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Determinism octavianus

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Determinism octavianus

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Philosophical Ethics
Historically, the ethics of peoples has been based on religion. Not surprisingly, morals differ from person to person and place to place because different cultures have different religions.

If there is to be a philosophical basis for how we ought to lead our lives and seek the good life, then this basis probably cannot be founded on religious tenets of God’s existence. As we have seen, both a priori and a posteriori proofs for God’s existence are not philosophically well developed enough to be reliable for further inferences.
Varieties of Determinism
Determinism (hard or scientific): the philosophical view that all events (including mental events) have a cause. In other words, all states of affairs, both physical and mental, are conditioned by their causes and are describable by scientific law.
Determinism (soft): the philosophical view that all physical events are caused but mental processes are uncaused. Choices have only to do with mental processes and have no actual effect in the external world—a view often held by Stoics.
Predeterminism: the philosophical and theological view that combines God with determinism. On this doctrine events throughout eternity have been foreordained by some supernatural power in a causal sequence.
Fatalism: the philosophical and sometimes theological doctrine that specific events are fixed in advance (either by God or by some unknown means) although there might be some free play in minor events.
Predestination: the theological doctrine that all events are made to happen by God and not by causality in nature. In a sense, the world is being continuously created, and each moment is a miracle (i.e., not explainable by the of laws of nature).
Soren Kierkegaard, Journals, 1837
“It is so impossible for the world to exist without God that if God could forget it it would instantly cease to be.”
Indeterminism: The philosophical doctrine that denies determinism is true More specifically, not all events (either mental or physical) are determined by past events. There is a certain amount of free play between events, possibly due to chance, free choice, or chaos. Some events are caused, and some events are not caused.
Free will: the philosophical and theological doctrine that some of our choices are uncaused and effective. Free will results from the absence of causes, conditions, or other necessary determinations of choice or behavior. The usual definition of this term in philosophy is not affirmative but negative.

Philosophical Ethics
Historically, the ethics of peoples has been based on religion. Not surprisingly, morals differ from person to person and place to place because different cultures have different religions.

If there is to be a philosophical basis for how we ought to lead our lives and seek the good life, then this basis probably cannot be founded on religious tenets of God’s existence. As we have seen, both a priori and a posteriori proofs for God’s existence are not philosophically well developed enough to be reliable for further inferences.
Varieties of Determinism
Determinism (hard or scientific): the philosophical view that all events (including mental events) have a cause. In other words, all states of affairs, both physical and mental, are conditioned by their causes and are describable by scientific law.
Determinism (soft): the philosophical view that all physical events are caused but mental processes are uncaused. Choices have only to do with mental processes and have no actual effect in the external world—a view often held by Stoics.
Predeterminism: the philosophical and theological view that combines God with determinism. On this doctrine events throughout eternity have been foreordained by some supernatural power in a causal sequence.
Fatalism: the philosophical and sometimes theological doctrine that specific events are fixed in advance (either by God or by some unknown means) although there might be some free play in minor events.
Predestination: the theological doctrine that all events are made to happen by God and not by causality in nature. In a sense, the world is being continuously created, and each moment is a miracle (i.e., not explainable by the of laws of nature).
Soren Kierkegaard, Journals, 1837
“It is so impossible for the world to exist without God that if God could forget it it would instantly cease to be.”
Indeterminism: The philosophical doctrine that denies determinism is true More specifically, not all events (either mental or physical) are determined by past events. There is a certain amount of free play between events, possibly due to chance, free choice, or chaos. Some events are caused, and some events are not caused.
Free will: the philosophical and theological doctrine that some of our choices are uncaused and effective. Free will results from the absence of causes, conditions, or other necessary determinations of choice or behavior. The usual definition of this term in philosophy is not affirmative but negative.

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Determinism octavianus

  1. 1. Some Varieites of Determinism Octavianus Dwi Sakti Pamungkas 190700043 Information System Chapter 7
  2. 2. Philosophical Ethics • Historically, the ethics of peoples has been based on religion. Not surprisingly, morals differ from person to person and place to place because different cultures have different religions. • If there is to be a philosophical basis for how we ought to lead our lives and seek the good life, then this basis probably cannot be founded on religious tenets of God’s existence. As we have seen, both a priori and a posteriori proofs for God’s existence are not philosophically well developed enough to be reliable for further inferences. ( ethicsbook, 62 )
  3. 3. Varieties of Determinism • Determinism (Hard or Scientific) • Determinism (Soft) • Predeterminism • Fatalism • Predestination • Indeterminism • Free Will
  4. 4. Determinism ( Hard or Scientific ) • The philosophical view that all events (including mental events) have a cause. In other words, all states of affairs, both physical and mental, are conditioned by their causes and are describable by scientific law. Implications : In a deterministic universe, there is no free will, no miracles, and no chance events. Sometimes mental events or "choices" are considered epiphenomena. The classic view of determinism was expressed by Laplace. Given sufficient knowledge of every particle in the universe, any future event or past event could be calculated with exactitude. ( ethicsbook, 63 )
  5. 5. Positif Negatif http://www.pengertianmenurutparaahli.net/pengertian-fisis-determinis-dan-posibilis/ Ellsworth Huntington
  6. 6. Pierre-Simon Laplace Philosophical Essays on Probability. New York : Springer-Verlag, 1995. If we imagine an intellect which at any given moment knew all the forces that animate Nature and the mutual positions of the beings that comprise it—if this intellect were vast enough to submit its data to analysis -- could condense into a single formula the movement of the greatest bodies of the univese ant that of the lightest atom. For such an intellect nothing could be uncertain and the future just like the past would be present before its eyes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace ( ethicsbook, 63 )
  7. 7. Philosophical essays are useful thoughts for knowledge. Examples in making the definition of science, must refer to philosophy and described in the essay Probability system is divided into 2 1. General description of probability which means that it is most likely to occur or can be known as an opportunity, such as knowledge of calculus that the calculation approaches the truth. 2. the rules of calculating in calculus and how calculus can be precise in predicting. because the success of calculus has been proven before ( Ma’am Harisa )
  8. 8. Determinism ( Soft ) • The philosophical view that all physical events are caused but mental processes are uncaused. Choices have only to do with mental processes and have no actual effect in the external world—a view often held by Stoics. Implications : Consider why one sees a movie twice or watches an instant replay on TV. We do not do so in order to see a different outcome, but we do so as a result of interest and active perception. ( ethicsbook, 63-64 )
  9. 9. Predeterminism • The philosophical and theological view that combines God with determinism. On this doctrine events throughout eternity have been foreordained by some supernatural power in a causal sequence. ( ethicsbook, 64 )
  10. 10. Fatalism • The philosophical and sometimes theological doctrine that specific events are fixed in advance (either by God or by some unknown means) although there might be some free play in minor events. Implications : Fatalism does not presuppose causality, but it is compatible with choice with respect to some events and is compatible with the existence of miracles. The idea is that major events such as birth, death, major discovery, and so forth will happen regardless of causes or chance. "What will be, will be, and there is nothing we can do about it". ( ethicsbook, 64 )
  11. 11. Example ( ethicsbook, 64 ) https://surabaya.tribunnews.com/2018/05/24/10-foto-perbandingan-si- kaya-dan-si-miskin-saat-tunjukkan-mainan-kesukaan-mereka-miris-lihatnya https://www.brilio.net/duh/10-potret-mirisnya-perbedaan- kehidupan-si-kaya-dan-miskin-di-china-160915a.html
  12. 12. Predestination • the theological doctrine that all events are made to happen by God and not by causality in nature. In a sense, the world is being continuously created, and each moment is a miracle (i.e., not explainable by the of laws of nature). Implications : Many persons who hold this doctrine believe that predestination is compatible with free will in the sense that God knows in advance what will happen, but we freely choose and, by coincidence, choose according to God’s plan. ( ethicsbook, 65 )
  13. 13. Example Miracle ( ethicsbook, 65 )
  14. 14. Soren Kierkegaard, Journals, 1837 “ It is so impossible for the world to exist without God that if God could forget it it would instantly cease to be. ” https://en.wikiquote.org/ wiki/S%C3%B8ren_Kierk egaard ( ethicsbook , 65 )
  15. 15. Indeterminism • The philosophical doctrine that denies determinism is true More specifically, not all events (either mental or physical) are determined by past events. There is a certain amount of free play between events, possibly due to chance, free choice, or chaos. Some events are caused, and some events are not caused. Implications : Hence, indeterminism allows for free will, miracles, laws of nature, causality, chance, and chaos. ( ethicsbook, 65 )
  16. 16. Chance (a priori) • The philosophical view that the probability of a future occurrence can be calculated from the principles of mathematics. Chance (a posteriori) • The philosophical view that the probability of a future occurrence can be calculated from past observations of previous similar occurrences. The a posteriori view of chance is wrapped up the intractable problem of induction.( ethicsbook, 65-66 )
  17. 17. Free Will • The philosophical and theological doctrine that some of our choices are uncaused and effective. Free will results from the absence of causes, conditions, or other necessary determinations of choice or behavior. The usual definition of this term in philosophy is not affirmative but negative. ( ethicsbook, 66 )
  18. 18. Example People can make a free choice as to whether to commit a crime or not (unless they are a child or they are insane). This does not mean that behavior is random, but we are free from the causal influences of past events. According to freewill a person is responsible for their own actions. https://www.simplypsychology.org/freewill- determinism.html
  19. 19. Thank you for Your Attention Chapter 7

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