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MATERIALS FOR A HISTORY OF CONSANGUINITY IN
OMAN FROM EARLIEST TIMES
THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF TRIBALALLIANCE IN PREHISTORIC OMAN...
THE INTERWOVING OF FOUR MAIN FACTORS
1. THE INTERMEDIARY GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION IN BETWEEN THE MAIN DIVISIONS
OF EARLY CIVI...
“LE TERRE DI
MEZZO”
TRA MESOPOTAMIA,
INDIA
E ASIA CENTRALE
LA PENISOLA DI OMAN
ESTREMO LEMBO ORIENTALE
DELLA PENISOLAARABA
FALAJ
FALAJ IRRIGATION SCHEMES
MONSOONS ENERGY LIFELINES
DHOWS
ARABIAN TRADITIONAL
WATERCRAFT
AFONSO DE ALBUQUERQUE
1453 – 1515
SAYYED SAID BIN SULTAN
1797 - 1856
ZANZIBAR
THE GATE TO DARK AFRICA
SLAVE
MERCHANTS
IL PAESE DI MAGAN
MAGAN CIVILIZATION
2800-2000 BCE
• 5000-3400 cal BC: THE LONG PRE-POTTERY
NEOLITHIC ESTABLISHES CULTURAL INTEGREATION
THRO...
4500 et 3700 cal BC
inverno
estate
inverno
estate
Nord-Est Sud-Ovest
Mobilità Verticale dei Cacciatori-Raccoglitori Olocenici
Umm al-
Qawayn 2
Al-Buhais 18
Karimat al-Manahil
MANGROVES AS A RESOURCE-RICH
BIOTOPE
Quriyat
KHB-1
4200-4000 cal BC
276 Individuals
• Individual Burials
• primary
• secondary
• Collective Burials(max 5 individui)
• primary
• secondary
• N...
SHELL ORNAMENTS
Uerpmann, M.
1993 - Structuring the Late Stone Age of Oman, Arabian
Archaeology and Epigraphy 3 : 65-109.
Ra’s al-Hamra
Qurum
RAS AL-HAMRA
3800-3200 cal BC
RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
RH-5 :
3700-3300 cal BC
• 122 tombe
• Una collettiva
(43 individui)
• 170 individuali
Salvatori, S.
1996 – Death and ritual in a
population of coastal food
foragers in Oman, in
Afanas’ev, G., S. Cleuziou,
J.R...
RH-5, TOMBA 82
RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
Introduction
Présentation
de quelques
tombes
Pathologies
...
RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
Introduction
Présentation
de quelques
tombes
Pathologies
...
RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
Introduction
Présentation
de quelques
tombes
Pathologies
...
RH-5 CALCITE IMPRESSIONS OF ROPES AND STRINGS
G. 38 AN ADULT MALE
WITH A TURTLE SKULL
?
THE GREEN TURTLE Chelonia mydas
RH-5
SECONDARY BURIALS
RECOMPOSED IN THE
SHAPE OF TURTLES
RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
Introduction
Présentation
de quelques
tombes
Pathologies
...
RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
Introduction
Présentation
de quelques
tombes
Pathologies
...
Santini, G.
2002 – Burial complex 43 at the prehistoric graveyard of Ra’s al-Hamra in northern Oman, in
S. Cleuziou, M. To...
FROM KINSHIP TO KINSHIP
HIGH LY SUSTAINABLE ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS
DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE A
CONTINUOUS WATER SUPPLY
DATE ...
Hili 8
datteri
Grano Orzo
Hili 8
Jabal Haqlah (Buraimi) : 914 cairns
Cairns
Hafit graves
Beehive graves
Jebel Hafit,
Cairns 5 and 6
FINDINGS
Gr 109
Small biconical buff jar
Cilyndrical neck, brocken
everted rims
Abraded, no decoration
VIEWSHED?
CLUSTER OF GRAVES
OVERLOOKING THE IZKI
PASSAGES
ZUKAYT
………OVERLOOKING CROPS AND PASTURES
….OVERLOOKING FISHING GROUNDS AND MARINE PASSAGES
TYPES OF PLAN
IN
UMM AN-NAR
GRAVES
Hili N (2200-2000 BC), une fosse longue de 6 m, profonde et large de 2
Juste à côté de la tombe J (trouvée
presque vide)
Entre 600 et 1000 individus
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times
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2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times

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2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times

  1. 1. MATERIALS FOR A HISTORY OF CONSANGUINITY IN OMAN FROM EARLIEST TIMES THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF TRIBALALLIANCE IN PREHISTORIC OMAN AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MAGAN CIVILIZATION DURING THE 3° MILLENNIUM BCE MAURIZIO TOSI MINISTRY OF HERITAGE & CULTURE OF OMAN SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSANGUINITY “TOWARDS THE DISCOVERY OF GENES PREDISPOSING TO AND PROTECTING FROM DISEASE” BUSTAN PALACE MUSCAT 17-19 MARCH 2012
  2. 2. THE INTERWOVING OF FOUR MAIN FACTORS 1. THE INTERMEDIARY GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION IN BETWEEN THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF EARLY CIVILIZATION IN THE NEAR EAST, IRAN, INDIA, EAST AFRICA THAT HAS FAVOURED SOCIAL &CULTURAL EXCHANGES INTERSECTING PEOPLE &GOODS; 2. THE AL-HAJAR MOUNTAINS WHICH DETERMINED A NET DIVISION OF ECOLOGICAL NICHES BETWEEN OCEAN AND DESERT; 3. THE PERSISTENCE AND SUCCESS OF A SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF TRIBAL ALLIANCES BASED ON A TIGHT FABRIC OF CLAN STRUCTURES MADE POSSIBLE BY A SYSTEMATIC REFERENCE TO CONSANGUINITY; 4. THE FUNERARY RITUALITY INTRODUCED BY THE MAGAN CIVILIZATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM BCE IN ORDER TO LEGITIMIZE SUCH SUCH ALLIANCES WITH A BLENDING OF THE ANCESTORS’ REMAINS IN COLLECTIVE BURIALS SURVIVING TO THE PRESENT IN THOUSANDS OF STONE CAIRNS STILL STANDINS AS HBISTORICAL LANDAMARKS ACROSS THE WHOLE COUNTRY. WHY OMAN ?
  3. 3. “LE TERRE DI MEZZO” TRA MESOPOTAMIA, INDIA E ASIA CENTRALE LA PENISOLA DI OMAN ESTREMO LEMBO ORIENTALE DELLA PENISOLAARABA
  4. 4. FALAJ
  5. 5. FALAJ IRRIGATION SCHEMES
  6. 6. MONSOONS ENERGY LIFELINES
  7. 7. DHOWS ARABIAN TRADITIONAL WATERCRAFT
  8. 8. AFONSO DE ALBUQUERQUE 1453 – 1515
  9. 9. SAYYED SAID BIN SULTAN 1797 - 1856 ZANZIBAR THE GATE TO DARK AFRICA
  10. 10. SLAVE MERCHANTS
  11. 11. IL PAESE DI MAGAN
  12. 12. MAGAN CIVILIZATION 2800-2000 BCE • 5000-3400 cal BC: THE LONG PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC ESTABLISHES CULTURAL INTEGREATION THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE TERRITORY OF EASTERN ARABIA; • 3400-3100 cal BC :THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION FROM SUBSISTENCE TO EXCHANGE ECONOMY • 3100-2800 cal BCE: FINAL CONSOLIDATION OF TRIBAL ALLIANCES AND SETTLEMENT NUCLEATION IN OASES.
  13. 13. 4500 et 3700 cal BC
  14. 14. inverno estate inverno estate Nord-Est Sud-Ovest Mobilità Verticale dei Cacciatori-Raccoglitori Olocenici
  15. 15. Umm al- Qawayn 2 Al-Buhais 18
  16. 16. Karimat al-Manahil
  17. 17. MANGROVES AS A RESOURCE-RICH BIOTOPE Quriyat
  18. 18. KHB-1 4200-4000 cal BC
  19. 19. 276 Individuals • Individual Burials • primary • secondary • Collective Burials(max 5 individui) • primary • secondary • No evident Repartitions for Sex and Age
  20. 20. SHELL ORNAMENTS Uerpmann, M. 1993 - Structuring the Late Stone Age of Oman, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 3 : 65-109.
  21. 21. Ra’s al-Hamra Qurum RAS AL-HAMRA 3800-3200 cal BC
  22. 22. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  23. 23. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  24. 24. RH-5 : 3700-3300 cal BC • 122 tombe • Una collettiva (43 individui) • 170 individuali
  25. 25. Salvatori, S. 1996 – Death and ritual in a population of coastal food foragers in Oman, in Afanas’ev, G., S. Cleuziou, J.R. Lukacs et M. Tosi (dir.), The Prehistory of Asia and Oceania, colloque 16, XIII°, congrès de l’UISPP, ABACO, Forli, p. 205-222.
  26. 26. RH-5, TOMBA 82
  27. 27. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 3 •1 femme adulte •1 adulte (sexe indeterminé) •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 enfant de 5-6 ans •1 enfant de 1-3 mois
  28. 28. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 6 •1 femme de 18-20 ans •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 fœtus de environ 8 ½ - 9 mois lunaires
  29. 29. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Traces de calcite, vestiges de matières végétales •Retrouvés sur plusieurs tombes •Vêtements, linceuls, …?
  30. 30. RH-5 CALCITE IMPRESSIONS OF ROPES AND STRINGS
  31. 31. G. 38 AN ADULT MALE WITH A TURTLE SKULL
  32. 32. ? THE GREEN TURTLE Chelonia mydas
  33. 33. RH-5 SECONDARY BURIALS RECOMPOSED IN THE SHAPE OF TURTLES
  34. 34. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Spina bifida Arthrose …
  35. 35. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 20 •3 adultes •2 enfants
  36. 36. Santini, G. 2002 – Burial complex 43 at the prehistoric graveyard of Ra’s al-Hamra in northern Oman, in S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi et J. Zarins (dir.) : Essays in the late prehistory of the Arabian peninsula, Serie Orientale Roma XCIII, Rome, IsIAO, p. 147-167.
  37. 37. FROM KINSHIP TO KINSHIP
  38. 38. HIGH LY SUSTAINABLE ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS WATER SUPPLY DATE PALMS PROVIDE NECESSARY SHADOW CONDITIONS FOR • FRUITS • LEGUMES + CROPS IN SURROUNDING AREAS END 4TH MILLENNIUM BCE OASES DEVELOPMENT
  39. 39. Hili 8
  40. 40. datteri Grano Orzo
  41. 41. Hili 8
  42. 42. Jabal Haqlah (Buraimi) : 914 cairns
  43. 43. Cairns Hafit graves Beehive graves
  44. 44. Jebel Hafit, Cairns 5 and 6
  45. 45. FINDINGS Gr 109 Small biconical buff jar Cilyndrical neck, brocken everted rims Abraded, no decoration
  46. 46. VIEWSHED?
  47. 47. CLUSTER OF GRAVES OVERLOOKING THE IZKI PASSAGES ZUKAYT
  48. 48. ………OVERLOOKING CROPS AND PASTURES
  49. 49. ….OVERLOOKING FISHING GROUNDS AND MARINE PASSAGES
  50. 50. TYPES OF PLAN IN UMM AN-NAR GRAVES
  51. 51. Hili N (2200-2000 BC), une fosse longue de 6 m, profonde et large de 2 Juste à côté de la tombe J (trouvée presque vide)
  52. 52. Entre 600 et 1000 individus

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