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Style Guides APA, Chicago & MLA
OM PRAKASH SAINI
Ph.D. Scholar, DLIS, BBAU, Lucknow.
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Contact: 8726948926…
• Theoretical Framework
• Need of Citation Styles
• How to writing/use
• Areas of Applications
• In-Text Citation and References
• Bibliography and Annotated
• Practical Framework
• Comparative Description
What is a citation and citation style?
• A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and
intellectual works that you utilized to support your research.
• A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and
how the information is ordered, punctuation and other formatting.
Why Use Citation Standards?
• locate particular sources
• cross-reference sources easily
• Provides consistent format within a
• Gives you credibility as a writer
• Combatting plagiarism
• Provides a Standard format
Where Do I Find These Formats?
• Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 6th ed.2009 www.apastyle.org
• MLA Handbook 8th Ed. MLA: New York, 2016. 146 p.
• The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing was taken out of print in
summer 2016. The system of documentation explained in MLA Handbook 8 ed.
• The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, University of
Chicago Press: Chicago, USA, 2010.
• 17th ed. will Publish September 2017
How do I choose a citation style?
• The citation style depends on the academic discipline involved. For
• APA (American Psychological Association) is used in Social Sc.,
Psychology, and Sciences, education.
• MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities,
Literature and Linguistics.
• Chicago style is generally used by Business, History, Fine Arts and Law.
Where to Use a citation style?
• In the following areas the Citation Styles are use.
• Annotated Bibliography
Are there Free Online Citation Managers?
• Online citation managers are an easy way to go to keep track of all of your
references. Listed below are a few online citation management tools.
• EasyBib The Free Automatic Bibliography and Citation Maker
• Zotero a free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share
your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.
• NoodleTools is the Web's most comprehensive and accurate MLA, APA, and
Chicago bibliography composer with fully-integrated note-taking.
• BibMe The fully automatic bibliography maker that auto-fills. It's the easiest way
to build a works cited page. And it's free.
• Citation Machine Citation Machine helps students and professional researchers to
properly credit the information that they use. Its primary goal is to make it so easy for
student researchers to cite their information sources.
Basic Information Needs for Citation?
• It depends on the type and Nature of sources
• Typically, a citation can include (in case of Book)
• Author(s)/Editor, Trans. Comp. name
• Title (Chapter or Part of Book i.e. series, etc.), Ed., Vol. No.
• Imprint (place, publisher and date/year)
• Page numbers
• No. of Vol.
• Medium of Publication (print/Web in MLA)
• DOI (Digital Object Identifier).
• Web link (APA)
APA Citation Style
• APA (American Psychological Association) Style originated in 1929, when a group
of psychologists, anthropologists, and to sought and establish a simple set of
procedures, or style rules.
• Gained wide acceptance in Social Sciences, Earth Sciences, Psychology and
• It requires writing in proper tenses i.e. Use the present tense (exists) for
established knowledge, and present perfect (has reported) or past tense
(reported) for an in-text citation.
Using In-Text Citation in APA
• Cite last names only and the year of publication with in parentheses
after the name. Include only the year in the text even if the reference
include a month.
• Cite page numbers with direct quotation but not with a paraphrase.
• Use ‘p.’ or pp. before page number.
• Example: Verma (2010) has advanced the idea of combatting social sciences
and mathematics to …
• One study has advanced the idea of combatting social sciences and
mathematics to … (Verma, 2010). Or (Verma, 2010, p. 55).
• Citing Block (more than 40 words) of Material, Singh (2011) reported
Using In-Text Citation in APA
• Citing a work more than one author
• Varma and Sharma (2011) offered statistics on the toxic….. Or It has been
reported (Varma & Sharma, 2011) that toxic level…..
• Up to 3 to 5 authors name them all and then after use “et al.” (e.g. Fredrick at al., 2017)
• Citing more than one work by an author: Use small letters (a b c)
• (Thompson, 2017a) and (Thompson, 2017b).
• Corporate Authors in the Text (Associations, Corporations, Govt. agencies, (It may
abbreviating in [IMA]) e.g. (Indian Medical Association [IMA], 2017)
• Citing a work with no author: e.g. (“Tuition Crises,” 2017, p. 34).
• Citing Internet Sources: Provide a paragraph No. (Yang, 2017, par. 1).
• Provide a page No. (Yang, 2017, pp. 15-20). Or (…p.15).
Reference List by APA Style: Book
• Use References. Should be double spaced throughout and Alphabetize
the entries letter by letter.
• Align Left first line indented five spaces.
• Italicize name of books, periodicals, and volume numbers.
• Template: Book
• Author Surname, Author Forename. (Year). 'Title: Subtitle. Place: Publisher.
• Sharma, V. K. (2017). Library services in digital age. New Delhi: Indica.
Reference List by APA Style: Periodical
• Journal Article
• Chaudhary, R. (2010). Total quality management in libraries. Library Herald, 35
• Magazine Article
• Boyle, T. C. (2017, October) What separates us from animals. Time, 23-28.
• Sinha, K. P. (2017, March 27). The bed news bulls. Hindustan, p.2.
• Gorman, L. (2017). Report on Insurance Fraud (No. 2016-1). New York, Insurance
Reference List by APA Style: Internet Sources
• The reference list entry for an e-book includes the author, date, title, and source (URL or DOI). For
a chapter in an e-book, include the chapter title and page numbers (if available).
• Author, A. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
• Author, A. (date). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx
• Chapter in an e-book
• Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved
• Facebook & Twitter
• The general format for creating a reference for a video found on
YouTube and other video-posting websites:
• If both the real name of the person who posted the video and the
screen name are known:
• Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file].
Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
• If only the screen name of the person who posted the video is known:
• Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from
• The in-text citations include the author name outside of brackets (whichever
that may be) and the date.
MLA Citation Style
• MLA (Modern Language Association) style for documentation is used
in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.
• The MLA was founded in 1883, as a discussion and advocacy group
for the study of literature and modern languages.
• MLA style was updated in 2016 to meet the challenges facing today’s
In-text Citation by MLA Style
• Book with one author
• (Author Last name page) e.g. In another study (Singh 80)....
• (Page no) e.g. Singh has discussed (80)....
Reference List by MLA Style: Book
• Author last name, First name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher,
Year of publication.
• McDonagh, Sean. Why are we Deaf to the Cry of the Earth. Dublin: Veritas, 2017.
Chicago Citation Style
• The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a guide for American English
published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.
• Sixteenth Edition, 2010 is the latest one that have online version also
• The Chicago Manual of Style is used in the subjects like Business,
History, Fine Arts and Law but not in literature.
Chicago Citation Style: Basic Elements
• Author(s) first listed author's name
• Article title inside quotation marks
• Journal title in italic type
• Volume Issue No
• Year along with month, (if specified) in parentheses
• Page numbers specific page number in a note; page range in a
• Digital object identifier or date of accessed with URL
Heilman, James M., and Andrew G. West "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying
Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language." Journal of Medical Internet
Research 17 no. 3 (2015) e62 doi:10.2196/jmir.4069
Types of Chicago Citation Style
• Author-date style
• Using author-date style, the sourced text is indicated parenthetically with the last name(s) of
the author(s) and the year of publication with no intervening punctuation.
• Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly (Smith 2016).
• In case page (Smith 2016, 24). and if author already mentioned then only (2016).
• Notes and bibliography style
• Using notes and bibliography style, the sourced text is indicated by a superscripted note
number which corresponds to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote)
or at the end of a main body of text (as an endnote).
• 1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945
(New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
• 2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.