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Education at a Glance 2017

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Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. With more than 125 charts and 145 tables included in the publication and much more data available on the educational database, Education at a Glance 2017 provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

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Education at a Glance 2017

  1. 1. OECD Indicators 2017 Education at a Glance
  2. 2. The demand for education is growing
  3. 3. Tertiary education is becoming the norm Figure A1.2 Educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea Canada Russian… Lithuania Ireland UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Australia Switzerland Norway UnitedStates Israel Sweden Denmark Netherlands Belgium France Poland NewZealand Iceland Slovenia OECDaverage Latvia Finland Estonia EU22average Spain Greece Austria Portugal SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Germany Turkey Hungary Chile CostaRica Colombia SaudiArabia Italy Mexico Argentina China Brazil India Indonesia SouthAfrica Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education %
  4. 4. 65% of adults are expected to enter tertiary education for the first time in 2015 Figure C3.3 First-time tertiary entry rates (2005, 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NewZealand Chile Denmark Switzerland RussianFederation Lithuania Japan Iceland Poland Norway SaudiArabia Spain Slovenia Austria UnitedKingdom Belgium Israel Netherlands Argentina CzechRepublic OECDaverage Germany India EU22average Sweden SlovakRepublic Finland Portugal UnitedStates Italy Colombia Hungary Mexico Luxembourg 2015 2005 %
  5. 5. Adults with higher educational attainment have better economic outcomes
  6. 6. Tertiary graduates are more likely to be employed… Figure A5.3 Employment rates of 25-34 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2016) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lithuania Iceland Netherlands Luxembourg Switzerland Argentina Austria Poland RussianFederation Latvia Germany UnitedKingdom Belgium Norway Sweden Israel NewZealand Brazil France Japan Canada Chile Australia UnitedStates Ireland Indonesia OECDaverage Denmark Hungary EU22average Portugal Colombia Slovenia Estonia CostaRica Finland Mexico SouthAfrica CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Spain Korea Turkey Greece Italy SaudiArabia Below upper secondary Vocational General or no distinction Tertiary% Employment rates for young adults with tertiary degrees have returned to pre-crisis levels, which is not true for people without upper secondary qualifications
  7. 7. …but employment often varies across fields of study… Figure A5.1 Employment rates of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds, by field of study (2016) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Greece Turkey Italy Mexico Spain CostaRica SlovakRepublic Slovenia UnitedStates Finland Australia OECDaverage EU22average Chile Estonia Hungary Portugal Belgium CzechRepublic France Austria Latvia Poland Germany Netherlands Switzerland Norway Sweden Lithuania Iceland All fields of study Education Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) Arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information% Employment also varies for STEM graduates: While employment is very strong for IT specialists, for natural science, statistics and math it compares more to arts and humanities
  8. 8. …and men and women still make different choices Figure C3.1 Share of new female entrants to STEM fields of tertiary education (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 India UnitedKingdom Iceland NewZealand Poland Portugal Denmark CzechRepublic Estonia Sweden SlovakRepublic Israel Colombia EU22average OECDaverage Ireland Mexico Hungary Slovenia Norway Austria Turkey Germany Spain Netherlands Korea Lithuania Latvia Switzerland Indonesia Finland Luxembourg Belgium Chile Japan Share of male entrants Share of female entrants% In many countries more 15-year-old students expect a career in science than actually enter into science- related studies (C3.a)
  9. 9. Adults with tertiary-educated parents are twice more likely to reach that level themselves than those without Figure A4.3 Share of 30-44 year-olds who completed tertiary-type A or an advanced research programme, by parents' educational attainment (2012 or 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Italy SlovakRepublic Poland Turkey France Singapore CzechRepublic Greece Spain NorthernIreland England Israel UnitedStates Chile Ireland Australia Lithuania Average RussianFederation Netherlands Canada Korea Norway Slovenia FlemishCom. Germany NewZealand Estonia Japan Finland Sweden Denmark Austria % At least one parent has attained tertiary education Both parents have less than tertiary educational attainment
  10. 10. Education Arts and humanities Social sciences, journalism and information Business, administration and law Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Information and communication technologies Engineering, manufacturing and construction Health and welfare Services 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Internationaldoctoratestudentsbyfieldof education(%) National doctorate students by field of education (%) More open or attractive to international students Less open or attractive to international students ` International students are more drawn to science- related fields, particularly at doctoral level Figure C4.2 Doctorate student mobility by field of education, OECD average (2015)
  11. 11. Tertiary graduates earn on average 56% more than those with upper secondary level attainment Figure A6.1 Relative earnings of adults, by educational attainment. Upper secondary education = 100 (2015) 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Sweden Estonia Norway Denmark Finland Greece Belgium NewZealand Australia Korea Italy Canada Latvia Netherlands Switzerland Japan Spain UnitedKingdom Austria France OECDaverage Luxembourg Israel Poland Ireland Germany Turkey Portugal CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Slovenia UnitedStates Lithuania Hungary Mexico CostaRica Colombia Chile Brazil Earning advantage of adults with tertiary education Earning disadvantage of adults with below upper secondary educationIndex
  12. 12. Most countries have levelled up resources, often faster than enrolment
  13. 13. Between 2010 and 2014, expenditure on tertiary institutions increased twice as fast as enrolments… Table B1.3 Index of change in expenditure (current prices) and number of students in tertiary institutions for all services (2010 to 2014) 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Turkey Estonia SlovakRepublic Australia Chile Iceland Latvia Mexico Israel OECDaverage Norway Belgium Germany Netherlands Sweden CzechRepublic UnitedStates Korea Japan France Canada EU22average Poland Italy Denmark Finland Spain Portugal Slovenia Hungary Ireland Change in expenditure Change in the number of students GDP deflator 2010 = 100 230
  14. 14. Private expenditure on tertiary education increased Figure B3.3 Change in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions, 2010 = 100 (2005 and 2014) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Australia Spain Belgium Canada Sweden France Israel Iceland UnitedStates Netherlands Ireland Germany Mexico OECDaverage Portugal CzechRepublic Japan Italy Norway EU22average Denmark SlovakRepublic Chile Korea Lithuania RussianFederation Finland Estonia Slovenia Latvia Poland 2005 2014Index of change (2010 = 100)
  15. 15. And now funds 30% of total expenditure on tertiary institutions on average across OECD countries Figure B3.2 Distribution of public and private expenditure on educational institutions (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Finland Norway Luxembourg Denmark Austria Iceland Sweden Belgium Argentina Slovenia Germany Estonia Poland France Latvia EU22average SlovakRepublic Lithuania CzechRepublic Indonesia Turkey Ireland Mexico OECDaverage Netherlands Hungary Spain RussianFederation Italy Portugal Israel NewZealand Canada Colombia Australia Chile UnitedStates Korea Japan UnitedKingdom % Tertiary education Public expenditure on educational institutions Household expenditure Expenditure of other private entities All private sources
  16. 16. Rising tuition fees are behind the increasing contributions of households
  17. 17. High tuition fees are characteristic of tertiary education in many countries Figure B5.1 Tuition fees charged by public and private institutions at bachelor's or equivalent level (2015/16) - 1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 UnitedStates Chile Japan Canada Australia Korea NewZealand Israel Netherlands Spain Italy Portugal Switzerland Austria Hungary Luxembourg Flemishcom.(Belgium) Frenchcom.(Belgium) Slovenia Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Poland SlovakRepublic Sweden Turkey Mexico Latvia England(UnitedKingdom) PPP-adjustedUSD,thousands Public institutions Private institutions21 189
  18. 18. Flexible funding mechanisms help students Figure B5.3 Distribution of financial support to students at bachelor's or equivalent level (2015/16) 11,951 0 4,763 8,202 0 3,095 0 7,654 624 420 1,658 914 1,168 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 England(United Kingdom)* Norway Australia UnitedStates Turkey Israel Finland Chile Flemishcom. (Belgium) Mexico Frenchcom. (Belgium) Italy Austria Switzerland % Not benefitting from public loans or scholarships/grants Benefitting from public loans and scholarships/grants Benefitting from public loans only Benefitting from scholarships/grants only Average public tuition fees (USD) (Table B5.1) *All tertiary institutions are government-dependent private institutions in England (United Kingdom).
  19. 19. The returns are still worth it for individuals Figure A7.2 Private costs and benefits of education for a man or a woman attaining tertiary education (2013) - 200 - 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Luxembourg Ireland Chile UnitedStates Poland Portugal Slovenia Korea Spain Turkey Canada Israel Hungary EU22average OECDaverage CzechRepublic France Australia Norway NewZealand Netherlands Germany Austria Finland Estonia Italy Denmark SlovakRepublic Japan Thousands Man: Total benefits Man: Total costs Woman: Total benefits Woman: Total costs
  20. 20. …and also for taxpayers Figure A7.3 Public costs and benefits of education for a man or a woman attaining tertiary education (2013) - 200 - 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Netherlands Ireland Luxembourg Slovenia Portugal Japan UnitedStates EU22average CzechRepublic Germany Finland Australia Poland Hungary France OECDaverage Austria Turkey Italy Spain Canada Israel NewZealand Norway Denmark SlovakRepublic Korea Estonia Chile Switzerland Thousands Man: Total benefits Man: Total costs Woman: Total benefits Woman: Total costs
  21. 21. International student flows keep rising but remain uneven
  22. 22. International student mobility helps create networks of competencies, particularly at higher levels of education Figure C4.3 International students (inflow) and national students abroad (outflow) as a percentage of total national students (2015) New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Switzerland Austria BelgiumCanada Netherlands Denmark Czech Republic France Finland GermanyHungary Ireland Sweden Slovak Republic Latvia ItalyUnited States Portugal Estonia Japan Norway Lithuania Russian Federation Slovenia Poland KoreaTurkey Chile China 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Studentinflow Student outflow Tertiary Luxembourg ( 23;73)
  23. 23. In spite of this positive trend for higher education, some are still left behind
  24. 24. Completion of upper secondary level is still a challenge for some Figure A9.2 Outcomes for students who entered upper secondary education, by duration (2015) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% NewZealand Estonia Flemishcom. (Belgium) Latvia Sweden Finland Average Netherlands Chile Austria Norway England(UK) Brazil Portugal Luxembourg By theoretical duration plus two years Graduated from any upper secondary programme Still in education Not graduated and not enrolled
  25. 25. Particularly for those with less-educated parents or from an immigrant background Figure A9.a Completion rate of upper secondary education by parents' educational background (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Israel United States Netherlands France Flemish com. (Belgium) Finland Sweden Norway Below upper secondary (ISCED 0-2) Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3-4) Tertiary (ISCED 5-8) %
  26. 26. Particularly for those with less-educated parents or from an immigrant background Figure A9.a Completion rate of upper secondary education by students' immigrant status (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 United States Israel France Netherlands Finland Sweden Norway First generation Second generation Non-immigrant
  27. 27. This is a critical loss for the labour market
  28. 28. Employment prospects for those with below upper secondary education have been decreasing Figure A5.2 Trends in employment rates of 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education (2005 and 2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Iceland Portugal Luxembourg Switzerland Latvia Sweden Mexico NewZealand Argentina CostaRica Netherlands Estonia UnitedKingdom Denmark Norway Spain Korea UnitedStates OECDaverage Austria Slovenia Canada EU22average Lithuania Australia Germany Hungary Turkey Israel Belgium Italy Greece Finland France CzechRepublic Poland Ireland SlovakRepublic 2005 2016%
  29. 29. And the unemployment rate of adults who have not attained upper secondary education is nearly twice that for those who have Figure A5.4 Unemployment rates of 25-34 year-olds, by educational attainment (2016) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Hungary UnitedStates Iceland CzechRepublic Netherlands Lithuania UnitedKingdom Germany Japan Australia NewZealand Estonia RussianFederation Austria Luxembourg Switzerland Latvia Israel Norway Argentina Sweden Belgium Canada Poland Korea Ireland Brazil OECDaverage Mexico France Chile Finland SlovakRepublic EU22average CostaRica Indonesia Denmark Portugal Slovenia Colombia SouthAfrica Turkey Italy Spain SaudiArabia Greece Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary %
  30. 30. The transition from school to work is not always smooth, and reveals the relevance of skills acquired through education to the labour market
  31. 31. The share of NEETs has remained relatively stable on average across OECD countries in the past decade Figure C5.3 Trends in the percentage of 20-24 year-old NEETs (2005 and 2016) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Turkey Italy Brazil Spain Greece Mexico Colombia CostaRica France Portugal Chile Ireland Latvia Poland Israel Hungary Finland RussianFederation Belgium SlovakRepublic OECDaverage UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Canada Lithuania Estonia Austria NewZealand Slovenia Australia CzechRepublic Norway Sweden Germany Switzerland Japan Luxembourg Denmark Netherlands Iceland 2005 2016%
  32. 32. Estonia Finland Japan Canada Denmark Ireland Norway Germany Poland Netherlands Portugal Sweden Australia Switzerland Belgium Czech Republic Spain Iceland United States United Kingdom Lithuania France Italy Hungary Israel Greece Slovak Republic Chile Mexico Turkey Costa Rica Colombia Brazil Austria R² = 0.641 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Literacy proficiency below Level 2 (%) Low share of NEETs Low share of low skilled students High share of NEETs High share of low skilled students Low share of NEETs High share of low skilled students OECD Average OECDAverage High share of NEETs Low share of low skilled students Adults with lower literacy and numeracy levels have more difficulty transitioning into the labour market Figure C5.4 Percentage of 15-19 year-old NEETs (2016) and percentage of 15-year-old students with low literacy skills (2015)
  33. 33. Vocational programmes offer flexible pathways through education and into the labour market
  34. 34. Some countries have successfully developed work- study programmes Figure A5.a Percentage of 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, by programme orientation and type of vocational programmes (2015) 23 60 63 70 52 28 22 6 25 12 16 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 France Germany Austria Switzerland Work-study programmes School-based programmes General programmes %
  35. 35. Employment rates of adults with upper secondary or post- secondary non-tertiary education Figure A5.b 40 50 60 70 80 90 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Austria Work-study programmes School-based programmes General programmes 40 50 60 70 80 90 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Switzerland% 40 50 60 70 80 90 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 France% 40 50 60 70 80 90 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Germany% %
  36. 36. Vocational programmes offer opportunities for life-long learning Figure A2.2 Share of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes, by age group (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Israel Korea Indonesia Chile Sweden Slovenia Turkey SlovakRepublic Mexico Italy CostaRica France Brazil Hungary Austria Lithuania Belgium Greece Portugal Estonia OECDaverage EU22average Luxembourg CzechRepublic Netherlands Switzerland Spain Germany NewZealand Norway Finland Ireland Poland Australia Latvia Canada Denmark % 50 year olds and older 40 to 49 year olds 30 to 39 year olds 25 to 29 year olds 20 to 24 year olds Younger than 20 years old
  37. 37. Financial investment in basic skills has been growing, but varies a lot by country
  38. 38. OECD countries spend about USD 123,000 on average for primary to secondary education Figure B1.3 Cumulative expenditure per student by educational institutions over the expected duration of primary and secondary studies (2014) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Luxembourg Switzerland Norway UnitedKingdom Denmark Austria Belgium Sweden Netherlands UnitedStates Australia Germany Finland EU22average Canada France Ireland OECDaverage NewZealand Japan Slovenia Korea Italy Spain Portugal CzechRepublic Estonia Latvia Poland Israel SlovakRepublic Hungary Lithuania UnitedKingdom RussianFederation Turkey Mexico Indonesia PPP-adjustedUSD,thousands Primary education Lower secondary Upper secondary education
  39. 39. And public expenditure at these levels has increased by 4% since 2010, although enrolments have declined Table B1.3 Index of change in expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services (current prices) and number of students (2010 to 2014) 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Turkey Israel UnitedKingdom Latvia Portugal Mexico Iceland Chile Denmark Poland Hungary OECDaverage Belgium Sweden Korea Japan Australia EU22average CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Canada France Norway Finland Germany Luxembourg Italy Netherlands UnitedStates Estonia Slovenia Ireland Spain Switzerland Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary Change in expenditure Change in the number of students GDP deflator 2010 = 100
  40. 40. On average, expenditure on educational institutions has increased faster than GDP between 2008 and 2014 Figure B2.3 Index of change in public expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions and in GDP (2008 to 2014) 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Turkey Korea SlovakRepublic Denmark Finland Switzerland Mexico Netherlands Chile Portugal Australia Germany Brazil OECDaverage Japan Israel Belgium CzechRepublic EU22average RussianFederation Sweden Norway France Iceland Latvia Slovenia Poland Canada Spain Estonia Lithuania Italy UnitedStates Hungary Ireland Index of change (2008 = 100) Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in GDP Change in public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP 205
  41. 41. In primary and secondary education, how resources are allocated is as important as total funds invested overall
  42. 42. Teachers still earn less than similarly tertiary- educated workers Figure D3.1 Lower secondary teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers (2015) 0.5 1.0 1.5 Portugal Luxembourg Latvia Greece Finland Germany Israel Estonia France EU22average England(UK) Slovenia Denmark Flemishcom.(Belgium) Lithuania OECDaverage NewZealand Netherlands Australia Sweden Poland Austria Frenchcom.(Belgium) Scotland(UK) Norway Chile Hungary Italy UnitedStates SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Ratio
  43. 43. They have also been badly hit by the financial crisis and are still recovering in many countries Figure D3.3 Change in teachers’ salaries in OECD countries (2005-15) 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Primary Lower secondary, general programmes Upper secondary, general programmes Index of change 2005 = 100
  44. 44. Class sizes have been decreasing in most countries Figure D2.2 Change in average class size (2005, 2015) - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 France UnitedStates Spain Iceland Italy RussianFederation Portugal Slovenia Germany Luxembourg Hungary Japan Mexico OECDaverage EU22average CzechRepublic Poland Australia Chile Israel Lithuania Austria UnitedKingdom Brazil Greece Korea SlovakRepublic Estonia Turkey Netherlands Index of change (2005 = 0) Primary education Lower secondary education
  45. 45. Smaller student/teacher ratios do not always translate into smaller classes Tables D2.1-2 Relationship between average class size and student-teacher ratio, lower secondary education (2015) Austria Chile Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Japan Korea Latvia Luxembourg Mexico Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Turkey United Kingdom United States 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 AverageClassSize Student-Teacher Ratio
  46. 46. Compulsory instruction time varies significantly Figure D1.1 Total compulsory instruction time in general public education (2017) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Australia Denmark CostaRica Colombia UnitedStates Israel Netherlands Chile Mexico Canada Ireland France Luxembourg Spain Norway Switzerland Portugal Iceland OECDaverage Italy Germany Japan EU22average CzechRepublic Frenchcom.(Belgium) Greece Sweden SlovakRepublic Flemishcom.(Belgium) Lithuania Korea Estonia Austria Slovenia Finland Turkey Poland RussianFederation Hungary Latvia Instructionhours,inthousands Primary Lower secondary
  47. 47. Teaching time has remained generally stable Figure D4.1 Number of teaching hours per year in general lower secondary public education (2000, 2005 and 2015) 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 CostaRica Colombia Chile Switzerland Mexico UnitedStates Scotland(UK) NewZealand England(UK) Australia Denmark Germany Netherlands Canada Luxembourg Ireland Spain OECDaverage Israel Latvia Frenchcom.(Belgium) Norway France SlovakRepublic Slovenia Estonia CzechRepublic Italy Lithuania Japan Hungary Austria Portugal Finland Flemishcom.(Belgium) Korea Greece Turkey Poland RussianFederation Hours per year 2015 2005 2000
  48. 48. Combined, these parameters provide the salary cost of teachers per student, an indication of the effectiveness of funds invested in education
  49. 49. Teacher salaries and class size are the largest drivers of teacher salary cost per student Figure B7.3 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student in public institutions, lower secondary education (2015) - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 Luxembourg Switzerland Austria Flemishcom.(Belgium) Germany Frenchcom.(Belgium) Denmark Finland Norway Slovenia Australia Spain Netherlands Ireland Portugal Canada UnitedStates Japan Korea Italy Greece Israel Poland France Hungary Estonia CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Turkey Chile Latvia Mexico USD,Thousands Contribution of estimated class size Contribution of teaching time Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teachers' salary Difference of salary cost of teachers per student from OECD average
  50. 50. The age and gender distribution of teachers is characterized by strong contrasts
  51. 51. The teaching profession is ageing Figure D5.1 Average age of teachers by education level (2015) 30 35 40 45 50 55 Italy Lithuania Latvia Greece Estonia CzechRepublic Finland Norway Netherlands Sweden NewZealand Germany Austria Slovenia Switzerland EU22average Portugal SlovakRepublic Spain UnitedKingdom France OECDaverage Hungary Israel Japan Poland UnitedStates Ireland Luxembourg Belgium Canada Korea Chile Brazil Indonesia Iceland India Age Lower secondary education Upper secondary education
  52. 52. And fails to attract men, particularly at lower levels of education Figure D5.2 Gender distribution of teachers (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 RussianFederation Lithuania Slovenia Hungary Italy CzechRepublic Latvia Austria Estonia SlovakRepublic Brazil UnitedStates Ireland Germany EU22average Netherlands Poland Israel UnitedKingdom NewZealand OECDaverage France Iceland Switzerland Belgium Chile Portugal Finland CostaRica SouthAfrica Korea Sweden Colombia Spain Luxembourg Norway Canada Greece Mexico Japan China Indonesia SaudiArabia India Share of female teachers (%) Primary education All secondary education All tertiary education
  53. 53. Lifelong learning
  54. 54. About half of the adult population participates in continuous education Figure C6.1 Adults' participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by type (2012 or 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NewZealand Finland Denmark Sweden Norway Netherlands UnitedStates Canada Singapore England(UK) Australia Israel Germany Estonia Ireland Korea CzechRepublic Average FlemishCom.(Belgium) NorthernIreland(UK) Austria Slovenia Chile Spain Japan France Poland Lithuania SlovakRepublic Italy Turkey Greece RussianFederation % Participation in non-formal education only Participation in formal education only Participation in both formal and non-formal education No participation in adult education
  55. 55. Family obligations, such as caring for children, are one of the barriers to continuous adult learning Figure C6.3 Participation in formal and/or non-formal education among young adults with or without young children in the household (2012 or 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Italy Greece Austria Spain Turkey Singapore SlovakRepublic Japan Ireland Korea Germany Canada Lithuania Average Poland CzechRepublic UnitedStates Sweden Norway Slovenia Finland FlemishCom.(Belgium) NorthernIreland(UK) Israel Estonia France England(UK) Netherlands Chile NewZealand RussianFederation Denmark % No children under 13 in the household Children under 13 in the household
  56. 56. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/edu – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you