preterm language attention wernicke's area cognitive skills phonological processing receptive language brain development grey matter gestational age late preterm executive function working memory action verb fluence expressive language cognitive processess connectivity preterm birth temporal lobe white matter posterior superior temporal gyrus memory premature verbal working memory fine motor skills gross motor skills prefrontal cortex thalamus neuromusculoskeletal moderate preterm (mpt) mental functions movement-related functions school readiness thinking small for gestational age (sga) learning skills processing sensory information communication noun fluency intelligence quotient - iq sensory motor preception intellectual abilities broca's area brodmann area 42 auditory processing heschl's gyrus ba 41 hearing sensitivity reading fusiform gyrus activation lexicon middle temporal gyrus language comprehension planum temporale right temporal cortex cerebellum prematurity gyrification sulcation corpus callosum parietal lobe maturation cerebral volume myelination growth motor semantic pathway ventral pathway functional connecivity visual and auditory decoding verbal knowledge syntactic semantics integration phonemic discrimination auditory system superior temporal gyrus nonlinguistic representational competence early cognition spiritual and moral social and emotional cognition developmental domains cortical auditory processing auditory sensory modulation auditory event-related potential auditory motor area descending auditory pathway auditory discrimination perisylvian language system tissue integrity reading deficits basal ganglia right hippocampus frontal regions left temporal auxiliary circuits neural networks formulating goals information processing goal setting attentional control cognitive flexibility top-down bias signals emotion thought dorsolateral cortex ba 9 anterior prefrontal deficits fluid intelligence nonverbal abilities cognitive control parietal cortices somatosensory cortex medial prefrontal dorsolateral prefrontal left temporo-parietal region silent rehersal premotor cortical area primary motor cortical area supramarginal gyrus pars opercularis central executive episodic buffer visuo-spatial sketchpad phonological loop spatial working memory auditory verbal short-term memory visual motor integration verbal memory visual spatial skills syntactic comprehension nonverbal reasoning reading comprehension low birth weight linguistic processing speed language skills motor cortex motor skills preterm effects gross motor function fine motor function sensory integration cognitive functions global development posterior cerebral cortex educational experience standardized measures maternal race/ethnicity neurodevelopmental outcome low birth-weight (lbw) math developmental delay respiratory distress syndrome not school ready peabody picture vocabulary test-3rd ed extremely low birth-weight (elbw) bracken school readiness very preterm (vpt) maternal education parents education achievement very low birth-weight (vlbw) early childcare provider socioeconomic status (ses) academic performance social functioning poverty pediatrician complex language vocabulary poor vocabulary language delay morphosyntactic language development linguistic ability receptive vocabulary medical problems preschool age neurological deficit cognitive difficulty microstructure cortical differentiation brain development third trimester synaptogenesis neurogenesis intervention organization embryonic myelin left white matter lateralization decoding words phonological discrimination speech and language phonetic discrimination grapheme-phoneme conversion language aqusition specific language impairment decoding phonemes speech discrimination auditory center process grapheme-phonemes modify writing braom print-sensitivity meaning grapheme-phoneme language areas visual word form area recruitment cortical competition learning understand spelling words neuroscience education microstructural connectivity neuroimaging tissue organization fractional anisotrophy (fa) diffusion tensor imaging (dti) deactivation blood oxygen level-dependent (bold) signal brain activity event-related potential functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) language distribution network whole brain analysis impairment occipital lobe arcuate fasciculus hemispheres environmental experience audio-motor loop transport linguistic information frontal lobe neuroplasticity nonmotor semantic language executive control visual-spatial processing moderate to late preterm right inferior frontal gyrus visual processing neurocognitive pathways dual route theory dorsal and ventral streams cortical organization auditory-motor integration brain volume cortical growth cingulate gyrus reduction brain growth trimester white mattter cortical surface area neuron fetal brain risk factors moderate preterm special education disability developmental cerebral palsy neurodevelopment psychlogical autism sensory cognitive delay biological risk etiology environmental factors jaundice bilirubin neurotixin
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