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OPEN EDUCATIONAL 
RESOURCES: SHARING 
CONTENT AND KNOWLEDGE 
DIFFERENTLY IS A DRIVER OF 
INNOVATION IN EDUCATION 
Dirk Van...
• Why have ICT and the internet – which profoundly 
changed production and distribution in so many 
sectors and improved p...
• How innovative is the educational sector? 
• The innovation potential of open educational 
resources 
• How? 
– Fosterin...
HOW INNOVATIVE IS THE 
EDUCATION SECTOR?
• Oslo Manual (2005): 
– “the implementation of a new or significantly 
improved product (good or service) or process, a n...
• Applied to the educational sector: 
1. new products and services, e.g. new syllabi, 
textbooks or educational resources ...
Percentage of graduates working in highly 
innovative workplaces, by sector, 2005 or 2008 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
...
Percentage of graduates working in the education 
sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 
37.6 
43.6 
49.8 5...
Percentage of graduates working in the education 
sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 
21.8 22.3 
29.2 
3...
Percentage of graduates working in the education 
sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 
19.1 
23.7 
25.5 
...
THE INNOVATION 
POTENTIAL OF OPEN 
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
• “teaching, learning and research materials that make 
use of appropriate tools, such as open licensing, to 
permit their...
• The innovation potential of OER resides in their usage in 
a teaching and learning setting by: 
– Substitution: The OER ...
HOW? 
1. FOSTERING PEDAGOGIES 
FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING
• In reality, most OER are used in existing educational 
settings 
• At best, augmenting the teaching-learning process 
an...
16 
Changing skill demand 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 
Routine manual 
Nonroutine manual 
Routine co...
1.56 
1.76 
1.76 
1.81 
1.94 
1.95 
1.97 
1.98 
1.99 
2.00 
2.02 
2.05 
2.11 
2.15 
2.18 
2.24 
2.34 
2.44 
2.97 
1.00 2.0...
From what we know from learning research, teaching and 
learning environments and pedagogies should be: 
• Learner-centred...
Industrial Post-industrial 
Cognitive skills Cognitive & non-cognitive skills 
Discipline Character 
Routine skills Non-ro...
• Changes in teaching practices 
• Changing the role of learners from passive 
consumers to active producers 
• Fostering ...
HOW? 
2. FOSTERING TEACHERS’ 
COLLABORATION AND 
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
• ICT technology and the ways to use them in a 
productive way in teaching and learning cited by 
teachers as one of the m...
Teachers’ need for professional development 
0 10 20 30 40 
Knowledge of the curriculum 
Knowledge of the subject field(s)...
Professional collaboration still the most 
contentious aspect of professional growth 
1.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
5.00 
6.00 
...
• Training and professional development for teachers 
on using OER 
• Using OER in teacher training and teacher 
professio...
HOW? 
3. SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVING 
THE QUALITY OF RESOURCES
• Many people see open resources as a quality 
challenge because of lack of trust in products from 
other people and the d...
• Creating communities of practice purposefully evaluating 
and enhancing quality of resources through user 
feedback, ada...
SOME CONCLUSIONS AND 
FINAL COMMENTS
• Ultimately, the relevance of OER will consist of the way it 
impacts on and improves teaching and learning 
processes an...
• Much more research is needed on the usage of OER 
in teaching and learning environments and on the 
impact they have 
– ...
Thank you ! 
dirk.vandamme@oecd.org 
www.oecd.org/edu/ceri 
twitter @VanDammeEDU 
32
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Open educational resources sharing content and knowledge differently is a driver of innovation in education

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Why have ICT and the internet – which profoundly changed production and distribution in so many sectors and improved productivity – not had the same impact on education so far?

• Open Educational Resources (OER) can be seen as a social innovation (not a technological one) with the potential of reforming (not revolutionising) education if they are linking to what we know about learning and to what teachers need

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Open educational resources sharing content and knowledge differently is a driver of innovation in education

  1. 1. OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: SHARING CONTENT AND KNOWLEDGE DIFFERENTLY IS A DRIVER OF INNOVATION IN EDUCATION Dirk Van Damme – OECD/CERI
  2. 2. • Why have ICT and the internet – which profoundly changed production and distribution in so many sectors and improved productivity – not had the same impact on education so far? • Open Educational Resources (OER) can be seen as a social innovation (not a technological one) with the potential of reforming (not revolutionising) education if they are linking to what we know about learning and to what teachers need Starting points
  3. 3. • How innovative is the educational sector? • The innovation potential of open educational resources • How? – Fostering pedagogies for 21st century learning – Fostering teachers’ collaboration and professional development – Significantly improving the quality of resources • Some conclusions and final comments Outline
  4. 4. HOW INNOVATIVE IS THE EDUCATION SECTOR?
  5. 5. • Oslo Manual (2005): – “the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service) or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.” Innovation in education
  6. 6. • Applied to the educational sector: 1. new products and services, e.g. new syllabi, textbooks or educational resources 2. new processes for delivering their services, e.g. use of ICT in e-learning services, 3. new ways of organising their activities, e.g. ICT to communicate with students and parents, and 4. new marketing techniques, e.g. differential pricing of postgraduate courses. Innovation in education
  7. 7. Percentage of graduates working in highly innovative workplaces, by sector, 2005 or 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Health Manufacturing Business activities All economy Education
  8. 8. Percentage of graduates working in the education sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 37.6 43.6 49.8 50.2 51.4 53.2 55.2 58.9 59.1 60.1 61.4 61.8 62.6 63.9 64.6 66.3 67.2 67.7 71.0 72.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Knowledge or methods
  9. 9. Percentage of graduates working in the education sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 21.8 22.3 29.2 30.9 32.7 32.9 33.8 35.5 36.4 37.3 37.6 39.1 39.3 40.5 42.0 44.2 45.9 48.4 50.3 52.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Product or service
  10. 10. Percentage of graduates working in the education sector in highly innovative workplaces, 2005 or 2008 19.1 23.7 25.5 28.6 28.8 30.4 32.7 33.9 35.8 36.1 36.4 37.1 37.3 40.4 42.9 44.2 45.3 45.7 51.2 53.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Technology, tools or instruments
  11. 11. THE INNOVATION POTENTIAL OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
  12. 12. • “teaching, learning and research materials that make use of appropriate tools, such as open licensing, to permit their free re-use, continuous improvement and re-purposing by others.” – Any type or form – Mostly, though not exclusively, in digital format – Allowing for re-use, revise, re-mix and re-distribute (the ‘four Rs’ of OER) Defining OER
  13. 13. • The innovation potential of OER resides in their usage in a teaching and learning setting by: – Substitution: The OER replaces a similar learning material allowing for the same functionalities. – Augmentation: The OER constitutes an improvement in terms of previous learning materials’ efficacy. – Modification (redesign of the learning activity): The OER enables a substantial learning activity redesign compared to the previous learning material. – Redefinition (of the pedagogical approach): The OER allow for new forms of learning that were previously unavailable with the previous teaching and learning configuration. (Puentedura, 2006) OERs’ innovation potential
  14. 14. HOW? 1. FOSTERING PEDAGOGIES FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING
  15. 15. • In reality, most OER are used in existing educational settings • At best, augmenting the teaching-learning process and the resources used • But 21st century learning requires a focus on more innovative skills development and pedagogies 1. Fostering pedagogies for 21st century learning
  16. 16. 16 Changing skill demand 40 45 50 55 60 65 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interactive Source: Levy and Murnane, 2005 Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)
  17. 17. 1.56 1.76 1.76 1.81 1.94 1.95 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00 2.02 2.05 2.11 2.15 2.18 2.24 2.34 2.44 2.97 1.00 2.00 4.00 assert your authority negociate knowledge of other fields perform under pressure write reports or documents work productively with others mobilize capacities of others use time efficiently make your meaning clear use computers and internet write and speak a foreign language coordinate activities master of your own field analytical thinking present ideas in audience alertness to opportunities willingness to question ideas acquire new knowledge come with news ideas/solutions 17 Critical skills for innovation Likelihood (odds ratios) of reporting the following job requirements: people in the most innovative jobs vs. least innovative jobs Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
  18. 18. From what we know from learning research, teaching and learning environments and pedagogies should be: • Learner-centred: highly focused on learning but not as an alternative to the key role for teachers • Structured and well-designed: needs careful design and high professionalism alongside inquiry & autonomous learning • Profoundly personalised: acutely sensitive to individual and group differences and offering tailored feedback • Inclusive: such sensitivity to individual and group differences means they are fundamentally inclusive • Social: learning is effective in group settings, when learners collaborate, and when there is a connection to community. 18 Redefining teaching and learning
  19. 19. Industrial Post-industrial Cognitive skills Cognitive & non-cognitive skills Discipline Character Routine skills Non-routine skills Curriculum centred Skills centred Linear concepts of learning Non-linearity ‘Learning to the test’ ‘Joy of learning’ Formal education centred Continuum from formal to informal learning Evidence-poor teaching and learning environments Evidence-rich teaching and learning environments Pedagogy for selection of few Pedagogy of success of all 19 The direction of change
  20. 20. • Changes in teaching practices • Changing the role of learners from passive consumers to active producers • Fostering peer-to-peer learning • Stimulating problem-based learning • Enriching learning resources through collaborative production • … How can OER support innovative pedagogies?
  21. 21. HOW? 2. FOSTERING TEACHERS’ COLLABORATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  22. 22. • ICT technology and the ways to use them in a productive way in teaching and learning cited by teachers as one of the most important needs of professional development • Professional collaboration is still the most contentious and difficult dimension of professionalism among teachers 2. Fostering teachers’ professional development
  23. 23. Teachers’ need for professional development 0 10 20 30 40 Knowledge of the curriculum Knowledge of the subject field(s) School management and administration Pedagogical competencies Developing competencies for future work Teaching cross-curricular skills Student evaluation and assessment practice Student career guidance and counselling Approaches to individualised learning Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Student behaviour and classroom management New technologies in the workplace ICT skills for teaching Teaching students with special needs France Average Percentage of lower secondary teachers indicating they have a high level of need for professional development in the following areas TALIS 2013
  24. 24. Professional collaboration still the most contentious aspect of professional growth 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Shared vision Focus on student learning Reflection De-privatisation of practice Collaborative activities - exchange Collaborative activities - teach jointly Mean factor score Professional learning community Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile A: 80% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile B: 13% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile C: 8% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) 24 TALIS 2008
  25. 25. • Training and professional development for teachers on using OER • Using OER in teacher training and teacher professional development • Collaborative production of OER • Stimulating teachers in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing of OER • … How can OER support teachers’ professional development?
  26. 26. HOW? 3. SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF RESOURCES
  27. 27. • Many people see open resources as a quality challenge because of lack of trust in products from other people and the dispersed nature of the production process • OER can provide access to high-quality resources • Collaborative practices, feedback, adaptability should work in favour of quality, by – Keeping resources up-to-date – Providing adequate quality assurance mechanisms – Aligning OER to accepted standards 3. Significantly improving the quality of resources
  28. 28. • Creating communities of practice purposefully evaluating and enhancing quality of resources through user feedback, adapting and modifying resources, etc. • Improving access to and sharing of high-quality materials • Providing targeted search tools to high-quality materials • Flexibly adapting resources to new environments • Better organising procedures of peer-review and use feedback • Refusing to be tolerant to low-quality resources How can OER improve the quality of resources?
  29. 29. SOME CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL COMMENTS
  30. 30. • Ultimately, the relevance of OER will consist of the way it impacts on and improves teaching and learning processes and facilitates better skills development • Content and teaching-learning practices are not completely distinct • OER should be able to demonstrate its intrinsic superiority over proprietary materials in its pedagogical dimension and substantive quality • OER should move from a pioneering community of believers, or even an ideology, into professional practice Some conclusions and final comments
  31. 31. • Much more research is needed on the usage of OER in teaching and learning environments and on the impact they have – Measurement issues – Opportunities of ‘big data’ research, learning analytics • OER opens a window on how future societies, knowledge workers and educators will process knowledge: through sharing, collaborating, communities of practice, … Some conclusions and final comments
  32. 32. Thank you ! dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri twitter @VanDammeEDU 32

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