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At other countries' expense?
Lithium-Ion Batteries as Backbone of the Mobility Transition
Dr. Johannes Betz
Jahrestagung des Öko-Instituts
22. Juni 2022 dbb forum berlin
2
www.oeko.de
Demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)
(1) The data refers to the year 2018. Source: Pillot, Christophe (2019): Impact of the xEV Market growth on
Lithium-Ion Batteries and Raw Materials Supply 2018-2030 AABC: advanced automotive battery
conference. 30 Januar 2019, Strasbourg, Frankreich https://bit.ly/3mq2oPV accessed on 5.6.2020
(2) Eurostat; Figure: Oeko-Institut 2019
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
Sources: Eurostat; Figure: Oeko-Institut 2019
Global GWh
demand
(2)
(1)
● Share of LIBs in EU vehicles forecast to rise
to over 85% by 2030
3
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Material demand in the EU for LIB cell and pack production
● Aluminium accounts for the
largest share of the demand
● Almost all materials are
extracted to a large extent by
mining
● The battery sector dominates
the demand for lithium and
cobalt
● The growth of the nickel and
flake graphite market is driven
by LIBs
(1) Bittner, Andreas; Flegler, Andreas; Neef, Christoph; Rostek, Leon; Stijepic, Denis; Tercero
Espinoza, Luis Alberto; Thielmann, Axel (2021): Quantifizierung Batterierecycling. Edited by
Fraunhofer. Karlsruhe.
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
(1)
4
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Country overview for lithium mining
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
5
www.oeko.de
Challenges of lithium mining
• Hard rock mining (mainly Australia):
• Mining of spodumene in open pits
• Extraction followed by roasting and acid treatment
• Related problems are
• Heavy metal pollution
• Acid mine drainage
• Energy intensive processing
• Lithium rich brines in the Andes region
• Evaporating water out of a hyper-saline solution in
arid region leading to
• Water scarcity, leading to social tensions
• Dust evolution
• Refining mostly takes place in China
https://d2j21x2d72g5zn.cloudfront.net/Greenbushes_Australia.jpg-A.jpg (19.06.2022)
Picture “20170809 Bolivia 1505 crop Uyuni sRGB” by Dan Lundberg, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
6
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Lithium mining in Germany
• In Germany, there is a large lithium deposit in the Upper Rhine Valley.
• Extraction from thermal water, with simultaneous use of electricity and heat
• Less water consumption, short transport distances
• Currently only pilot operation
• Planned production of over 4 000 t/a of Li in 2024, over 11 500 t/a in 2025
• World lithium production in 2020 was 82 500 t/a
• Further deposit in Eastern Germany (Zinnwald) with over 1 500 t/a Li planned for
the future
https://www.electrive.net/2022/01/04/vulcan-energy-erhaelt-fuenf-explorationslizenzen-im-
oberrheingraben/ (19.06.2022)
http://www.deutschelithium.de/projekte/zinnwald-lithium-projekt/ (19.06.2022)
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
7
www.oeko.de
Sustainable Mining
• Minimizing the impact of mining by choosing the right spots
and maximizing the sustainability during production
• Several important aspects to improve mining, for example:
• Free prior and informed consent
• Good working conditions
• Minimizing ecological impact and circularize production
• Use of renewable energy for mining and processing
• Remediation of abandoned mines
• Formalization of artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) sector
(especially for cobalt)
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
Betz, J., Degreif, S., & Dolega, P. (2021).
State of Play and Roadmap Concept:
Mobility Sector: RE-SOURCING Deliverable
4.2. Darmstadt. Öko-Institut e.V. https://re-
sourcing.eu/files/sop_mobility_sector.pdf
8
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Standards for the lithium-ion battery value chain
Betz, J., Degreif, S., & Dolega, P. (2021). State of Play and Roadmap Concept: Mobility Sector:
RE-SOURCING Deliverable 4.2. Darmstadt. Öko-Institut e.V. https://re-
sourcing.eu/files/sop_mobility_sector.pdf
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
9
www.oeko.de
Many standards - strong standards?
• Example IRMA (Initiative for Responsible
Mining Assurance)
• Important points:
• Covering all industrial mined materials
• Governed equitably by a diverse set of
stakeholders (NGOs have a seat at the table)
• Developed through public consultation
• Step by step improvement system
• Independent audits including on-site visits
• Audit reports are published
https://www.iisd.org/system/files/publications/igf-ssi-review-extractive-economy.pdf (19.06.2022)
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
10
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Reduction of resource demand
• Sufficiency (behavioral change for sustainability)
• Less individual transport with own car (car sharing instead)
• More transport on foot, by bicycle or public transport
• Substitution
• e.g., cobalt-free lithium-ion battery cells (LFP)
• Material efficiency + innovation
• Less inactive materials, more energy per mass and volume
• Recycling
• High collection rates
• High recycling efficiency
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allocation_of_Space_for_Transport_Infrastructure_-
_Example_of_Berlin.png, 19.06.2022
https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2014/04/02/11/13/recycling-305569__340.png 19.06.2022
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
11
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Role of recycling to satisfy resource demand
Stahl et al. (2021) Assessment of Options to Improve Particular Aspects of the EU Regulatory
Framework on Batteries for the European Commission
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
500 000
1 000 000
1 500 000
2 000 000
2 500 000
3 000 000
3 500 000
4 000 000
2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035
Traktionsbatterien
in
Tonnen
Forecast traction batteries PoM and EoL in the EU 27 in tonnes
Traction batteries PoM Traction batteries EoL
Growing markets with long-life products (EVs) will take time before large volumes are recycled
and resources are returned
12
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Concluding remarks
• If motorized individual transport is desired, batteries for electromobility are needed
• Measures to flatten the demand for resources are important
• Recycling of batteries is crucial, but not sufficient
• Mining will play a role for the foreseeable future
• The impact of resource supply through recycling will increase over time
• High, mandatory standards (Mandatory Due Diligence).
• Not only for battery raw materials, but also for crude oil!!!
• Until then, support strong voluntary standards like IRMA
• Promote European mining, provided high environmental and social standards are met
• Compare resource requirements of electric vehicles and cars with combustion engines:
• Crude oil cannot be recycled
• Once the share of electric cars rises to 100%, the peak of resource consumption in this sector will be reached
Betz, J.; Buchert, M.; Dolega, P.; Bulach, W.; Resource consumption of the passenger vehicle sector in Germany until
2035 – the impact of different drive systems, Study on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment,
Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, scientific review by Mathieu, L (T&E) and Helms, H. (ifeu institute), 2021
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
13
www.oeko.de
Thank you very much!
Dr. Johannes Betz
Researcher
Resources & Transport
Darmstadt
+49 6151 8191-174
j.betz@oeko.de
Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022

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At other countries' expense? Lithium-Ion Batteries as Backbone of the Mobility Transition

  • 1. www.oeko.de At other countries' expense? Lithium-Ion Batteries as Backbone of the Mobility Transition Dr. Johannes Betz Jahrestagung des Öko-Instituts 22. Juni 2022 dbb forum berlin
  • 2. 2 www.oeko.de Demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (1) The data refers to the year 2018. Source: Pillot, Christophe (2019): Impact of the xEV Market growth on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Raw Materials Supply 2018-2030 AABC: advanced automotive battery conference. 30 Januar 2019, Strasbourg, Frankreich https://bit.ly/3mq2oPV accessed on 5.6.2020 (2) Eurostat; Figure: Oeko-Institut 2019 Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022 Sources: Eurostat; Figure: Oeko-Institut 2019 Global GWh demand (2) (1) ● Share of LIBs in EU vehicles forecast to rise to over 85% by 2030
  • 3. 3 www.oeko.de Material demand in the EU for LIB cell and pack production ● Aluminium accounts for the largest share of the demand ● Almost all materials are extracted to a large extent by mining ● The battery sector dominates the demand for lithium and cobalt ● The growth of the nickel and flake graphite market is driven by LIBs (1) Bittner, Andreas; Flegler, Andreas; Neef, Christoph; Rostek, Leon; Stijepic, Denis; Tercero Espinoza, Luis Alberto; Thielmann, Axel (2021): Quantifizierung Batterierecycling. Edited by Fraunhofer. Karlsruhe. Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022 (1)
  • 4. 4 www.oeko.de Country overview for lithium mining Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 5. 5 www.oeko.de Challenges of lithium mining • Hard rock mining (mainly Australia): • Mining of spodumene in open pits • Extraction followed by roasting and acid treatment • Related problems are • Heavy metal pollution • Acid mine drainage • Energy intensive processing • Lithium rich brines in the Andes region • Evaporating water out of a hyper-saline solution in arid region leading to • Water scarcity, leading to social tensions • Dust evolution • Refining mostly takes place in China https://d2j21x2d72g5zn.cloudfront.net/Greenbushes_Australia.jpg-A.jpg (19.06.2022) Picture “20170809 Bolivia 1505 crop Uyuni sRGB” by Dan Lundberg, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 6. 6 www.oeko.de Lithium mining in Germany • In Germany, there is a large lithium deposit in the Upper Rhine Valley. • Extraction from thermal water, with simultaneous use of electricity and heat • Less water consumption, short transport distances • Currently only pilot operation • Planned production of over 4 000 t/a of Li in 2024, over 11 500 t/a in 2025 • World lithium production in 2020 was 82 500 t/a • Further deposit in Eastern Germany (Zinnwald) with over 1 500 t/a Li planned for the future https://www.electrive.net/2022/01/04/vulcan-energy-erhaelt-fuenf-explorationslizenzen-im- oberrheingraben/ (19.06.2022) http://www.deutschelithium.de/projekte/zinnwald-lithium-projekt/ (19.06.2022) Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 7. 7 www.oeko.de Sustainable Mining • Minimizing the impact of mining by choosing the right spots and maximizing the sustainability during production • Several important aspects to improve mining, for example: • Free prior and informed consent • Good working conditions • Minimizing ecological impact and circularize production • Use of renewable energy for mining and processing • Remediation of abandoned mines • Formalization of artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) sector (especially for cobalt) Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022 Betz, J., Degreif, S., & Dolega, P. (2021). State of Play and Roadmap Concept: Mobility Sector: RE-SOURCING Deliverable 4.2. Darmstadt. Öko-Institut e.V. https://re- sourcing.eu/files/sop_mobility_sector.pdf
  • 8. 8 www.oeko.de Standards for the lithium-ion battery value chain Betz, J., Degreif, S., & Dolega, P. (2021). State of Play and Roadmap Concept: Mobility Sector: RE-SOURCING Deliverable 4.2. Darmstadt. Öko-Institut e.V. https://re- sourcing.eu/files/sop_mobility_sector.pdf Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 9. 9 www.oeko.de Many standards - strong standards? • Example IRMA (Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance) • Important points: • Covering all industrial mined materials • Governed equitably by a diverse set of stakeholders (NGOs have a seat at the table) • Developed through public consultation • Step by step improvement system • Independent audits including on-site visits • Audit reports are published https://www.iisd.org/system/files/publications/igf-ssi-review-extractive-economy.pdf (19.06.2022) Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 10. 10 www.oeko.de Reduction of resource demand • Sufficiency (behavioral change for sustainability) • Less individual transport with own car (car sharing instead) • More transport on foot, by bicycle or public transport • Substitution • e.g., cobalt-free lithium-ion battery cells (LFP) • Material efficiency + innovation • Less inactive materials, more energy per mass and volume • Recycling • High collection rates • High recycling efficiency https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allocation_of_Space_for_Transport_Infrastructure_- _Example_of_Berlin.png, 19.06.2022 https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2014/04/02/11/13/recycling-305569__340.png 19.06.2022 Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 11. 11 www.oeko.de Role of recycling to satisfy resource demand Stahl et al. (2021) Assessment of Options to Improve Particular Aspects of the EU Regulatory Framework on Batteries for the European Commission Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022 500 000 1 000 000 1 500 000 2 000 000 2 500 000 3 000 000 3 500 000 4 000 000 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 Traktionsbatterien in Tonnen Forecast traction batteries PoM and EoL in the EU 27 in tonnes Traction batteries PoM Traction batteries EoL Growing markets with long-life products (EVs) will take time before large volumes are recycled and resources are returned
  • 12. 12 www.oeko.de Concluding remarks • If motorized individual transport is desired, batteries for electromobility are needed • Measures to flatten the demand for resources are important • Recycling of batteries is crucial, but not sufficient • Mining will play a role for the foreseeable future • The impact of resource supply through recycling will increase over time • High, mandatory standards (Mandatory Due Diligence). • Not only for battery raw materials, but also for crude oil!!! • Until then, support strong voluntary standards like IRMA • Promote European mining, provided high environmental and social standards are met • Compare resource requirements of electric vehicles and cars with combustion engines: • Crude oil cannot be recycled • Once the share of electric cars rises to 100%, the peak of resource consumption in this sector will be reached Betz, J.; Buchert, M.; Dolega, P.; Bulach, W.; Resource consumption of the passenger vehicle sector in Germany until 2035 – the impact of different drive systems, Study on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, scientific review by Mathieu, L (T&E) and Helms, H. (ifeu institute), 2021 Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022
  • 13. 13 www.oeko.de Thank you very much! Dr. Johannes Betz Researcher Resources & Transport Darmstadt +49 6151 8191-174 j.betz@oeko.de Johannes Betz │Berlin│22.06.2022