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Tracheotomy - UCLA Head and Neck Surgery, ENT Ear, Nose & Throat ( PDFDrive ).pdf

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  1. 1. Tracheotomy Tracheotomy
  2. 2. History History Π-Discussed in the Ebers Papyrus and the Rig Veda Π-1500 BC Π-Discussed in the Ebers Papyrus and the Rig Veda Π-1500 BC
  3. 3. History History Œ -Treatment obstructive diseases (Antyllus, 2nd century AD) Œ -Discussed in the writings of Braassarolo (1546) Œ -Considered “futile and irresponsible” Œ -Rarely preformed until 1883 Œ -Treatment obstructive diseases (Antyllus, 2nd century AD) Œ -Discussed in the writings of Braassarolo (1546) Œ -Considered “futile and irresponsible” Œ -Rarely preformed until 1883
  4. 4. History History ΠTrousseau, 1833: -discussed 200 cases in diptheria patients ΠWilson, 1932: -suggested the use in poliomyelitis patients ΠTrousseau, 1833: -discussed 200 cases in diptheria patients ΠWilson, 1932: -suggested the use in poliomyelitis patients
  5. 5. History History Œ Present Era (1965-present): -“Rational Period” -Indications, complications outlined -Modern trach Œ Present Era (1965-present): -“Rational Period” -Indications, complications outlined -Modern trach
  6. 6. The Closeout The Closeout
  7. 7. Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation Πcareful, thorough, rapid ΠPresence of stridor? -Inspiratory (obstrxn at or above glottis) -Expiratory (usually more distal,tracheal) -Biphasic (possibly subglottic obstrxn) Πcareful, thorough, rapid ΠPresence of stridor? -Inspiratory (obstrxn at or above glottis) -Expiratory (usually more distal,tracheal) -Biphasic (possibly subglottic obstrxn)
  8. 8. Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation ΠQuality of Voice -muffled (supraglottic) -hoarse (laryngeal involvement, ie RRP) -breathy (vocal fold paralysis) ΠOther signs (supra/substernal retractions, tachypnea, cyanosis) ΠQuality of Voice -muffled (supraglottic) -hoarse (laryngeal involvement, ie RRP) -breathy (vocal fold paralysis) ΠOther signs (supra/substernal retractions, tachypnea, cyanosis)
  9. 9. Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation Age -Children (laryngomalacia, choanal atresia, hemangioma, tracheomalacia, infection) -Adults (Tumors more common, trauma) Age -Children (laryngomalacia, choanal atresia, hemangioma, tracheomalacia, infection) -Adults (Tumors more common, trauma) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  10. 10. Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation ΠSuspicion of laryngeal trauma? -Awake tracheotomy -Flexible fiberoptic intubation ΠSuspicion of laryngeal trauma? -Awake tracheotomy -Flexible fiberoptic intubation
  11. 11. The Barrel (AKA the Tube, the Slot, the Shack) The Barrel (AKA the Tube, the Slot, the Shack)
  12. 12. Nonsurgical Measures Nonsurgical Measures ΠIdentify the difficult airway -Oxygen -mask ventilate, jaw thrust -Heliox (80%helium, 20%oxygen) ΠIdentify the difficult airway -Oxygen -mask ventilate, jaw thrust -Heliox (80%helium, 20%oxygen)
  13. 13. Nonsurgical Measures Nonsurgical Measures Œ Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal airways Œ Good for patients with an altered mental state Œ OPA’s can obstruct if improperly placed Œ NPA’s can cause epistaxis Œ Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal airways Œ Good for patients with an altered mental state Œ OPA’s can obstruct if improperly placed Œ NPA’s can cause epistaxis
  14. 14. (Altered Mental State) (Altered Mental State)
  15. 15. Nonsurgical Measures Nonsurgical Measures Œ Steroids and decongestants: Œ Steroids and decongestants: QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  16. 16. Nonsurgical Measures Nonsurgical Measures ΠSteroids and decongestants -Steroids: (methylpred succinate (rapid onset) followed by dexameth) -Racemic epi/aerosol epi: topical decongestant ΠSteroids and decongestants -Steroids: (methylpred succinate (rapid onset) followed by dexameth) -Racemic epi/aerosol epi: topical decongestant
  17. 17. Nonsurgical Measures Nonsurgical Measures Π-Endotracheal translaryngeal intubation Π-Jackson Sliding Laryngoscope Π-Fiberoptic intubation Π-Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Π-Combitube Π-Endotracheal translaryngeal intubation Π-Jackson Sliding Laryngoscope Π-Fiberoptic intubation Π-Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Π-Combitube
  18. 18. LMA LMA QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  19. 19. Combitube Combitube
  20. 20. Jackson Laryngoscope Jackson Laryngoscope
  21. 21. Fiberoptic Intubation Fiberoptic Intubation QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  22. 22. Surgical Measures: Tracheotomy Surgical Measures: Tracheotomy
  23. 23. Tracheotomy Tracheotomy ΠIndications: 1)Major Head and Neck Surgery (often temporary airway) 2) Bypassing upper airway obstruction 3) Chronic ventilator dependency 4) Relieving OSA 5) Eliminating pulmonary dead space 6) Management of secretions, including aspiration. 7) Emergent indications ΠIndications: 1)Major Head and Neck Surgery (often temporary airway) 2) Bypassing upper airway obstruction 3) Chronic ventilator dependency 4) Relieving OSA 5) Eliminating pulmonary dead space 6) Management of secretions, including aspiration. 7) Emergent indications
  24. 24. Description of Procedure Description of Procedure Œ Skin Incision Œ Platysma divided Œ Strap muscles separated in the midline Œ AJs retracted laterally or ligated Œ Skin Incision Œ Platysma divided Œ Strap muscles separated in the midline Œ AJs retracted laterally or ligated QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  25. 25. Description of procedure Description of procedure Œ Thyroid isthmus divided or retracted Œ Cricoid hook to pull trachea anteriorly Œ Fascia removed from anterior trachea Œ Thyroid isthmus divided or retracted Œ Cricoid hook to pull trachea anteriorly Œ Fascia removed from anterior trachea QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  26. 26. Description of procedure Description of procedure ΠIncision (btwn 2nd and 3rd tracheal rings) ΠBjork flap -reduces the incidence of accidental decann. and makes reinsertion easier. -contraindicated in children ΠEt tube withdrawn slightly ΠIncision (btwn 2nd and 3rd tracheal rings) ΠBjork flap -reduces the incidence of accidental decann. and makes reinsertion easier. -contraindicated in children ΠEt tube withdrawn slightly
  27. 27. Description of procedure: Description of procedure: ΠTrach tube or endotracheal tube inserted ΠVentillation confirmed ΠTrach tube or endotracheal tube inserted ΠVentillation confirmed
  28. 28. Emergent Tracheotomy Emergent Tracheotomy 1) Severe Maxillofacial trauma 2) Hemorrhage or emesis 3) Cervical spine injury 4) Endotracheal intubation failed or not possible 5) Laryngeal trauma (severe) 1) Severe Maxillofacial trauma 2) Hemorrhage or emesis 3) Cervical spine injury 4) Endotracheal intubation failed or not possible 5) Laryngeal trauma (severe)
  29. 29. Emergent Tracheotomy Emergent Tracheotomy ΠVertical incision ΠLeft hand Π-stabilizes larynx; palpates trachea ΠAirway entered ΠEndotracheal tube inserted Π-Cricoid hook can be used to stabilize trachea during insertion (if avail) ΠVentillation confirmed ΠHemostasis ΠRevision ΠVertical incision ΠLeft hand Π-stabilizes larynx; palpates trachea ΠAirway entered ΠEndotracheal tube inserted Π-Cricoid hook can be used to stabilize trachea during insertion (if avail) ΠVentillation confirmed ΠHemostasis ΠRevision
  30. 30. Complications Complications Œ complication rate of between 5% to 40% In Œ 1130 surgical tracheotomies: major complication rate for surgical tracheotomy 4.3%, with a mortality rate of 0.7% Œ -Goldenberg D, Ari EG, Golz A: Tracheotomy complications: a retrospective study of 1130 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 123:495-500.and others Œ Overall: Hemorrhage (3.7%);Obstruction (2.7%); Tube displacement (1.5%) Œ Œ complication rate of between 5% to 40% In Œ 1130 surgical tracheotomies: major complication rate for surgical tracheotomy 4.3%, with a mortality rate of 0.7% Œ -Goldenberg D, Ari EG, Golz A: Tracheotomy complications: a retrospective study of 1130 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 123:495-500.and others Œ Overall: Hemorrhage (3.7%);Obstruction (2.7%); Tube displacement (1.5%) Œ
  31. 31. The Snap The Snap
  32. 32. Complications Complications ΠImmediate -hemorrhage -false passage -airway fire -damage to surrounding structures ΠImmediate -hemorrhage -false passage -airway fire -damage to surrounding structures
  33. 33. False Passage Figure 68-8 Mechanism of false passage between the sternum (S) and the trachea (T). (From Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT: Complications in tracheostomy. In Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT [eds]: Tracheostomy. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1985, p 150.) False Passage Figure 68-8 Mechanism of false passage between the sternum (S) and the trachea (T). (From Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT: Complications in tracheostomy. In Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT [eds]: Tracheostomy. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1985, p 150.) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  34. 34. Complications Complications Intermediate (hours-days) -delayed hemorrhage -tracheitis, stomal cellulitis -mediastinitis -subcutaneous emphysema or pneumomediastinitis (0-9% incidence); commonly children -PTX (0-4% incidence) -Obstruction (usually a blood clot, decannulation) (2.5% incidence) Intermediate (hours-days) -delayed hemorrhage -tracheitis, stomal cellulitis -mediastinitis -subcutaneous emphysema or pneumomediastinitis (0-9% incidence); commonly children -PTX (0-4% incidence) -Obstruction (usually a blood clot, decannulation) (2.5% incidence)
  35. 35. Complications Complications Delayed Πdelayed hemorrhage -grannulation tissue -trachea-innominate artery fistula ΠTracheoesophageal fistula ΠTracheal stenosis ΠTracheocutaneous fistula Delayed Πdelayed hemorrhage -grannulation tissue -trachea-innominate artery fistula ΠTracheoesophageal fistula ΠTracheal stenosis ΠTracheocutaneous fistula
  36. 36. TI Fistula Mechanism of erosion of the innominate artery (IA) by pressure from the concave surface of the tracheostomy cannula. B, Pressure of the tip of the tracheostomy cannula on the anterior tracheal wall (T) causes erosion into the innominate artery (IA). (From Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT: Complications in tracheostomy. In Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT [eds]: Tracheostomy. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1985, p 167.) TI Fistula Mechanism of erosion of the innominate artery (IA) by pressure from the concave surface of the tracheostomy cannula. B, Pressure of the tip of the tracheostomy cannula on the anterior tracheal wall (T) causes erosion into the innominate artery (IA). (From Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT: Complications in tracheostomy. In Myers EN, Stool SE, Johnson JT [eds]: Tracheostomy. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1985, p 167.) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  37. 37. Postoperative Care Postoperative Care Π-Humidified air Π-Frequent suctioning Π-Trach change Π-Humidified air Π-Frequent suctioning Π-Trach change
  38. 38. Decannulation Decannulation -Good airway patency (disease process treated) -fiberoptic exam VS downsizing and capping -Good airway patency (disease process treated) -fiberoptic exam VS downsizing and capping
  39. 39. Pediatric tracheotomy: Pediatric tracheotomy: Π-Similar to adult Π-Simple vertical incision Π-Often performed concurrently with bronchoscopy Π-Avoid Bjork flap Π-Avoid tracheal ring excision Π-Avoid emergent trach Π-Use stay sutures (4.0-5.0 nonabs. Monofilament) Π-Similar to adult Π-Simple vertical incision Π-Often performed concurrently with bronchoscopy Π-Avoid Bjork flap Π-Avoid tracheal ring excision Π-Avoid emergent trach Π-Use stay sutures (4.0-5.0 nonabs. Monofilament)
  40. 40. Percutaneous tracheotomy Percutaneous tracheotomy ΠPreoperative Planning ΠIntubation cart ΠCoags ΠPhysical exam (High Innom? Obese?) ΠPreoperative Planning ΠIntubation cart ΠCoags ΠPhysical exam (High Innom? Obese?)
  41. 41. Endangered Species Endangered Species
  42. 42. Percutaneous tracheotomy Percutaneous tracheotomy ΠAnesthesia: ΠLocal (1% epi w/lidocaine) ΠTopical via bronchoscope or transtracheal ΠIV sedation ΠAnesthesia: ΠLocal (1% epi w/lidocaine) ΠTopical via bronchoscope or transtracheal ΠIV sedation
  43. 43. Percutaneous tracheotomy Percutaneous tracheotomy Œ -NeedleÆ Guidewire Œ - Serial dilation Œ -Insertion of trach tube Œ -NeedleÆ Guidewire Œ - Serial dilation Œ -Insertion of trach tube QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  44. 44. Percutaneous Tracheotomy Percutaneous Tracheotomy QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  45. 45. Percutaneous tracheotomy Percutaneous tracheotomy Advantages: Π-short operative time Π-easy Π-bedside Π-low cost Advantages: Π-short operative time Π-easy Π-bedside Π-low cost
  46. 46. Percutaneous Tracheotomy Percutaneous Tracheotomy Disadvantages: Π-potential complications Π-blind tracheal entry Disadvantages: Π-potential complications Π-blind tracheal entry
  47. 47. Percutaneous Tracheotomy Percutaneous Tracheotomy ΠRelative contraindications ΠAbsolute contraindications ΠRelative contraindications ΠAbsolute contraindications
  48. 48. Percutaneous Tracheotomy Percutaneous Tracheotomy Œ Œ PEARLS: Œ • The airway should be stabilized by endotracheal intubation or introduction of a bronchoscope to ensure an orderly tracheostomy. • Patients who will require long-term ventilatory assistance should undergo earlier conversion from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy to prevent complications such as laryngeal or subglottic stenosis. • Traction sutures in open surgical tracheostomy are helpful in maintaining an airway in cases of a displaced tracheostomy tube in the immediate postoperative period. • Extended length tracheostomy tubes should be used in obese patients to reduce the risk of accidental decannulation. • Preoperative and/or predischarge teaching makes postoperative care of the tracheostomy considerably easier for the patient. • The use of bronchoscopy is mandatory in all cases of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. • Endoscopic percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is especially well suited to adult patients in the intensive care unit because it is safe, simple, and can be performed at the bedside, reducing the need and expense of moving the patient to the operating room. Œ Œ PEARLS: Œ • The airway should be stabilized by endotracheal intubation or introduction of a bronchoscope to ensure an orderly tracheostomy. • Patients who will require long-term ventilatory assistance should undergo earlier conversion from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy to prevent complications such as laryngeal or subglottic stenosis. • Traction sutures in open surgical tracheostomy are helpful in maintaining an airway in cases of a displaced tracheostomy tube in the immediate postoperative period. • Extended length tracheostomy tubes should be used in obese patients to reduce the risk of accidental decannulation. • Preoperative and/or predischarge teaching makes postoperative care of the tracheostomy considerably easier for the patient. • The use of bronchoscopy is mandatory in all cases of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. • Endoscopic percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is especially well suited to adult patients in the intensive care unit because it is safe, simple, and can be performed at the bedside, reducing the need and expense of moving the patient to the operating room.
  49. 49. Percutaneous Tracheotomy Percutaneous Tracheotomy Œ PITFALLS Œ • Failure to stabilize the airway before tracheostomy may result in intraoperative or postoperative complications or death. • Delay in conversion from long-term endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy may result in laryngeal or subglottic stenosis. • Absence of tracheal traction sutures following open surgical tracheostomy may compromise the ability to appropriately reposition a displaced tracheostomy tube in the early postoperative period. • Lack of adequate light, suction, retraction of tissues, as well as failure to maintain dissection in the midline may lead to injury to major arteries and nerves. • Unless the anesthesia team is present and alerted, adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation may not be available for the patient undergoing tracheostomy for chronic obstruction of the airway. • Inadequate training, inappropriate patient selection, and lack of attention to technical detail may increase the risk of complications in endoscopic percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Œ PITFALLS Œ • Failure to stabilize the airway before tracheostomy may result in intraoperative or postoperative complications or death. • Delay in conversion from long-term endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy may result in laryngeal or subglottic stenosis. • Absence of tracheal traction sutures following open surgical tracheostomy may compromise the ability to appropriately reposition a displaced tracheostomy tube in the early postoperative period. • Lack of adequate light, suction, retraction of tissues, as well as failure to maintain dissection in the midline may lead to injury to major arteries and nerves. • Unless the anesthesia team is present and alerted, adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation may not be available for the patient undergoing tracheostomy for chronic obstruction of the airway. • Inadequate training, inappropriate patient selection, and lack of attention to technical detail may increase the risk of complications in endoscopic percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy.
  50. 50. Percutaneous tracheotomy Percutaneous tracheotomy ΠChildren aside, endoscopic perc. Tracheotomy is a viable alternative to surgical trach when performed by an experienced surgeon -Kost KM. endoscopic percutaneous dilational tracheotomy: a prospective evaluation of 500 consecutive cases. Laryngoscope. 2005; 115 (10 pt 2):1 ΠChildren aside, endoscopic perc. Tracheotomy is a viable alternative to surgical trach when performed by an experienced surgeon -Kost KM. endoscopic percutaneous dilational tracheotomy: a prospective evaluation of 500 consecutive cases. Laryngoscope. 2005; 115 (10 pt 2):1
  51. 51. QUIZ QUIZ
  52. 52. a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout
  53. 53. a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout
  54. 54. a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout
  55. 55. a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout a)Endangered Species b)Barrel c)Snap d)Closeout
  56. 56. References References ΠFrost EA. Tracing the tracheostomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1976; 85:618- 24. ΠBrandt L, Goerig M. The history of tracheotomy. Anaesthesist. 1986; 35:279-83. ΠKost KM. endoscopic percutaneous dilational tracheotomy: a prospective evaluation of 500 consecutive cases. Laryngoscope. 2005; 115 (10 pt 2):1 ΠLalwani AK. Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. New York, NY. 2008. ΠMeyers EN. Operative Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 2nd ed. Elsevier. Philadelphia, PA. 2008. ΠCummings CW. Cummings: Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, 4th ed. Mosby. Philadelphia, PA. 2005. ΠFrost EA. Tracing the tracheostomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1976; 85:618- 24. ΠBrandt L, Goerig M. The history of tracheotomy. Anaesthesist. 1986; 35:279-83. ΠKost KM. endoscopic percutaneous dilational tracheotomy: a prospective evaluation of 500 consecutive cases. Laryngoscope. 2005; 115 (10 pt 2):1 ΠLalwani AK. Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. New York, NY. 2008. ΠMeyers EN. Operative Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 2nd ed. Elsevier. Philadelphia, PA. 2008. ΠCummings CW. Cummings: Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, 4th ed. Mosby. Philadelphia, PA. 2005.

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