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PRELIM and MIDTERM FINALS
Overview of the Course
1. Perspectives on First and Second Language
Acquisition and Various Factors that Influence
Similarities and differences between L1
and L2 Acquisition
2. The Languages Curriculum in the K-12
Components of Language Curriculum
3. Methods of Teaching Language to Children
Methods and Approaches in Teaching
4. Standards-based Unit Lesson Planning
Traditional vs. Standards-Based
Stages in the Development of Standards-
Based Instruction Plan
5. Teaching of Listening
The Listening Process
Types of Listening
Varied Listening Activities
6. Teaching of Speaking
The Nature of Oral Communication
Different Strategies of Oral Intereaction
7. Teaching Reading
Interactive Activities in Reading
8. Teaching of Writing
Process-oriented Approach in Writing
Effective Strategies in Writing
Evaluating Written Compositions
9. Oral Development and Grammar Awareness:
Integration of Literature Skills
Components of Oral Language
Strategies in Developing oral language
Teaching Grammar Lessons
10. Developing Vocabulary Skills
Importance of Learning Vocbulary
Techniques and Methods in Delivering
11. Comprehension: The Ultimate Goal of
Definition and Importance of reading
Activities and Developing Reading
Evaluating Written Compositions
12. Developing Study Skills
Strategies in unlocking potential
13. Teaching ESL in an Integrated Way
Definition and Characteristics of ESL
Skills-segregated Instruction and
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Teaching English in the Elementary Grades
This course is designed for teaching in the primary level. It will emphasize English as a second
language with main focus on language teaching methodologies to improve knowledge and fluency in the
English language in listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Use of content in the structures of English
and Children’s Literature in English will be included. Project-based, task-based learning activities shall be
Course Learning Outcomes
1. Learn about the methods of teaching English as a second.
2. Learn about some of the strategies and techniques used to address specific language
3. Learn about the methods of assessing ESL student.
4. Identify the competencies in the different domains of literacy and illustrate how these are
developed in the child’s mother tongue and to his/her second language/s.
5. Use technology in designing integrated lessons and instructional materials that are
culturally relevant and developmentally appropriate for ESL student using children’s
literature in English.
6. Apply the different strategies in teaching ESL through exercises, well-developed lesson
plans, and micro-teaching activities.
About this Course Pack
This serves as guide to the learners of this course pack as to the content and activities designed
to reinforce understanding of the theories and concepts embodying Teaching as a whole, and
specifically language teaching. This course pack is basically composed of the following:
Below every module title is a description of what the module intends to lead the
learners throughout up to the last part of this course pack. It consists of bulleted
statement of target skills for the learner.
This part aims to engage learners into the lessons being discussed. Some of the
activities are found at the beginning, in the body, or end part of every module.
Each activity is drawn from the content of all the discussion.
This is the discussion part of the module. Here, the theories and concepts
covered in the lessons in all the topics are discussed and some instances,
SAQ, which stands for Self-Assessment Question, is intended to ensure
understanding of the lessons and to some extent elicit critical thinking skills from
the learners. Quiz, on the other hand, is for evaluation of knowledge gained from
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Perspectives on First and Second
Language Acquisition and Various Factors that Influence Learning
This module will help you to:
Explain the meaning of First and Second language Acquisition
Compare And contrast First and Second Language Acquisition in various aspects
Understand some views about Language Acquisition
Identify the factors that contributes to Acquisition
Reflect to these questions as you try to come up with the most possible answer. Relate
it to your childhood experiences or to those of your young relatives.
1. Which of the following statements is true about language acquisition?
a) At birth, children know the elementary aspects of the language of their parents.
b) By age one, children typically use about three words consisting of single morphemes.
c) Babies learn a language best when they are forced to repeat phrases given to them
by their parents.
d) none of the above
2. When young children begin to learn standard grammar, they tend to over regularize it. What
does this mean?
a) They consistently use correct grammar in virtually every sentence.
b) They excessively regulate or control what they say to the point that they become
c) They assume that common syntax rules apply in all situations.
d) none of the above
3. The best time to learn a second language is in:
a) early childhood
b) junior and senior high school
4. Which of the following statements is true about the effect of language?
a) Bilingual people usually perform math and other complicated mental tasks with their
b) Second languages learned as adults are rarely forgotten even if they are not used
c) neither of the above is true
5. It is best to learn a second language:
a) in a classroom where you can focus on the grammar and receive help from a teacher
b) through constant contact with native speakers in their own society
c) both of the above approaches to learning are equally effective.
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Various theories are put forward to describe first language (L1) acquisition and second
language (L2) acquisition. In order to understand the nature of L1 and L2 language acquisition,
various aspects were examined, compared, and contrasted. Results from these comparisons
and contrasts have valuable implications for language teachers which can help them to design
their syllabuses, teaching processes and classroom activities. These results also enable the
language teacher to understand his/her students’ learning processes.
Many characteristics of L2 acquisition were highlighted by studies conducted on the
issue of Interlanguage. Interlanguage theory was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to
emphasize the dynamic qualities of language change that make the Interlanguage a unique
system. Selinker (1969, cited in McLaughlin, 1987) defines Interlanguage as the interim
grammars constructed by second language learners on their way to the target language.
Interlanguage is the learner’s developing second language knowledge and has some
characteristics of the learner’s native language, of the second language, and some
characteristics which seem to be very general and tend to occur in all or most Interlanguages. It
is systematic, dynamic and constantly evolving.
Interlanguages have some common characteristics with L1 acquisition, because both
share similar developmental sequences. Some of the characteristics of L2 acquisition show
similarities with L1 acquisition, whereas others show differences.
Similarities between First and Second Language Acquisition
Researchers have carried out numerous studies to understand the nature of first and
second language acquisition. These studies have revealed that both first and second language
learners follow a pattern of development, which is mainly followed despite exceptions. Rod
Ellis (1984) covers the idea of developmental sequences in detail and outlines three
developmental stages: the silent period, formulaic speech, and structural and semantic
Research in natural settings where unplanned language, such as the learner language
that results from attempts by learners to express meaning more or less spontaneously, is used
to show that both first and second language learners pass through a similar initial stage, the
silent period. Children acquiring their first language go through a period of listening to the
language they are exposed to. During this period the child tries to discover what language is. In
the case of second language acquisition, learners opt for a silent period when immediate
production is not required from them. In general, however, many second language learners -
especially classroom learners- are urged to speak. The fact that there is a silent period in both
first and second language learners (when given the opportunity) is widely accepted. However,
there is disagreement on what contribution the silent period has in second language acquisition.
While Krashen (1982)argues that it builds competence in the learner via listening, Gibbons
(1985, cited in Ellis, 1994) argues that it is a stage of incomprehension.
The second developmental stage is termed formulaic speech. Formulaic speech is
defined as expressions which are learnt as unanalysable wholes and employed on particular
occasions (Lyons, 1968, cited in Ellis, 1994). Krashen (1982) suggests that these expressions
can have the form of routines (whole utterances learned as memorized chunks - e.g. I don’t
know.), patterns (partially unanalyzed utterances with one or more slots - e.g. Can I have a
____?), and Ellis (1994) suggests that these expressions can consist of entire scripts such as
greetings. The literature points out that formulaic speech is not only present in both first and
second language acquisition but also present in the speech of adult native speakers.
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In the third stage the first and second language learners apply structural and
semantic simplifications to their language. Structural simplifications take the form of omitting
grammatical functors (e.g. articles, auxiliary verbs) and semantic simplifications take the form of
omitting content words (e. g. nouns, verbs). There are two suggested reasons why such
simplifications occur. The first reason is that learners may not have yet acquired the necessary
linguistic forms. The second reason is that they are unable to access linguistic forms during
These three stages show us that L1 and L2 learners go through similar stages of
development with the exception that L2 learners are urged to skip the silent period. However,
learners do not only show a pattern in developmental sequences, but also in the order in which
they acquire certain grammatical morphemes.
Researchers have tried to find out if there is an order of acquisition in acquiring
grammatical morphemes. The findings are important but contradictory and have implications on
first and second language acquisition. Morpheme studies aimed to investigate the acquisition of
grammatical functions such as articles or inflectional features such as the plural -s. An important
research in this field is that of Roger Brown (1973, cited in McLaughlin, 1987). According to
Brown, there is a common - invariant - sequence of acquisition for at least 14 function words in
English as a first language - noun and verb inflections, prepositions, and articles. Findings of
these studies pointed out that there is a definite order in the acquisition of morphemes in English
first language learners. Other morpheme studies were carried out on various functors suggesting
that an order of acquisition does exist.
Lightbown and Spada (2006) review studies which have proposed that the acquisition
of question words (what, where, who, why, when, and how), show a great similarity in first and
second language acquisition. Based on the morpheme studies in L2 acquisition, Krashen (1982)
put forward the Natural Order Hypothesis which he developed to account for second language
acquisition. He claimed that we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order. This
acquisition order is not determined by simplicity or the order of rules taught in the class.
Thus far it seems as if L1 acquisition and L2 acquisition follow similar routes, however, other
morpheme studies have shown that not all first language learners follow the order of acquisition
predicted. There appears to be inter-learner variation in the order of acquisition. Wells (1986b,
in Ellis, 1994) proposes inter-learner variables affecting the order of acquisition as sex,
intelligence, social background, rate of learning, and experience of linguistic interaction.
Furthermore, McLaughlin (1987) claims that evidence from research shows that the learner’s
first language has an effect on acquisitional sequences which either slows their development or
modifies it. He adds that, considerable individual variation in how learners acquire a second
language, such as different learning, performance, and communication strategies, obscure the
acquisitional sequences for certain constructions. Therefore, McLaughlin (1987) argues that
“Krashen’s claim that an invariant natural order is always found is simply not true” (p. 33).
The above arguments show that there seems to exist an order of acquisition in both
first and second language acquisition. Hence, one should be careful not to claim for an invariant
order of acquisition but for a more flexible order of acquisition and be aware of the variations
affecting this order.
Linguistic Universals and Markedness
There are two approaches to linguistic universals. The first approach was put forward
by Greenberg (1966, in Ellis 1994) and termed typological universals. Typological universals
are based on cross-linguistic comparisons on a wide range of languages drawn from different
language families to discover which features they have in common (e.g. all languages have
nouns, verbs etc.). The second approach is the generative school represented by Chomsky.
The aim is to study individual languages in great depth in order to identify the principles of
grammar which underlie and govern specific rules. This approach was later termed as Universal
Grammar (Ellis, 1994).
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The most relevant aspect of both approaches that relates to L1 and L2 acquisition is
that some features in a language are marked and some are unmarked. According to typological
universals, unmarked features are those that are universal or present in most languages and
which the learners tend to transfer. Marked rules are language specific features which the learner
resists transferring. According to Universal Grammar, core rules, such as word order, are innate
and can be arrived at through the application of general, abstract principles of language
structure. Peripheral rules are rules that are not governed by universal principles. Peripheral
elements are those that are derived from the history of the language, that have been borrowed
from other languages, or that have arisen accidentally. These elements are marked. Peripheral
aspects are more difficult to learn (Ellis, 1994; McLaughlin, 1987).
Even though neither of these approaches aimed at explaining first or second language
acquisition, the results of both are applicable. The findings show that unmarked features are
learned earlier and easier than marked rules in both the first and the second language while
unmarked forms require more time and effort by the learner.
Input is defined as “language which a learner hears or receives and from which he or
she can learn” (Richards et al., 1989, p. 143) and its importance is widely accepted. Behaviorist
views hold that there is a direct relationship between input and output. In order to obtain
favorable habits the language learner must be given feedback, which constitutes the input.
Interactionist views of language acquisition also hold that verbal interaction, or input, is crucial
for language acquisition.
Stephen Krashen (1982) has put forward the Input Hypothesis which reveals the
importance he places on input. He argues that the learner needs to receive comprehensible
input to acquire language. Information about the grammar is automatically available when the
input is understood. Krashen argues that the input a first language learner receives is simple
and comprehensible at the beginning and is getting slightly more complicated. With this
argument, he supports his next argument that input should be slightly above the level of the
language learner (i+1). Only in doing so can the second language learner move forward. He
argues that the second language learner should be exposed to the target language as much as
possible and that the lack of comprehensible input will cause the language learner to be held up
in his development (Ellis, 1994; McLaughlin, 1987).
The Interactionist Approach to first language acquisition holds that one to one
interaction gives the child access to language which is adjusted to his or her level of
comprehension, therefore, interaction is seen as crucial and impersonal sources of language
(such as TV and radio) are seen as insufficient. Consequently, verbal interaction is seen to be
crucial for language leaning since it helps to make the facts of the second language salient to
the learner. Similarly, intersectional modifications which take place in the conversations between
native and non-native speakers are seen as necessary to make input comprehensible for the
second language learner (Lightbown & Spada, 2006; Ellis, 1994).
There is, however, a contradicting view to the importance of input in first and second
language acquisition. Chomsky (see Ellis, 1994; McLaughlin, 1991) argues that input is essential
but that input alone cannot explain first language acquisition because it contains
ungrammaticalities and disfluencies which make it an inadequate source of information for
language acquisition. Children would not be able to distinguish what is grammatical and
ungrammatical based on such input. Furthermore, input underdetermines linguistic competence.
He argues that input alone does not supply learners with all the information they need to discover
rules of the L1. Therefore, he points out that the child must be equipped with knowledge that
enables the learners to overcome the deficiencies of the input. Later, Universal Grammar
researchers have drawn implications to second language acquisition from these arguments. It is
believed that the same arguments for the inadequacy of input in first language acquisition also
account for second language acquisition. Consequently, when learning a first language, learners
must rely on the knowledge they are equipped with; and when learning a second language,
learners must rely on the L1.
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These arguments show us that both input and the knowledge that the child is equipped with are
important and should interact for learning and development to take place. Therefore, one should
not be favored over the other.
Behavioristic Views of Language Acquisition
The similarity between L1 and L2 acquisition is seen in the Behavioristic Approach
originally which tries to explain learning in general. The famous psychologist Pavlov tried to
explain learning in terms of conditioning and habit formation. Following Pavlov, B. F. Skinner
tried to explain language learning in terms of operant conditioning. This view sees language as
a behavior to be taught. A small part of the foreign language acts as a stimulus to which the
learner responds (e.g. by repetition). When the learner is 100 % successful, the teacher
reinforces by praise or approval. Consequently, the likelihood of the behavior is increased.
However, if the learner responds inappropriately then the behavior is punished and the likelihood
of this behavior to occur is decreased (Brown, 1994). In other words, children imitate a piece of
language they hear and if they receive positive reinforcement they continue to imitate and
practice that piece of language which then turns into a ‘habit’ (Williams & Burden, 1997).
Similarly, basing on the Behavioristic Approach it is assumed that a person learning a
second language starts off with the habits associated with the first language. These habits
interfere with those needed for second language speech and new habits of language are formed.
Errors produced by the second language learner are seen as first language habits interfering
with second language habits. This approach advises the immediate treatment of learner errors
(Lightbown & Spada, 2006).
Some regular and routine aspects of language might be learned through
stimulus/response but this does not seem to account for the more grammatical structures of the
language. The Behavioristic Approach holds that language acquisition is environmentally
determined, that the environment provides the language learner with language, which acts as a
stimulus, to which the language learner responds. However, L1 and L2 learners form and repeat
sentences they have not heard of before. Therefore, this approach fails to account for the
creative language use of L1 and L2 learners.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky has made a social emphasis on education
in general and language education in particular. Vygotsky (1982, cited in Daniels, 1996, p. 171-
172) explains the ZPD as follows:
“The child is able to copy a series of actions which surpass his or her own capacities, but only
within limits. By means of copying, the child is able to perform much better when together with
and guided by adults than when left alone, and can do so with understanding and independently.
The difference between the level of solved tasks that can be performed with adult guidance and
help and the level of independently solved tasks is the zone of proximal development.” (p. 117)
When children come across a problem they cannot solve themselves they turn to
others for help. Thus, collaboration with another person is important for a child to learn.
Otherwise, development would not be possible. Learning collaboratively with others precedes
and shapes development. A good example for this process is said to be the development of
literacy (Gallaway & Richards, 1994; Lantolf & Thorne, 2007).
Vygotsky asserts that through using language children take part in the intellectual life
of the community. In order to negotiate meaning, collaboration between the child and the
members of the community is required. Considering language education, instruction creates the
zone of proximal development, stimulating a series of inner developmental processes (Daniels,
1996; Lantolf & Thorne, 2007). According to the ZPD, assistant performance and collaboration
are crucial for learning and development. The teacher’s assistance and students’ collaboration
with their teacher and their peers is inevitable for L2 development. The teacher’s most important
classroom work “is to provide for the social interaction within the community of learners such
that the learners may move from what they know to what they don’t yet know” (Hawkins, 2001,
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The ZPD also asserts that “what one can do today with assistance is indicative of what
one will be able to do independently in the future” (Lantolf & Thorne, 2007, p. 210). Thus,
development achieved and development potential are equally emphasized. The ZPD concept
can aid educators to understand aspects of students emerging capacities that are in early stages
of maturation (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006).
1. In general, how is L1 and L2 similar?
2. Why do we consider assistant performance and collaboration crucial
for learning and development of language?
Differences in First and Second Language Acquisition
The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis
Krashen (1982) claims that there are two ways for an adult to approach a second
language: “adults can (1) ‘acquire,’ which is the way children ‘get’ their first language,
subconsciously, through informal, implicit learning. Once you have acquired something you’re
not always aware you have done it. It just feels natural; it feels as if it has always been there.
Quite distinct from acquisition is (2) conscious learning. This is knowing about language,
explicit, formal linguistic knowledge of the language.” (p.17)
Krashen continues to argue that learning does not turn into acquisition. He obviously
sees first language acquisition and second language acquisition as two different phenomena.
Yet, he suggests that acquisition may occur in the classroom when communication is
emphasized through dialogues, role playing, and other meaningful interaction.
As a language teacher, one should be careful when evaluating the claims related to
acquisition and learning. Through focused input and focused practice learning may turn into
The Critical Period Hypothesis
The Critical Period Hypothesis holds that there is “a biologically determined period of
life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly
difficult to acquire” (Brown 1994, p. 52). This hypothesis is based on the ideas of the psychologist
Eric Lenneberg. His argument was that various capacities mature according to a fairly fixed
schedule during which language emerges in children when anatomical, physiological, motor,
neural, and cognitive development allow it to emerge. He added that there is a critical,
biologically determined period of language acquisition between the ages of 2 and 12
(McLaughlin, 1987). Originally the notion of critical period was connected only to first language
acquisition but later it was applied to second language acquisition as well. Consequently, it is
argued that a critical period for second language acquisition is due until puberty.
In order to explain the validity of the critical period in second language acquisition
neurological, psychomotor, and cognitive arguments were examined (Brown, 1994). These have
mostly tried to explain why adult language learners are not able to reach full competence and
native like pronunciation in the second language.
Neurological Considerations: There is an attempt to explain the difference between
first and second language acquisition through lateralization in the brain. Steinberg (1997)
explains lateralization as follows, “the brain assigns, as it were, certain structures and functions
to certain hemispheres of the brain. Language, logical and analytical operations, and higher
mathematics, for example, generally occur in the left hemisphere of the brain, while the right
hemisphere is superior at recognizing emotions, recognizing faces and taking in the structures
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of things globally without analysis. This separation of structure and function in the hemispheres
is technically referred to as lateralization”. (p. 179)
Thomas Scovel (1969, in Brown, 1994) put forward that there is a relationship between
lateralization and second language acquisition. Scovel suggests that the plasticity of the brain
before puberty enables first and second language acquisition to take place easily. After puberty,
the brain loses its plasticity and lateralization is accomplished. He argues that lateralization
makes it difficult for people to be able ever again to easily acquire fluent control of the second
language or native-like pronunciation.
There is a counter argument related to the cognitive development of the brain.
Cognitively, this lateralization enables the person to reach the capability of abstraction, of formal
thinking, and of direct perception which start from puberty on. This shows that adults possess
superior cognitive capacity due to left hemisphere dominance. Then, the following question
arises: How come that adults who have a cognitive superiority are not able to learn a second
language successfully? Researchers are still trying to find an answer to this question. A tentative
answer to this question is that the dominance of the left hemisphere leads the adult to tend to
overanalyse and to be too intellectually centered on the task of second language learning
(Brown, 1994). Again, there are adults who are able to learn a second language successfully,
but factors like affective variables seem to play an important role in such cases.
Psychomotor Consideration: These considerations try to explain the reason why adult
second language learners cannot obtain native-like pronunciation in the second language.
Starting from birth, speech muscles gradually develop until after the age of 5. Then, until puberty
the speech muscles maintain their flexibility. Scientists argue that the flexibility of children’s
speech muscles is the reason for why they can easily acquire native-like pronunciation both in
the first and in the second language. The decline of the flexibility in the speech muscles,
however, prevents adult second language learners to reach native-like pronunciation in the
second language (Brown, 1994).
Affective Considerations: Although the affective domain includes many factors such
as inhibition, attitudes, anxiety, and motivation, here we will examine only the first two. While
anxiety and motivation are mainly related to adult second language learning, child first language
learners have not developed or are just in the process of developing such affective factors.
While inhibitions pose no difficulty for children acquiring their first or second
language, they propose to be intervening in adult second language acquisition. Inhibitions can
be defined as ego boundaries the person builds in order to protect his or her ego. As the child
matures it develops a sense of self-identity and towards puberty it acquires the feeling to protect
this self-identity and develop inhibitions which are heightened during puberty. Alexander Guiora
(cited in Brown, 1994) proposed the idea of the language ego to account for the identity a person
develops in reference to the language he/she speaks. Through puberty the child’s ego is flexible
and dynamic but as the child reaches puberty the language ego becomes protective due to
physical, cognitive, and emotional changes at this stage. The language ego tries to protect the
ego of the young adult by clinging to the security of the native language. Acquiring a second
language means also acquiring a new language ego which can be very difficult for adults who
have built up inhibitions to protect their ego. Mistakes can be seen as threats to one’s ego. With
the fear to make mistakes the adult language learner can resist to speak in the classroom.
A second affective factor, which is formed by the cognitive development of a person,
that can make second language acquisition difficult for an adult is attitude. Young children are
not cognitively enough developed to possess attitudes towards races, cultures, ethnic groups,
and languages. As the child reaches school age, attitudes are acquired. It is agreed that negative
attitudes towards the target language, target language speakers, the target language culture,
and the social value of learning a second language can impede language learning while positive
attitudes can enhance learning (Ellis, 1994; Brown, 1994).
Stephen Krashen has developed The Affective Filter Hypothesis to account for the
effects of affective variables on second language acquisition. He argues that affective variables
can act as a mental block, also termed affective filter, and prevent comprehensible input to be
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absorbed. When the learner is unmotivated and lacks confidence, the affective filter goes up.
When the learner is not anxious and wants to be a member of the group speaking the target
language the filter goes down. He adds that children are at an advantage when learning a first
or second language because their affective filter is low while adults are likely to have a higher
affective filter due to events that occurred in adolescence (Krashen, 1982; McLaughlin, 1987).
The critical period shows concrete differences between L1 and L2 acquisition because
it is based on the internal factors of the learner. The arguments of the critical period are mainly
based on pronunciation, neglecting grammatical and semantic competence.
Fossilization is used to label the process by which non-target norms become fixed in
Interlanguage. The possible causes for fossilization are suggested to be age (learners’ brains
loose plasticity at a critical age, therefore, certain linguistic features cannot be mastered), lack
of desire to articulate (learners’ make no effort to adopt target language norms because of
various social and psychological factors), communicative pressure (the learner is pressured to
communicate ideas above his/her linguistic competence), lack of learning opportunity, and the
nature of the feedback on learners’ use of L2 (positive cognitive feedback leads to fossilization
while negative feedback helps avoid fossilization)(Ellis, 1994; McLaughlin, 1987).
Based on the factors related to fossilization it can easily be inferred that fossilization
is unique to L2 acquisition. It is hardly possible to see a child acquiring his/her first language to
fossilize certain forms of language.
Ellis (1994) differentiates between two social contexts in second language learning
and outlines them as follows:
a. Natural Contexts
Second language learning in majority language contexts: the target language serves
as the native language and the language learner is a member of an ethnic minority group (e.g.
Turkish workers in Germany).
Second language learning in official language contexts: the second language functions as an
official language (e.g. English in Nigeria).
Second language learning in international contexts: the second language is used for
interpersonal communication in countries where it is neither learnt as a mother tongue nor used
as an official language (e.g. in arts, science, academic, etc.)
b. Educational Contexts
Segregation: the second language is taught to learners in a separate context from
the native speakers of the target language.
Mother tongue maintenance: learners of minority groups are either given classes in
their mother tongue or they are educated through the medium of their mother tongue.
Submersion: right from the beginning L2 learners are taught with native speakers.
The language classroom: the target language is taught as a subject only and is not commonly
used as a medium of communication outside the classroom.
The difference of the contexts of first and second language acquisition play an
important role in the acquisition process. While it is possible to learn a second language in
various contexts, first language acquisition takes place only in a natural context and in the social
group the child is growing up and where the child gets L1 input only. The different contexts for
second language acquisition can also lead to variations in second language proficiency due to
Schuman (1986, cited in McLaughlin, 1987; Ellis, 1994) has put forward the
Acculturation Theory to account for second language acquisition development in natural
settings. He defines acculturation as the process of becoming adapted to a new culture and his
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claim is that contact with the target language and culture is crucial. The process of acculturation
requires both social and psychological adaptation. Learning the appropriate linguistic habits to
function within the target language group is one part of this process. Acculturation is determined
by the degree of social and psychological ‘distance’ between the learner and the target-language
culture. According to this hypothesis, the greater contact with L2 speakers and culture takes
place the more acquisition occurs.
Another social factor that leads to a difference between first and second language
acquisition is that of the learner’s choice of target language variety. SLA assumes that learners
are targeted at the standard dialect of the L2. Beebe (1985, in Ellis, 1994) observed some
deviations in L2 learners’ from Standard English. She suggests that these may not be errors but
a reflection of a dialect which the learner has targeted (e.g. Black English). The choice of the
reference group is determined by the social context and the learner’s attitude to that variety of
language. In settings where the L2 is an official language (such as in India), the reference group
may be educated users of the L2 in the learner’s own country rather than a native speaker.
It is important to note here that in first language acquisition one has no chance to
make such a conscious choice. The environment and social group a person is born into
automatically determines the language variety to be acquired.
Therefore, deviations from the standard language are not seen as a failure to acquire
the language. However, such
deviations may wrongly be attributed to failure if present in the second language.
Identify whether each of the following statements is true or not. Write T before
the statement that is true and F if otherwise.
______1. Language acquisition takes place in a natural context and in the social group
the child is growing up.
______ 2. In The Affective Filter Hypothesis the critical period shows concrete
differences between L1 and L2 acquisition because it is based on the internal factors of
______ 3. Adults possess superior cognitive capacity due to left hemisphere dominance,
however some fail to learn a second language successfully.
______ 4. It is a natural context that right from the beginning L2 learners are taught with
______ 5. Chomsky argues that learning does not turn into acquisition
______ 6. Critical Period Hypothesis states that there is a biologically determined period
of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is
increasingly difficult to acquire.
______ 7. In Behavioristic Approach one to one interaction gives the child access to
language which is adjusted to his or her level of comprehension.
______ 8. Critical Period Hypothesis also asserts that what one can do today with
assistance is indicative of what one will be able to do independently in the future.
______ 9. Studies have revealed that both first and second language learners follow a
pattern of development, however it is not followed.
______ 10. learner’s choice of target language variety does not affect L1 and L2
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1. Using a Venn Diagram illustrate some key points as to the similarities
and differences of L1 and L2 Acquisition.
L1 Acquisition L2 Acquisition
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The Languages Curriculum in the
This module will help you to:
Explain the importance of the study of language in the K-12 program
Understand the guiding principles in implementing Languages Curriculum
Describe the K-12 Education Curriculum and its components
The following statements are left to be erroneous, correct them using available resources:
Interview with teachers/friends
1. Universal Kindergarten began in SY 2010–2011.
2. The enhanced curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 (1st Year Junior High School) was rolled
out in SY 2015–2016, and was progressively introduced in the other grade levels in succeeding
3. The first batch of high school students to go through K to 12 graduated in March 2017.
In your point of view what is the ultimate advantage of having graduated in
the K to 12 curriculum?
The K-12 language Curriculum
Language is the basis of all communication and the primary instrument of thought.
Thinking, learning, and language are interrelated. Language is governed by rules and systems
(language conventions) which are used to explore and communicate meaning. It defines
culture which is essential in understanding oneself (personal identity), forming interpersonal
relationships (socialization), extending experiences, reflecting on thought and action, and
contributing to a better society. Language, therefore, is central to the peoples’ intellectual, social
and emotional development and has an essential role in all key learning areas1.
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Language is the foundation of all human relationships. All human relationships are
established on the ability of people to communicate effectively with each other. Our thoughts,
values and understandings are developed and expressed through language. This process allows
students to understand better the world in which they live and contributes to the development of
their personal perspectives of the global community. People use language to make sense of and
bring order to their world. Therefore, proficiency in the language enables people to access,
process and keep abreast of information, to engage with the wider and more diverse
communities, and to learn about the role of language in their own lives, and in their own and
The K-12 Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is anchored on the
following language acquisition, learning, teaching and assessing principles. All languages are
interrelated and interdependent. Facility in the first language (L1) strengthens and supports the
learning of other languages (L2). Acquisition of sets of skills and implicit metalinguistic
knowledge in one language (common underlying proficiency or CUP) provides the base for the
development of both the first language (L1) and the second language (L2)2. It follows that any
expansion of CUP that takes place in one language will have a beneficial effect on the other
language(s). This principle serves to explain why it becomes easier and easier to learn additional
Language acquisition and learning is an active process that begins at birth and
continues throughout life. It is continuous and recursive throughout students’ lives. Students
enhance their language abilities by using what they know in new and more complex contexts
and with increasing sophistication (spiral progression). They reflect on and use prior knowledge
to extend and enhance their language and understanding. By learning and incorporating new
language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop
language fluency and proficiency. Positive learning experiences in language-rich environments
enable students to leave school with a desire to continue to extend their knowledge, skills and
K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum
Learning requires meaning. We learn when we use what we know to understand
what is new. Start with what the students know; use that to introduce new concepts. They use
language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge,
experiences, and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas,
and determine courses of action.
Learners learn about language and how to use it effectively through their engagement with and
study of texts. The term ‘text’ refers to any form of written (reading and writing), oral (listening
and speaking) and visual communication involving language. The texts through which students
learn about language are wide-ranging and varied, from brief conversations to lengthy and
complex forms of writing. The study of specific texts is the means by which learners achieve the
desired outcomes of language, rather than an end in itself. Learners learn to create texts of their
own and to engage with texts produced by other people.
Successful language learning involves viewing, listening, speaking, reading and
writing activities. Language learning should include a plethora of strategies and activities that
helps students focus on both MEANING and ACCURACY. Language learning involves
recognizing, accepting, valuing and building on students’ existing language competence,
including the use of non-standard forms of the language, and extending the range of language
available to students. Through language learning, learners develop functional and critical literacy
skills. They learn to control and understand the conventions of the target language that are
valued and rewarded by society and to reflect on and critically analyze their own use of language
and the language of others.
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An effective language art and multiliteracies curriculum satisfies the following
1. develops thinking and language through interactive learning;
2. develops communicative competence and critical literacy;
3. draws on literature in order to develop students’ understanding of their literary
4. draws on informational texts and multimedia in order to build academic vocabulary
and strong content knowledge;
5. develops students’ oral language and literacy through appropriately challenging
6. emphasizes writing arguments, explanatory/informative texts and narratives;
7. provides explicit skill instruction in reading and writing;
8. builds on the language, experiences, knowledge and interests that students bring
9. nurtures students’ sense of their common ground in using language/s for
communication as present or future global citizens to prepare them to participate in
school and in civic life, and;
10. assesses and reflects the students’ ability to interpret and/or communicate in the
NEEDS OF THE LEARNERS: THE CONTEXT
The generation born after the year 1994 until 2004 is referred to as Generation Z. This is
the first generation to be born with complete technology. They were born with PCs, mobile
phones, gaming devices, MP3 players and the ubiquitous Internet. They do not know life without
technology. Hence, they are often termed as digital natives and are extremely comfortable with
technology. They can email, text and use computers without any problems. In addition, members
of Generation Z can understand and master advancement in technology. Unfortunately, this
reliance on technology and gadgets has had a negative effect on the members. They rather stay
indoors and use their electronics than play outdoors and be active. They are leading a sedentary
life that can result in health problems later on.
For them, social media platforms are a way to communicate with the outside world. They
are not bothered about privacy and are willing to share intimate details about themselves with
complete strangers. They have virtual friends and for them hanging out with friends means
talking to them over the cell phones, emails and text messages. However, at the same time, this
generation is considered to be creative and collaborative and will have a significant impact on
the way companies work when they join the workforce.
Members of Generation Z are adept at multi-tasking. They can text, read, watch, talk and
even eat simultaneously. However, this has also led to reduced attention span leading to what
psychologists’ call acquired attention deficit disorder. This generation is unable to analyze
complex data and information as they cannot focus for very long.
While we don’t know much about Gen Z yet...we know a lot about the environment they
are growing up in. This highly diverse environment will make the grade schools of the next
generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make significant inroads in
academics allowing for customized instruction, data mining of student histories to enable
diagnostics and remediation or accelerated achievement opportunities. Gen Z kids will grow up
with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy
and expert than their Gen Y forerunners.
1. Who are Gen Z Kids?
2. Are any downsides of being such?
3. How do you plan to deal with them inside the classroom in the near future?
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COMPONENTS OF THE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
COMPONENT 1: Language Learning Process
For effective language acquisition and learning to take place, language teachers must
be guided by the six (6) language teaching principles. These principles explain the natural
process of language development.
1. Spiral Progression
Skills, grammatical items, structures and various types of texts will be taught, revised
and revisited at increasing levels of difficulty and sophistication. This will allow students to
progress from the foundational level to higher levels of language use.
2. Interaction Language
learning will be situated in the context of communication (oral and written). Activities
that simulate real-life situations of varying language demands (purposes, topics, and audiences)
will be employed to help students interact with others thereby improve their socialization skills.
The areas of language learning – the receptive skills, the productive skills, and
grammar and vocabulary will be taught in an integrated way, together with the use of relevant
print and non-print resources, to provide multiple perspectives and meaningful connections.
Integration may come in different types either implicitly or explicitly (skills, content, theme, topic,
and values integration).
Learners are at the center of the teaching-learning process. Teaching will be
differentiated according to students’ needs, abilities and interests. Effective pedagogies will be
used to engage them and to strengthen their language development.
Learning tasks and activities will be designed for learners to acquire the language in
authentic and meaningful contexts of use. For example, lessons will be planned around learning
outcomes, a theme, or a type of text to help learners use related language skills, grammatical
items/structures and vocabulary appropriately in spoken and written language to suit the
purpose, audience, context and culture. Learning points will be reinforced through explicit
instruction and related follow-up practice.
Making meaning is the heart of language learning and use. Learning tasks and
activities will be designed for learners in such a way that they will have time to reflect on and
respond to ideas and information. Learners will be provided with sufficient scaffolding so that
they will be able to reach their full cognitive, affective, and psychomotor potentials and become
independent learners who are good consumers and constructors of meaning.
COMPONENT 2: Effective Language Use
There are three major applications of the macro-skills of the language (Understanding
of Cultures; Understanding Language; and Processes and Strategies). They are described as
the knowledge and skill areas which are essential to effective language use demonstrated
through the language macro-skills.
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1. UNDERSTANDING CULTURES
Learning language through text types and literary appreciation exposes learners to
different cultures of the world, including one’s culture. Learners develop sociolinguistic and
sociocultural understandings and apply them to their use of the language (Mother Tongue,
Filipino, and English). Sociolinguistic understanding refers to appropriate language use. It is
defined in this document as taking into account the social significance of linguistic forms and the
linguistic implications of social facts. Language is a complex social practice that reflects and
reinforces shared understandings about appropriate actions, values, beliefs and attitudes within
a community. These shared understandings determine not only what is communicated and when
and how it is communicated, but also who does the communicating. These collectively constitute
the sociolinguistic features of language.
Sociocultural understanding refers to knowing about the language speaking
communities. It means taking into account the non-linguistic features in the life of a society.
Learners broaden their frame of reference beyond their own social and cultural experiences.
They gain insights into different values and belief systems and acknowledge the cultural contexts
which underpin them. They make sense of the social fabric of the target language community.
They understand that the natural and physical environments – as well as the social, economic,
historical and political environments – influence the language speaking groups and their cultural
2. UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE
Learners apply their knowledge of the system of the language to assist them to make
meaning and to create meaning. They come to recognize the patterns and rules of the language
which emerge as they interact with a plethora of texts (literary and informational) to make
meaning. They apply this knowledge and understanding to create their own spoken, written and
visual texts. Differences in language systems are expressed in a variety of ways: for example,
in grammatical differentiations, variations in word order, word selection, or general stylistic
variations in texts. By comparing the system of the language with the systems of other
languages, students understand that each language is different, but has identifiable patterns
within its own system.
3. PROCESS AND STRATEGIES
Learners select from a repertoire of processes and strategies by reflecting on their
understanding of the way language works for a variety of purposes in a range of contexts. They
deliberate on how they use language and apply different language strategies, depending on their
purpose, context and audience. They use language as a way of coming to grips with new ideas,
resolving difficulties or solving problems. They use strategies such as brainstorming and
discussion as a way of developing ideas. They experiment, take risks and make approximations
with language as a way of developing their language skills. They clarify what they need to know
when seeking information for particular purposes. They use key-word searches and their
understanding of the conventions of informational texts such as tables of contents, headings,
indexes, forewords and glossaries as aids in locating information. They assess the usefulness
of information for particular purposes. They treat information and ideas critically and evaluate
information in terms of its reliability and currency. They make notes and graphic representations
of information and combine information from different sources into a coherent whole by
summarizing, comparing and synthesizing.
COMPONENT 3: Making Meaning through Language
Language is the major instrument in communication (oral and written) and the heart
of which is the exchange of meaning. Language learning should focus on guiding students make
meaning through language for different purposes on a range of topics and with a variety of
audiences. Students must be able to adapt to various situations where communication demands
greatly vary. The skills, grammatical items, structures and various types of texts will be taught,
and revisited at increasing levels of difficulty and sophistication. This design allows students to
progress from the foundational level to higher levels of language use. The Language Arts and
Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) is composed of five (5) intricately intertwined and integrated
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sub-strands (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing) that serve as building blocks for
understanding and creation of meaning and for effective communication across curricula. The
revised curriculum re-organizes the Integrated Language Arts Curriculum according to the
content standards that must be met by all students at the end of basic education. This is not
inconsistent with the proposed 5 sub-strands of the Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum
(LAMC) but fleshes out the areas that children need to learn and that teachers need to teach in
greater detail. Below is the matrix that presents the spread and alignment of the language and
literacy domains with the 5 sub-strands.
Matching match the terms under column A with those descriptions in Column B. Write
the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the items in Column A.
_____ 1. Spiral Progression
_____ 2. Construction
_____ 3. Sociocultural understand
_____ 4. Learner-Centeredness
_____ 5. Interaction Language
_____ 6. Contextualization
_____ 7. Sociolinguistic understanding
_____ 8. Integration
a. Strengthening learner’s language
development through effective
b. Learners broaden their frame of
reference beyond their own social and
c. explicit instruction as reinforcement
d. reflects and reinforces shared
understandings about appropriate
actions, values, beliefs and attitudes
within a community
e. reflection can be one of the activities
f. provide multiple perspectives and
g. communicating with fellow learners is
the foundation of learning
h. starts with the basics
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Methods of Teaching Language
This module will help you to:
Explain what language learning is
Identify means of dealing with language delays
Be guided with the different methods of teaching language including some
delivery strategies and assessment tools
In the early childhood classroom, silence is not golden. Spoken words are
opportunities for learning that should take place throughout the day - especially during
conversations between children and between teachers and children.
Human language is a remarkable way to communicate. No other form of
communication in the natural world transfers so much information in such a short period of time.
It is even more remarkable that in three short years a child can hear, mimic, explore, practice,
and finally, learn language.
There is no genetic code that leads a child to speak English or Spanish or Japanese.
Language is learned. We are born with the capacity to make 40 sounds and our genetics allows
our brain to make associations between sounds and objects, actions, or ideas. The combination
of these capabilities allows the creation of language. Sounds come to have meaning. The
babbling sound “ma - ma - ma” of the infant becomes mama, and then mother. In the first years
of life children listen, practice, and learn. The amusing sounds of a young toddler practicing
language (in seemingly meaningless chatter) is really their modelling of the rhythm, tone,
volume, and non-verbal expressions they see in us.
Language -with all of its magnificent complexity- is one of the greatest gifts we give
our children. Yet, we so often treat our verbal communication with children in a casual way. It is
a misconception that children learn language passively. Language acquisition is a product of
active, repetitive, and complex learning. The child’s brain is learning and changing more during
language acquisition in the first six years of life than during any other cognitive ability he is
working to acquire. How much easier this learning process can be for children when adults are
Adults help children learn language primarily by talking with them. It happens when a
mother coos and baby-talks with her child. It happens when a father listens to the fractured,
rambling, breathless story of his 3-year-old. It happens when a teacher patiently repeats
instructions to an inattentive student.
Have you ever tried talking to a toddler? How did you do it? How was the
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Working with Language Delays
It is very common for teachers in early childhood classrooms to have children
with speech and language delays. The process of learning language can be impaired in many
ways. These can include difficulties in hearing, problems in making associations between sight
and sound, attention deficits, and a limited background of experience. A child’s language skills
are directly related to the number of words and complex conversations they have with others. In
order to learn the relationship between sounds and objects- a child must hear. And then make
the association between the sound and what it symbolizes. If a child hears few words, if a child
is rarely read to, sung to, or talked with, he will not have normal language development. Children
growing up in verbally and cognitively impoverished settings have speech and language delays.
In more extreme situations, children neglected by their caregivers and rarely spoken with can
have completely undeveloped speech and language skills.
Fortunately, the parts of the brain responsible for language are very malleable. Given
opportunities to hear, talk and have complex conversations, these children can catch up. The
challenge for the early childhood teacher is to make sure that these children have many
developmentally appropriate language activities. It is important that concerns about delayed
language skills are shared with the family and other school personnel in order to properly
diagnose potential causes. Many parents are inexperienced and may not be aware of what is
“normal” language development at any given age. Early childhood classrooms are one of most
important settings for early identification of language problems.
As a future teacher and with mandate of DepEd that no one is left behind, how
are you going to make sure that your pupils can catch with language lesson while
language delay is inevitable?
What You Can Do
Create conversation buddies. Talk with children and encourage them to have
conversations with each other. Several times during the day, help children “discuss” various
topics with their conversation buddies. Topics might include what they did during the weekend,
what they thought of a story, who they know that reminds them of a character in a book you just
read to them.
Introduce words by theme. Use word games to help the children learn to rhyme,
understand opposites, find as many words to describe an object as possible, and learn the
names of new objects. You can make this more interesting by picking a theme to guide this. For
example, cook up a delicious snack in the classroom and explore words such as ladle, strainer,
colander, and cutting board.
Engage children in listening exercises. We often forget that language is both
receptive and expressive. Make sure that children don’t just mimic words and learn to say things.
It is essential that children are listening, receiving accurately and processing effectively what
they hear. Introduce exercises where children are asked to repeat back what they heard you say
(you will often be amazed at how varied and inaccurate their interpretations can be). Have
children relate key elements of a story or an activity. And emphasize to children the importance
of listening to their conversation buddies. Listed below are brief summaries of some of
the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century. For a more detailed
analysis of the different methods, see Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
Richards, J. and Rodgers, T (1986) CUP Cambridge.
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Methods in Teaching Language
The Direct Method
In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not
allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on
good pronunciation. [More]
Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language. Grammar rules are
to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or no emphasis
placed on developing oral ability.
The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits.
There is much practice of dialogues of every situation. New language is first heard and
extensively drilled before being seen in its written form.
The structural approach
This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules which are to be learned
one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb “to be” is introduced and practised before
the present continuous tense which uses “to be” as an auxiliary.
The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the
learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student
that the language is easy - and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed. [More]
Total Physical Response (TPR)
TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as “Stand up”,
“Close your book”, “Go to the window and open it.” The method stresses the importance of aural
Communicative language teaching (CLT)
The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and
appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT
courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the
expression of time, quantity, location.
The Silent Way
This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order
that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue.
Community Language Learning
In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher
and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue
which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student.
This corresponds to a great extent to the situation we have at our school. ESL students
are immersed in the English language for the whole of the school day and expected to learn
math, science, humanities etc. through the medium of the target language, English.
Immigrant students who attend local schools find themselves in an immersion
situation; for example, refugee children from Bosnia attending German schools, or Puerto Ricans
in American schools.
Task-based language learning
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The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a task which in itself is interesting to
the learners. Learners use the language they already have to complete the task and there is little
correction of errors.
(This is the predominant method in middle school ESL teaching at Frankfurt
International School. The tasks are subsumed in a major topic that is studied for a number of
weeks. In the topic of ecology, for example, students are engaged in a number of tasks
culminating in a poster presentation to the rest of the class. The tasks include reading, searching
the internet, listening to taped material, selecting important vocabulary to teach other students
The Natural Approach
This approach, propounded by Professor S. Krashen, stresses the similarities
between learning the first and second languages. There is no correction of mistakes. Learning
takes place by the students being exposed to language that is comprehensible or made
comprehensible to them.
The Lexical Syllabus
This approach is based on a computer analysis of language which identifies the most
common (and hence most useful) words in the language and their various uses. The syllabus
teaches these words in broadly the order of their frequency, and great emphasis is placed on
the use of authentic materials.
Pick any 3 of the methods in teaching language and try to relate them in your
experiences in your earlier years as a learner.
Second Language Teaching Methods for Teachers
Teachers can make use of the information on language learning strategies and styles
to create and design their lesson or course plan. Since teachers play a big role in their students’
language learning process, the tools, teaching methods and classroom environment adopted
will ultimately affect their students’ progress.
Having talked about the language learning strategies and styles in the previous sub-
chapters, teachers can now use that information and consider that different people have different
predominant strategies that they use, and that different people learn in a different way. Knowing
this will help teachers plan their lessons to benefit each and every student in language learning.
It will be advantageous if teachers raise awareness and train the students to adopt the language
learning strategies so as to enable them to use a wider range of strategies. “Stretching” students’
learning styles by making them try out strategies outside their primary preference can also be
beneficial. Eventually, we will also talk about the various assessment methods and introduce
some tools suited for different language learning strategies and styles.
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In this section, we will be looking at the classroom environments that each personality
style continuum works best in or prefer. Considering these, it is good that teachers mix the
preferences so as to benefit all types of learning styles of students.
Discussions in the second language
Role-playing in the second language
Conversations with other students in
the second language
Self-introductions in the second
Presentations about the culture of the
Independent reading in the second
Writing tasks in the second language
Listening tasks in the second
Observational tasks such as to write a
composition in the second language
Space and time to think in
Voluntary participation in class
Learning involving senses (hear,
touch, see, smell, taste)
Audio-visual second language
Materials that are relevant and in-
Class expectations to be presented
Theories presented clearly
Autonomy in learning
Logical second language teaching eg.
Step-by-step guide eg. in applying
Logical reasoning presented
Objective instructor feedback eg. in
Objective peer feedback
Positive rapport with instructor
Positive rapport with other students
Positive feedback and corrections
from instructors and peers
Relate class materials or topics to
people or human values
Clear, detailed instructions and
eg. grammar rules
Course outline presented
Logical reasoning presented
Likes variety of assignments and
Reason the purpose of study,
assignments or assessments
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Class activities for strategies
In this section, we will propose what are some activities that fall under the strategies
Memory Get students to create a word bank from their own reading materials, synthesis
exercise, cloze exercise, grouping words into categories (eg. positive adjectives,
neutral adjectives, negative adjectives), song writing, using flashcards, story-
telling, spelling tests
Cognitive Watch videos or movies, discussions (online and offline), reading, summary-
writing, synthesis exercises
Comprehension Reading, comprehension exercise, listening comprehension exercise,
Metacognitive Explicit teaching, word games (eg. scrabble), reading, discussions (online
or offline), oral presentations
Affective Story-telling , show and tell, oral presentations, discussions (online and in-
class), role-playing, online skyping, peer evaluations
Other tools for language teaching
Learning the most frequently used words in a language is beneficial in the early
stages. Corpora have been used for the making of dictionaries and reference works such as the
Collins Cobuild series, published by HarperCollins. Corpora can be used to identify the
frequent words used by the native speakers in a language. As in the case of English, the
words may be obtained from corpus studies of the British National Corpus (BNC) for British
English and Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) for American English. At
present, the English language (and its varieties) has a more established corpus, while this may
not be the case yet for other languages.
Teachers can tap on the patterns from the corpora to teach L2 vocabulary. This can also
be done in scaffolding, where teachers introduce a certain number of words at the beginning
stage (eg. English) and gradually introduce more as learners advance. This may, for instance,
be a relevant source for the learners who primarily adopt the Memory strategy, where they are
guided to memorise sets of vocabulary list and then be tested on them. Also, other corpus can
be used to study the common mistakes made by second language learners in their attempt to
achieve native-like writing and speech (Biber and Conrad, 2010). By studying the common
mistakes, the teachers can plan their lessons to minimise them.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL)
The computer can be used as a tutor aid, tool, and/or for communication. Computer-
assisted language learning (CALL) is the computer applications in language teaching and
learning. Teachers can use CALL for content delivery (eg. Microsoft PowerPoint) or classroom
activities (eg. WebQuests, grammar drills, etc.). Additionally, CALL could also be used for task-
based group work or activities and computer-mediated communication between students in
class such as synchronous online discussions.
One advantage of using computers is that it efficiently allows for learning when the
teacher is not present. Delivery of content can still be done through an online medium. Certain
computer tools allow for feedback to be given when learners make a mistake, unlike the
conventional paper-and-pen homework system in which mistakes can only be corrected in the
following class. Furthermore, this online content can be used by the students to revise or get
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back to at home or for when the student cannot attend class. This is due to the possibility of
asynchronous learning, in which the learner can learn without the constraints of time and space.
The founder of Vivaling (an online language academy for children learners), Bernard
Goldstein, mentioned in a guest lecture at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) that the
computer, despite playing a significant role in helping learners learn language, is still unable to
replace the physical teacher entirely. Rather, the computer is a medium that can enhance and
aid the teaching process. Thus, we propose that CALL be used as a support for a physical
teacher, a means of revision between a lesson and another or, in fact, as a medium for
communication, where the hassle of traveling can be overcome as proven in the case of Vivaling.
Examples of CALL:
1. Asynchronous discussions (such as blogs, discussion forums/boards)
2. Synchronous learning (such as online chats, Skype)
4. YouTube videos
5. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel
6. CD/DVDs for language learning
7. Web-based language learning software/programs (such as Vivaling)
Oral Assessments 1. Engage in dialogue
Projects 1. Video-making
Written Tests 1. Situational writing
3. Narrative writing
4. Grammar test
5. Vocabulary test
6. Spelling test
7. Comprehension/Listening comprehension test
There are many types of methods of assessing students in language learning. It is
beneficial to adopt a variety due to the varied nature of students. Varied learning styles and
personalities will affect the performance levels on the different method of assessing. For
example, there is a higher chance of extroverts doing better in oral examinations as compared
to introverts. Above and beyond test performance, what we aim to achieve is the pleasure of
learning for various learner types and personalities. A rigid assessment method risks turning
learners away from language learning as they may conclude that the process is too difficult rather
than opting to adopt different learning strategies for their objective.
1. Differentiate Task-Based and Natural approach language teaching.
2. What does CALL stand for? How is it done?
3. How is Aural Comprehension stressed in TPR?
4. Under the new normal due to pandemic distant learning is the practice, what do you think
are the class activities applicable in our area, and how would you assess them?
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This module will help you to:
Understand Standards-based Education
Compare and contrast traditional and standards-based instruction
Identify the stages in the development of standards-based instruction
Plan for standards-based instruction
In order to ensure that the student is given clear and precise instructions, it becomes
necessary to align instruction with standards.
Standards ensure better accountability – holding teachers and schools responsible for
what goes on in the classrooms. The practice of aligning learning to standards also helps ensure
that a higher level of learning is attained, guides teachers in the process of assessment and
helps keep them on track.
Standards based instruction helps guide the planning, implementation, and
assessment of student learning. The use of standards to streamline instruction ensures that
teaching practices deliberately focus on agreed upon learning targets. Expectations for student
learning are mapped out with each prescribed standard.
Teachers follow standards-based instruction to ensure that their students meet the
demands targeted. Following a standards-based model for classroom assessment and
instruction is an approach teachers use to track student performance and plan focused
instruction to meet the specific needs of students.
Enumerate some good points about Standards-Based Instruction
Traditional vs. Standards Based
Before the standards-based curriculum was implemented here in the Philippines,
there exist first the traditional way of teaching which involves the following steps:
1. Select a topic from the curriculum.
2. Design the instructional activities.
3. Design and give assessment
4. Give grade or feedback
5. Move on to new topic
But then, researches have concluded that this traditional way of teaching does not
result to more and effective graduates. Therefore, there was a big development and changes
that occured which involves the following steps:
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1. Select standards that the students need to know.
2. Design an assessment through which students will have an opportunity to
demonstrate those things.
3. Decide learning opportunities that will allow students to learn those things and
plan appropriate instruction to assure that each student has adequate
opportunities to learn.
4. Use data from the assessment to give feedback, reteach or move on to next
After the standard way of teaching was changed, different curriculum was introduced
and one of those is the Outcomes – Based Education. One of the features of OBE is “design
down”. This means that in OBE, you determine first the targets of the learning outcomes before
you design instruction. Meanwhile, the Understanding by Design is a backward design Like
OBE, where the first step is “identifying results”. This is composed of three stages.
Stage 1: Desired Results. and Stage 3: Learning Plan.
This stage defines what students should be able to know and do at the end of
the program, course or unit or study. It is generally expressed in terms of overall goals,
specifically defined terms of content and performance standard.
Content standard (s) is what should students shoud know and be able to do.
Understanding(s)/goals - big ideas or concepts that you want them to come away with,
not facts that they must know.
Essential questions – provocative and leading questions
Objectives/outcomes – measurable and observable outcomes.
Stage 2: Assessment Evidence
Proofs or evidence that show that the content standard, goals and student outcome
are attained. Instructional Planning and Development
Performance task (s) - Authentic performance-based task that have students apply
what they have learned and demonstrate their understandings.
Design at least at the application level.
Rubrics can be used to guide students in self- assessment of their performance.
Instructional Planning and Development
- Formative assessment
- Summative assessment
- Can be individual or a group
- Can also include informal method ( such as thumbs up, thumbs down, and
- such as quiz answers to questions on a worksheet, or written reflection or
Stage 3: Learning Plan.
This plan should be aligned clearly with the desired results Components of a lesson
1. Materials and all resources
3. Introductory activities
4. Developmental activities
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5. Closing activities (also include hand outs and other visual materials)
Important points to remember in planning and organizing instruction
In planning instruction it is good to be reminded of the following:
1. That our daily teaching-learning is supposed to contribute to the realization of the
vision statement of the Department to help develop “Filipino who passionately love their country
and whose values and competencies enable them to realized their full potential and contribute
meaningfully to building the nation.”
2. If you belong to a private institution, bear in mind the vision mission statement of
your school in addition to the DepEd’s vision and mission statement. Your teaching- learning
must be aligned to your school’s vision mission and to that of DepEd`s.
3. Consider, too, the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) the framework issued
through Executive order No. 83 by the office of the President on October 1, 2012 that describe
the knowledge, skills, and values of Philippine Graduates at different levels in Philippine
education system. While what are spelled out in the PQF are the knowledge, skills and values
that grade 10 and grade 12 graduates are supposed to demonstrate (Level 1 and Level 2,
respectively in the PQF). The teaching and learning process that take place from k to grade 10
matter a lot for they lay the foundation for grade 12.
4. According to the qualification formulated by DepEd, the grade 10 graduate must be
able to demonstrate :
a) “knowledge across a learning areas with core competencies in
communication, scientific, critical and creative thinking and the use of technologies.
b) Have an understanding of right and wrong, one’s history and cultural heritage,
deep respect for self others and their culture, and the environment.
c) Apply foundational knowledge, skills and values in academic and real life
situation through round reasoning, informed decision making and the judicious use of
d) Apply skills in limited situations with close supervision.
5. Our instructional planning is supposed to begin with the study of K to 12 curriculum
guide for the subjects that we teach. This should be your Bible as you plan and as you teach. A
serious study of the curriculum guide will make clear focus of your subject/ learning area and of
your lessons. The standard and competencies which are contained in the K to 12 curriculum
Guide give direction and focus to your lesson s. it will also familiarized you with the scope and
sequence of what your supposed to plan and organized be it by lesson or unit form.
6. Which instructional plan are you going to prepare depends on what your school
requires. It may be a unit plan or a lesson plan or both. Whatever plan you are asked to make,
the parts are basically the same. The unit plan is more comprehensive than the lesson plan.
7. Apply all the principles of teaching and learning that you have learned in principles
of teaching I and the research based instructional strategies discussed in chapter 4. as you plan
instruction you should also be guided by the same guiding principles upon which K to 12
curriculum guide was developed.
8. Always begin with the end of mind. Competencies – Enabling objectives Content
standard Performance standard Exit outcome Big outcome Terminal objective Figure 11.
competencies and Content standard.
9. Do assessment to ensure learning ( assessment for learning). Diagnostic test
Beginning of instructions entry - skills and knowledge Formative test During instruction -
attainment of competencies Summative test End of a unit/ grading period - content/ performance
10. Give your students opportunity to asses themselves.
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11. You teach two types of knowledge declarative ( facts, concepts, principles,
hypothesis, laws.) and procedural knowledge (manipulative skills, process)
12. Wiggins and Mc Tighe (2002) assert that assessment of the student performance
consist of a photo album rather than more traditional of a snapshot. Assessment tools and
● Test and quizzes
● Academic prompts
● Reflective assessment
● Culminating assessment Instructional Planning and Development
13. Don’t forget the part of instructional planning is utilization of assessment results.
Elements of a Lesson Plan/ instructional Plan/ Learning Plan
1. Dr. Madeline Hunter’s research indicates that effective teachers usually include the following
elements in their lesson plan:
a. Anticipatory set - a short activity, dispatch or prompt that focuses the students attention and
ties previous lesson’s to today’s lesson.
b. Purpose – an explanation of importance of this lesson and a statement concerning what
students will be able to do when they have completed it
c. Input - the vocabulary, skills, and concepts to be learned.
d. Modeling - the teacher demonstrates what is to be learned. e. Guided practice- the teacher
leads the students through the steps necessary to perform the skill using multiple modalities.
f. Checking for understanding - the teacher uses a variety of questioning strategies to determine
if the students are understanding.
g. Independent practice - the teacher releases students to practice on their own.
h. Closure - a renew or wrap-up of the lesson Instructional Planning and Development
W- WHERE and WHY- Where will I help my students to know where they are headed
why they are going there and what ways there will be evaluated along the way.
H- HOOK and HOLD – how will I hook and engage the learners? How will I keep them
E- EXPLORE and EXPERIENCE, ENABLE and EQUIP
R- REFLECT, RETHINK, REVISE - how will I encourage the learners to rethink
previous learning? How will I encourage on going revision and refinement? Instructional
Planning and Development
E- How will I promote students SELF EVALUATION?
T- TAILOR and personalized the work how will I tailor the learning experience to the
nature of the learners I serve? How might I differentiate instruction to respond to varied needs
O- ORGANIZE for optimal Effectiveness How will I organize the learning experience
for maximum engagement and effectiveness? What sequence will be optimal given the
understanding and transfer goals?
Common to all
1. The lesson instructional plans begin with objectives, standard, outcome, purpose,
where and why.
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2. Subject matter ….. What they will be learning? Why is this worth learning? (UBD) ;
and input (Hunter);
3. Step in lesson development which include; a. “ activities, application, summary” b.
hook and hold; explore and experience, enable and equip, reflect, rethink, revise, evaluate work
and progress, tailor and personalize the work, organized for optimal effectiveness (UBD) and
4. Evaluation- checking for understanding (Hunter) self-evaluation (UBD) Instructional
Planning and Development
Lesson development in Direct ( Deductive) and Indirect (Deductive) instruction.
In Direct ( deductive instruction) you teach beginning with the rule, generalization,
abstraction, or principle and end with examples and details. Hunter’s lesson plan is for
direct(deductive) instruction. In hunter’s sample lesson, the teacher gives input on vocabulary,
skills and concepts, demonstrates what is to be learned; gives guided practice; check for
understanding and make students do independent practice that leads to lesson closure.
1. Input: the teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the
knowledge or kill through lecture ,film, tape, video, pictures, etc.
2. Modeling: once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show
student examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. The critical aspects are
explained through labeling categorizing comparing, etc. students are taken to the application
level (problem solving, comparison ,summarizing.)
3.Checking for understanding: determination of whether students have got it “ before
proceeding. …if there is any doubt that the class has not understood , the concept/skill should
be retaught before practice begins.
4. Questioning strategies: asking questions that go beyond mere fecal to probe for the
higher level of understanding to ensure memory network binding and transfer.
5. Guided practice: an opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new
learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher’s direct supervision, the
teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual
remediation as needed.
6. Closure: is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying theme
together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the
students conceptual network. Instructional Planning and Development
7. Independent practice: once pupil have mastered the content or skill it is time to
provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is
not forgotten. It may be homework or group or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an
element in a subsequent project. It should provide for Decontextualization: enough different
context so that the skill or concept may be applied to any relevant situation not only the context
in which it was originally learned. The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to
be able to apply something learned.
Lesson development for mastery and meaningful learning
The procedure of lesson plan outlines how a lesson is developed .in Hunter’s model ,
the words used are “input on vocabulary, skills and concepts; demonstrate what is to be learned;
gives guided practice; check for understanding; and make students do independent practice that
leads to lesson closure.” in the UBD framework the teacher enables the student to “explore and
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experience; reflect, rethink; revise; evaluate work on progress and personalized the work. In the
third lesson plan, lesson development includes “activities, application and summary. I
In other words, the lesson needs to b e deepened for meaningful and mastery learning.
It is not enough that you lecture or demonstrate, the students need to be actively involved by
making them explore, experience, reflect, rethink, revised, practice, evaluate work and progress
and apply what was learned in real world task.
*Take note : a lesson may be developed DEDUCTIVELY ( directly) or INDUCTIVELY ( indirectly)
For lesson development apply all Principles of teaching and learning and effective
instructional strategies you learned. To develop a lesson plan you have to refer to the K to 12
Figure 1.2. Checklist of Practices in a Standards-Based School
- have copies of standards and frameworks for each subject they teach.
- do not rely on unchallenging student desk work, including word searches, sentence completion
exercises, puzzles, and other forms of response sheets not linked to standards.
- plan lessons from standards, frameworks, and related state documents.
- plan standards-based lessons in regularly scheduled grade-level or subject-matter team
- submit standards-based lesson plans with objectives written from the standards to the principal
for periodic review.
- examine student work samples in relation to the standards in regularly scheduled team
- retain copies of exemplary student work to use as benchmarks when teaching the lessons
- occasionally review samples of students’ work to find evidence of state standards achievement.
- review standards-based lesson plans and resulting samples of students’ work during
- post critical standards in the teachers’ lounge, the principal’s office, and other school settings
visited by parents and community members.
- have adjusted the school schedule of activities to accommodate grade-level team planning with
- have identified critical standards to be achieved in each subject for each grade level.
- have developed a curriculum pacing guide that informs teachers when their students should
achieve critical standards throughout the school year.
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- use benchmark tests to measure the achievement of important standards at quarterly intervals
throughout the school year.
- use the benchmark assessment system to inform teachers of the progress that each of their
students is making toward the achievement of critical standards likely to be assessed on annual
The checklist is not meant to include all promising reform activity in standards-based
schools. Nor is it likely that any one school will exhibit all the listed activities. However, the
checklist reflects practices that will help establish a curriculum management system to
continuously measure and support achievement of state content standards at the classroom
level. Similar checklists and curriculum auditing tools can be found at the end of each chapter.
Adopting Hunter’s elements in of lesson plan. Try filling up this template to help
you come up with a plan for future reference.
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Teaching of Listening
This module will help you to:
explain the listening process
give reasons for doing listening
differentiate the types of listening
prepare varied listening activities for listening comprehension.
1. Here are some classroom activities. Decide which are listening activities and which are not.
a. Learners respond orally to a written exercise
b. Learners complete a task while listening to a taped conversation.
c. The teacher explains some special arrangement for the following week's lesson.
d. A learner asks the teacher a question about the meaning of a word.
e. The teacher conducts a drill with the class.
f. A learner formulates a sentence silently before uttering it.
g. Two learners carry out a pair work activity
h. The teacher tells a story.
i. The teacher converses with the class before the lesson starts
j. The class is engaged in a pronunciation exercise focusing on two contrasting
Listening is a familiar part of our everyday experience. Actually, most people spend a
large part of their waking hours listening, with varying degrees of attention, to language and
However, despite the importance of listening it is not given the atention it deserves in
the classroom. Students are not trained to listen attentively and critically since it is assumed
that listening skills will just develop as a matter of course. But that is contrary to research
findings. Due to inability to listen proficiently, communication breakdown in oral interaction
occurs. Because many fail to listen critically, miscommunication leads to other serious
It is, therefore, important that listening skills be taught to prepare students for effective
functioning outside the classroom.
Listening is attending to what you consider important. It is trying to get the meaning of
what you hear. To listen successfully to spoken language, you need to be able to work out what
speakers mean when they use particular words in particular ways in particular situations. The
important thing about listening is getting the message and interpreting it.
There are five main reasons why people listen:
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1. To be able to engage in social rituals - As a social being man usually engages in social
rituals such as exchanging pleasantries, engaging in small talk, attending meetings,
and the like
2. To get information - In school, students have to listen attentively to get important ideas
from a lecture or from class discussions.
3. To be able to respond to "controls"—There is need for attentive listening to be able to
follow directions and instructions given orally.
4. To respond to feelings — It is necessary to listen with empathy to understand what a
person means and how he or she feels. This occurs when one listens to complaints or
5. To enjoy — Listening enables us to share a good laugh with others as when we
exchange jokes. It could also serve as a source of pleasure when we listen to music
and oral interpretations of literary pieces.
How well did you remember what you read? Answer the following questions briefly.
1. What is listening?
2. Give at least three reasons for listening. Give examples.
The Listening Process
There are five steps in the listening process (Devito, 1997) as illustrated in the figure
. Receiving the speaker's message. Messages, both verbal and non-verbal, consist of words as
well as gestures, facial expressions, and variation in volume and tone. The listener takes note
of both the verbal and non - verbal elements of the message