗ Special Features
A publication in any medium, defined in AACR2 2002
as issued over time with no predetermined conclusion,
including bibliographic resources issued successively
in discrete parts and integrating resources into which
updates are incorporated without remaining discrete.
Examples include serials (periodicals, newspapers,
etc.), monographic series, and updating loose leaf
services, online databases, and websites. (Reitz, Online
Dictionary for Library and Information Science)
“A publication issued in successive parts,
usually in regular intervals, and as rule,
intended to be continued indefinitely,
include periodicals, annuals (reports,
yearbooks, etc.) and memoirs,
proceedings, and transactions of societies.”
(ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science)
“a periodical publication especially dealing
with matters of current interest- often
used for official or semi-official
publications of special groups”
a periodical that usually contains a
miscellaneous collection of articles,
stories, poems, and pictures and is
directed at the general reading public
Selection Criteria for Serials
∗ Purpose, scope
∗ Local interest
∗ Format issues
∗ Indexing cost
∗supplementary materials that can provide
∗evaluated as other printed materials are
and most of the selection criteria for
books are equally applicable
∗ a generic term for both microfilms and
∗ a format not liked much by so many people
∗ the format that libraries resort to
∗ a good format for materials that are seldom
∗ also good alternative format for rare and
archival materials. 30
∗Audio Visual quality
∗Ease of repair
∗Type of equipment required
∗AV technology that is long-lasting
Main Points for Consideration
∗Flat pictures (include paintings, posters,
postcards, photographs and other pictorial
∗ Films - Comes in variety of sizes: the 7,
Super 8, 16mm and 35 mm; the 70mm is
the format used in theatrical releases and
is also the format collected by film
∗ Video recordings -Videos are extremely
popular with library patrons.
∗include maps, photographs and
∗Problems: little bibliographic
control and making decisions as
to whether circulate OR be used
only within the premises of the
∗ Cassettes, DVDs, CDs
∗ Books on tape or “talking books”
∗ Points to consider:
- How will your audio collection support your library's
- Will your audio collection focus on all or only certain
- Will you collect complete works or abridged versions?
Does abridging the work affect the story?
- How well does the reader project his/her voice?
- How durable is the product?
- What is the overall quality of the recording?37
∗Music sheets and scores (full size or
∗ “who needs print when everything is in the net?”
∗ Need to expand the means of managing collections
∗ Evolving patterns in scholarly communication
∗ Dealing with grey literature
∗ Collection evaluation and performance assessment
∗ Weeding, de-selection and obsolescence
Challenges to traditional or print
∗ Completeness – ALL the pages, images, content,
figures, tables, reviews, letters, notes, etc.
∗ Timeliness – should appear online the SAME
TIME as the print, if not earlier
∗ Reliability – ensured access, quick server
response, stable URL, back-up server
Criteria for replacing print with “e”
∗Site license must include provisions for the
permanent library retention of the
purchased content during the license
∗Adherence to the legal provisions for long-
∗Sustainable access provisions
Criteria for replacing print with “e”
∗ Shift of information distribution patterns
PRINT COPY DISTRIBUTE
∗ Constant review of renewals to monitor costs
∗ Monitor circulation metrics to determine actual usage
∗ Consider for discard old or superseded materials,
particularly those that are easily accessible and available
from other libraries
∗ Always keep a detailed budget report to assist in the
conduct of reviews
∗ Recommend cost-effective alternatives that should help in
determining what materials to keep and maintain
Considerations in maintaining print
∗ When books are the primary sources
∗ When there is an immediate need for help from a
∗ When there is a need to browse a collection
∗ When there is a need for a quiet space
∗ When online is too exorbitant and totally
∗ When reading something for the sheer pleasure of it.
When is “traditional” or print is more
∗ Users desire a hybrid information environment in
which online information does not necessarily replace
or make obsolete information in print but adds new
∗ Print and digital have their unique advantages and
∗ Each plays a different role and serves the needs of
users in different ways
Print and Digital
Republic of the Philippines
PROFESSIONAL REGULATION COMMISSION
BOARD FOR LIBRARIANS
Resolution No. _06_
Series of 2006
CODE OF ETHICS FOR LIBRARIANS
∗ WHEREAS, Sec. 8 (h), Article II of R.A. No. 9246,
known as the “Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003,”
and Sec. 8 (h), Rule II of Res. No. 05, Series of 2004,
known as the “IRR of the Philippine Librarianship Act
of 2003”, empower the Board to adopt and prescribe
a Code of Ethics for Librarians;
Code of Ethics
Librarians, mindful of their role in the
development of knowledge and culture and
the enrichment of people’s lives, seek the
highest standards of ethical behavior in their
relations with their schools, their
clients/employers, the librarianship profession
and colleagues, agencies and associations and
1. Librarians with the State, Society and Public
2. Librarians with Librarianship Profession
3. Librarians with the Suppliers,
Publishers, Dealers, etc.
4. Librarians with the Clients and/or other Users of
their Professional Services
1. Librarians shall choose suppliers and
publishers exclusively on the basis of the
quality of goods, costs, and services.
2. Librarians shall refuse all personal
3. Librarians shall never enter into business
transactions prejudicial to the library, but
unwisely favorable to their own interest.
Librarians with the Suppliers,
Publishers, Dealers, etc.
∗ Developed by the ALCTS (Association for Library
Collections and Technical Services)
∗ Acquisitions Section Ethics Task Force; endorsed by
the ALCTS Acquisitions Section and adopted by the
ALCTS Board of Directors, Midwinter Meeting,
February 7, 1994.
Statement on Principles and Standards
of Acquisitions Practice
∗ gives first consideration to the objectives and
policies of his or her institution;
∗ strives to obtain the maximum ultimate value of
each dollar of expenditure;
∗ grants all competing vendors equal consideration
insofar as the established policies of his or her
library permit, and regards each transaction on its
In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
∗subscribes to and works for honesty,
truth, and fairness in buying and selling,
and denounces all forms and
manifestations of bribery;
∗declines personal gifts and gratuities;
∗uses only by consent original ideas and
designs devised by one vendor for
competitive purchasing purposes;56
In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
∗ accords a prompt and courteous reception insofar
as conditions permit to all who call on legitimate
∗ fosters and promotes fair, ethical, and legal trade
∗ avoids sharp practice;
∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the publishing
and bookselling industry;
In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the
publishing and bookselling industry;
∗ strives to establish practical and efficient
methods for the conduct of his/her office;
∗ counsels and assists fellow acquisitions
librarians in the performance of their duties,
whenever occasion permits.
In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
∗ A Registered Librarian who is found guilty for
violation of any provision in this Code by the
Board after his/her investigation shall be
subject to a disciplinary action of either
revocation of his/her Certificate of Registration
or suspension thereof which the Board shall
impose thereto after his/her due investigation.
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Liu, Z., & Stork, D. C. (2000). IS PAPERLESS REALLY MORE?. Communications Of The ACM, 43(11),
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