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1 
Education at a Glance 
2014
Qualification levels in Europe 
have risen markedly… 
…but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 
2
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
1995 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) 
Cost per student 
Graduate supply
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
1995 
United States 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) 
Cost per student 
Graduate supply
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2000 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate 
United Kingdom
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2001 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2002 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2003 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2004 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2005 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2006 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2007 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2008 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2009 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2010 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2011 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2011 
Australia 
Poland 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate 
Iceland 
UK 
New Zealand
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
United States 
A world of change – higher education 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 
5,000 
0 
2011 
US 
P 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) 
Tertiary-type A graduation rate
Many more people are expected to graduate from 
academically-oriented tertiary education 
First-time graduation rates in tertiary-type A education (1995 and 2012) 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
Iceland 
New Zealand 
Poland 
Australia 
Denmark 
Finland 
Ireland 
Netherlands 
Japan 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Norway 
Portugal 
Latvia 
Israel 
Czech Republic 
Austria 
Sweden 
United States 
EU21 average 
OECD average 
Canada 
Germany 
Switzerland 
Spain 
Turkey 
Italy 
Chile 
Hungary 
Mexico 
Tertiary-type A (2012) Tertiary-type A (1995) 
% 
Chart A3.2 
- A
Nearly 60% of young adults are expected to enter 
university programmes 
Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2012) 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
Australia 
Latvia 
Iceland 
Poland 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Slovenia 
Denmark 
United States 
Russian Federation 
Korea 
United Kingdom 
Finland 
Netherlands 
Portugal 
Slovak Republic 
Sweden 
Israel 
Czech Republic 
Argentina 
Saudi Arabia 
OECD average 
EU21 average 
Ireland 
Hungary 
Germany 
Austria 
Spain 
Japan 
Chile 
Italy 
Switzerland 
Estonia 
France 
Turkey 
Greece 
Mexico 
Belgium 
Luxembourg 
Indonesia 
China 
% 
All students Excluding international students 
Chart C3.1
Women and men are differently represented 
in some fields of education 
Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2012) 
Chart A.3 - 
Field 
Education Health and welfare Science Engineering, manufacturing and construction All fields 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 
0 
Poland 
Estonia 
Iceland 
Slovak Republic 
Slovenia 
Brazil 
Sweden 
Hungary 
Italy 
New Zealand 
Argentina 
Czech Republic 
Finland 
Norway 
Luxembourg 
Portugal 
Canada 
Denmark 
Israel 
OECD average 
United States 
Australia 
Spain 
Ireland 
Netherlands 
Chile 
France 
United Kingdom 
Austria 
Belgium 
Germany 
Mexico 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
Korea 
Japan
Women are more likely than men to earn a university 
degree, but less likely a doctorate 
Percentage of graduas teawarded to women by level of educatio() 
100% 
90% 
80% 
70% 
60% 
50% 
40% 
30% 
20% 
10% 
0% 
Latvia 
Greece 
Iceland 
Sweden 
Slovenia 
Estonia 
Slovak Republic 
Poland 
Luxembourg 
Czech Republic 
Finland 
Norway 
Brazil 
Brazil 
New Zealand 
Argentina 
Denmark 
Canada 
Hungary 
Australia 
OECD average 
Portugal 
Austria 
Spain 
Israel 
United States 
United Kingdom 
Ireland 
Netherlands 
Chart A3_G 
ender 
Chile 
France 
Belgium 
Switzerland 
Mexico 
Germany 
Korea 
Turkey 
Advanced research qualifications Tertiary-type A first degree
China has almost caught up with the US in terms of 
high-school completion 
Upper secondary graduation rates (2012) 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
Slovenia 
Iceland 
Germany 
Netherlands 
Hungary 
United Kingdom 
Ireland 
Japan 
Spain 
Finland 
Denmark 
Korea 
Norway 
Canada 
Israel 
Slovak Republic 
EU 21 average 
New Zealand 
Poland 
Chile 
Italy 
OECD average 
Czech Republic 
United States 
Sweden 
China 
Greece 
Luxembourg 
Austria 
Turkey 
Mexico 
Total <25 years old ≧25 years old 
Chart A2.1 
%
In many countries those without an upper secondary 
education face an increasing unemployment risk 
Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
Korea 
Mexico 
Brazil 
Norway 
Chile 
Australia 
Luxembourg 
New Zealand 
Netherlands 
Iceland 
Austria 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
Below upper secondary education 
Denmark 
Israel 
United Kingdom 
Canada 
Finland 
Belgium 
Russian Federation 
Italy 
Sweden 
Germany 
OECD average 
France 
Slovenia 
United States 
Portugal 
EU21 average 
Poland 
Estonia 
Hungary 
Latvia 
Ireland 
Greece 
Czech Republic 
Spain 
Slovak Republic 
2012 2005 2010 
Chart A5.2 
- BS 
%
Qualifications don’t always translate into 
strong foundation skills 
26
Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment 
but not in the same way across countries 
Mean literacy score, by educational attainment (2012) 
320 
300 
280 
260 
240 
220 
200 
Japan 
Netherlands 
Finland 
Sweden 
Australia 
Czech Republic 
Flanders (Belgium) 
Norway 
United States 
Average 
Poland 
Austria 
England/N. Ireland (UK) 
Slovak Republic 
France 
Germany 
Denmark 
Ireland 
Korea 
Canada 
Estonia 
Spain 
Italy 
Russian Federation 
Below upper secondary education 
Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education 
Tertiary education 
Chart A1.4
The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are 
very different across countries 
Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
Japan 
Finland 
Netherlands 
Sweden 
Australia 
Norway 
Flanders (Belgium) 
England/N. Ireland (UK) 
United States 
Czech Republic 
Average 
Poland 
Canada 
Austria 
Germany 
Ireland 
France 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Slovak Republic 
Korea 
Russian Federation 
Spain 
Italy 
Below upper secondary education 
Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education 
Tertiary education 
% 
Chart A1.5
The rising tide has not lifted all boats… 
…and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 
33
Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated 
than their parents 
Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility) or lower than (downward mobility) 
that of their parents 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
Czech 
Republic 
Germany 
Austria 
United States 
Slovak 
Republic 
Italy 
Norway 
Denmark 
England/N. 
Ireland (UK) 
Spain 
Average 
Australia 
Japan 
Sweden 
Estonia 
Canada 
Netherlands 
Poland 
Ireland 
France 
Flanders 
(Belgium) 
Finland 
Korea 
Russian 
Federation 
Downward mobility Upward mobility 
% 
Chart A4.3 
- Mob
In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to 
be lower in the younger generations 
Proportion of upward mobility across age groups 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
Average France Germany Italy Spain Sweden United States England/N. Ireland (UK) 
55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 
Upward Mobility 
Age groups 
Graph 
Mobility A4
Across OECD countries, about one in two 15-19 
year-olds not in education is not working 
Percentage of 15-19 year-olds not in education, by labour market status (2012) 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
Mexico 
Turkey 
Japan 
Brazil 
Israel 
Chile 
New Zealand 
Australia 
Canada 
United Kingdom 
Norway 
Italy 
Iceland 
United States 
OECD average 
Spain 
Ireland 
Austria 
Portugal 
Switzerland 
Belgium 
Korea 
Estonia 
Denmark 
Sweden 
EU21 average 
France 
Finland 
Slovak Republic 
Netherlands 
Czech Republic 
Greece 
Hungary 
Germany 
Poland 
Slovenia 
Luxembourg 
NEET, unemployed NEET, inactive Not in education, employed 
Chart C5.3 
%
Europe is now driving 
international student mobility… 
…the US accommodates a large but declining share of the market. 
43
In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in 
tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4.1 
Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2012) 
Million students 
5 
4.5 
4 
3.5 
3 
2.5 
2 
1.5 
1 
0.5 
0 
Worldwide OECD G20 countries 
Europe North America Oceania 
25% of EU target 
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, 
Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or the United States 
Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2012) 
United States¹ 16% 
United Kingdom¹ 13% 
Germany 6% 
Other OECD countries 
8% 
Belgium 1% 
Korea 1% 
Netherlands 1% 
Switzerland 1% 
South Africa 2% 
New Zealand 2% 
Austria 2% 
Italy 2% 
China 2% 
Spain 2% 
Japan 3% 
Canada² 5% 
Australia¹,³ 6% France 6% 
Russian Federation 4% 
Other non-OECD 
countries 17% 
Chart C4.2
New players are emerging in the international 
education market 
Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012). Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
United State 
United Kingdom 
Germany 
France 
Australia 
Canada 
Russian Federation 
Japan 
Spain 
China 
Italy 
Austria 
New Zealand 
South Africa 
Switzerland 
Netherlands 
Korea 
Belgium 
Other OECD 
Other G0 and non-OECD 
2000 
2012 
Market share (%) 
OECD countries Other G20 and 
non-OECD countries 
2000 
2012 
Chart C4.3
International students comprise around 8% of 
tertiary enrolments, on average 
Student mobility in tertiary education (2012) 
0 
5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
Luxembourg 
Australia 
United Kingdom 
Switzerland 
New Zealand 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada¹ 
Denmark 
Netherlands 
Sweden 
Ireland 
Iceland 
Finland 
Portugal 
Hungary 
Slovak Republic 
United States 
Japan 
Spain 
Estonia 
Slovenia 
Norway 
Poland 
Chile 
France 
Czech Republic 
South Africa¹ 
Greece 
Italy 
Saudi Arabia 
Russian Federation 
Korea 
Israel 
Turkey 
China 
Brazil 
International students 
Foreign students2 
% 
OECD average 
Chart C4.4
More than half of foreign students in tertiary 
education come from Asia 
Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2012) 
Asia 53% 
Europe 23% 
Not specified 3% 
Oceania 1% 
North America 3% 
Latin America and the 
Caribbean 6% 
Africa 12% 
Chart C4.5
Education remained a priority during the crisis… 
49
Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut 
public expenditure on educational institutions 
Impact of the economic crisis on public expenditure on education 
130 
125 
120 
115 
110 
105 
100 
95 
90 
85 
80 
United Kingdom 
Czech Republic 
New Zealand 
Change in public expenditure on educational institutions 
Change in Gross Domestic Product 
Change in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP 
Denmark 
Slovak Republic 
Brazil 
Finland 
Australia 
Ireland 
Netherlands 
Japan 
Switzerland 
Germany 
Slovenia 
Chile 
Canada 
Portugal 
Mexico 
Korea 
OECD average 
Austria 
Spain 
EU21 average 
Norway 
Belgium 
France 
Sweden 
Israel 
Iceland 
United States 
Russian Federation 
Poland 
Estonia 
Italy 
Hungary 
Index of change (2008=100) 
Chart B2.3 
- T
Expenditure per primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 
student increased by at least 10% in most countries 
Chart B1.5 
- PS 
Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 
Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary 
Switzerland 
Norway 
United States 
Austria 
Sweden Belgium 
Annual expenditure per 
student (2011, USD) 
France Australia United KingdomGermany Denmark CanadaIreland Netherlands 
Korea 
Iceland Japan Finland 
Italy Spain 
New Zealand 
Czech Republic Poland Portugal Israel 
Slovak Republic 
Estonia 
Hungary Chile 
R² = 0.2707 
Mexico Brazil 
20 000 
19 000 
18 000 
17 000 
16 000 
15 000 
14 000 
13 000 
12 000 
11 000 
10 000 
9 000 
8 000 
7 000 
6 000 
5 000 
4 000 
3 000 
2 000 
1 000 
0 
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 (%) 
OECD average 
OECD average
Between 2005 and 2011, expenditure per tertiary 
student increased by 10%, on average 
Chart B1.5 
- T 
Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 
United States 
Annual expenditure per 
student (2011, USD) 
Switzerland 
Tertiary education 
OECD average 
Denmark 
Sweden 
Norway Finland 
Netherlands Germany 
Japan 
Ireland 
Slovenia 
Belgium 
Austria France 
Spain 
Israel 
United Kingdom 
Brazil 
Italy 
Czech Republic 
Portugal Poland Korea 
Chile Hungary 
OECD average 
Mexico Slovak Republic Estonia 
Iceland 
Russian Federation 
New Zealand 
R² = 0.079 
27 000 
26 000 
25 000 
24 000 
23 000 
22 000 
21 000 
20 000 
19 000 
18 000 
17 000 
16 000 
15 000 
14 000 
13 000 
12 000 
11 000 
10 000 
9 000 
8 000 
7 000 
6 000 
5 000 
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 (%)
In 2011, OECD countries spent an average of 1.6% of 
their GDP on tertiary education 
Chart B2.2 
- T 
Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2011). From public and private sources, by level of education and 
source of funds 
3 
2.5 
2 
1.5 
1 
0.5 
0 
Finland 
Denmark 
Norway 
Canada 
Sweden 
Estonia 
Austria 
Switzerland 
Belgium 
Netherlands 
France 
EU21 average 
Argentina 
Ireland 
Czech Republic 
Slovenia 
Germany 
Iceland 
Spain 
Poland 
New Zealand 
Latvia 
Portugal 
Hungary 
United States 
Brazil 
Israel 
Mexico 
United Kingdom 
Russian Federation 
Colombia 
Slovak Republic 
Chile 
Italy 
Korea 
Australia 
Japan 
% of GDP 
Tertiary education 
Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions 
OECD average (total expenditure)
Few European countries have sustainable financing 
for tertiary education 
60
The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions 
increased from 25% in 2000 to 31% in 2011 
Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2008 and 2011) 
% 2011 2008 2000 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
Chile 
Korea 
United Kingdom 
Japan 
United States 
Australia 
Israel 
Canada 
Russian Federation 
Italy 
Mexico 
Portugal 
OECD average 
Netherlands 
Poland 
Slovak Republic 
Spain 
EU21 average 
Estonia 
Ireland 
France 
Czech Republic 
Germany 
Slovenia 
Chart B3.3 
- T 
Austria 
Sweden 
Belgium 
Iceland 
Denmark 
Finland 
Norway
Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to 
supporting students, households and other private entities 
Public support for tertiary education (2011) 
75 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
United Kingdom 
United States 
Chart B5.3. Public subsidies for education in tertiary 
Slovenia 
Denmark 
Italy 
Chile 
Slovak Republic 
Austria 
Germany 
Portugal 
New Zealand 
Belgium 
Latvia 
Finland 
Australia 
OECD average 
Netherlands 
Ireland 
Hungary 
Poland 
Norway 
Israel 
Sweden 
Spain 
France 
Switzerland 
Canada 
Mexico 
Brazil 
Turkey 
Korea 
Estonia 
Indonesia 
Czech Republic 
Argentina 
Japan 
Iceland 
% of total public expenditure 
on tertiary education 
Student loans 
Transfers and payments to other private entities 
Scholarships/ other grants to households 
Chart B5.3
The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over 
USD 100 000, while the net private return is over USD 180 000 
Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010) 
500 000 
450 000 
400 000 
350 000 
300 000 
250 000 
200 000 
150 000 
100 000 
50 000 
0 
Turkey 
Denmark 
Spain 
Estonia 
Sweden 
New Zealand 
Greece 
Korea 
Japan 
Canada 
Slovak Republic 
Poland 
Norway 
Israel 
Czech Republic 
France 
Australia 
Finland 
OECD average 
Portugal 
EU21 average 
Austria 
United Kingdom 
Netherlands 
Italy 
Belgium 
Slovenia 
Germany 
United States 
Hungary 
Ireland 
Equivalent USD 
Private net returns Public net returns 
Chart A7.1
93 
Good progress in raising early childhood participation 
Several EU countries have surpassed 2020 targets
Some 70% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early 
childhood education 
Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood education (2005 and 2012) 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
Belgium 
France 
Denmark 
Iceland 
Spain 
Norway 
United Kingdom 
Sweden 
Italy 
Germany 
Estonia 
New Zealand 
Israel 
Korea 
Slovenia 
Netherlands 
Latvia 
EU21 average 
Portugal 
Japan 
Hungary 
Luxembourg 
OECD average 
Russian Federation 
Austria 
Slovak Republic 
Czech Republic 
Poland 
Finland 
Chile 
Ireland 
Mexico 
United States 
Argentina 
Brazil 
Australia 
Colombia 
Indonesia 
Turkey 
Switzerland 
% 
2012 2005 
Chart C2.1
The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level 
of resources devoted to pre-primary education 
Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2012). Public and private institutions, calculation 
based on full-time equivalents 
28 
26 
24 
22 
20 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
Israel 
Indonesia 
Mexico 
Chile 
France 
Turkey 
United Kingdom 
Brazil 
Poland 
Belgium 
Portugal 
Korea 
Netherlands 
Japan 
OECD average 
Austria 
Czech Republic 
EU21 average 
Spain 
Slovak Republic 
Germany 
United States 
Italy 
Luxembourg 
Hungary 
Finland 
Slovenia 
Estonia 
New Zealand 
Sweden 
Iceland 
Student to teaching staff ratio 
Chart C2.4
Countries spend their money differently on schools… 
…and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of 
teachers over the size of classes. 
96
The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across 
countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching time 
Chart B7.4 
Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2012) in USD 
3 200 
2 200 
1 200 
200 
- 800 
-1 800 
-2 800 
-3 800 
Belgium (Fl.) 
Germany 
Austria 
Spain 
Portugal 
Australia 
Norway 
Canada 
France 
Ireland 
Netherlands 
United States 
Korea 
Italy 
Finland 
England 
Slovenia 
Israel 
Poland 
Czech Republic 
Turkey 
Hungary 
Chile 
Slovak Republic 
Estonia 
USD 
Contribution of teachers' salary Contribution of instruction time 
Contribution of teaching time Contribution of estimated class size 
difference with OECD average
Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours 
of instruction during their primary and lower secondary education 
Compulsory instruction time in general education (2014) 
0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 
Hungary 8 
Latvia 9 
China1 9 
Poland 9 
Turkey 8 
Slovenia 9 
Finland 9 
Korea 9 
Austria 8 
Estonia 9 
Belgium (Fl.) 8 
Sweden 9 
Slovak Republic 9 
Czech Republic 9 
Belgium (Fr.) 8 
Greece 9 
Germany 9 
EU21 average 9 
Japan 9 
Italy 8 
OECD average 9 
Portugal 9 
Iceland 10 
Norway 10 
England 9 
Denmark 10 
Luxembourg 9 
Canada 9 
France 9 
Ireland 9 
Mexico 9 
Chile 8 
Netherlands7 9 
Israel 9 
United States 9 
Spain 10 
Colombia1 9 
Australia 10 
Primary education Lower secondary education 
Duration of primary and lower 
secondary education, in years 
Chart D1.1 
Total number of compulsory instruction hours
Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers 
higher than those of comparably educated workers 
Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers aged 25-64 (2012 or latest available year). Lower secondary teachers' 
salaries, in public institutions 
1.5 
1 
0.5 
0 
Korea 
Spain 
Luxembourg 
Portugal 
Turkey 
New Zealand 
Canada 
Finland 
Germany 
England 
Australia 
Greece 
Denmark 
OECD average 
Belgium (Fl.) 
France 
EU21 average 
Israel 
Estonia 
Poland 
Scotland 
Sweden 
Belgium (Fr.) 
Netherlands 
Ireland 
Slovenia 
Chile 
Norway 
United States 
Italy 
Austria 
Czech Republic 
Hungary 
Slovak Republic 
Ratio 
Chart D3.1
Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first 
time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education 
OECD average, for countries with available data for all reference years, of the index of change between 2005 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant p 
rices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training. 
107 
106 
105 
104 
103 
102 
101 
100 
99 
2005 
2006 
2007 
2008 
2009 
2010 
2011 
2012 
Primary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary education 
Chart Box 
D.3.2 
Equivalent USD converted 
using PPPs
107 
107 Thank you 
Find out more about our work at 
www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 
– The publication 
– The methodologies 
– The complete database 
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org 
Twitter: SchleicherEDU 
and remember: 
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

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Education at a Glance 2014 - Key Findings

  • 1. 1 Education at a Glance 2014
  • 2. Qualification levels in Europe have risen markedly… …but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 2
  • 3. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  • 4. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 United States 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  • 5. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate United Kingdom
  • 6. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 7. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2002 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 8. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2003 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 9. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2004 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 10. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 11. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2006 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 12. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2007 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 13. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 14. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2009 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 15. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 16. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 17. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 Australia Poland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate Iceland UK New Zealand
  • 18. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 US P 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 19. Many more people are expected to graduate from academically-oriented tertiary education First-time graduation rates in tertiary-type A education (1995 and 2012) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Iceland New Zealand Poland Australia Denmark Finland Ireland Netherlands Japan Slovak Republic Slovenia Norway Portugal Latvia Israel Czech Republic Austria Sweden United States EU21 average OECD average Canada Germany Switzerland Spain Turkey Italy Chile Hungary Mexico Tertiary-type A (2012) Tertiary-type A (1995) % Chart A3.2 - A
  • 20. Nearly 60% of young adults are expected to enter university programmes Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Australia Latvia Iceland Poland New Zealand Norway Slovenia Denmark United States Russian Federation Korea United Kingdom Finland Netherlands Portugal Slovak Republic Sweden Israel Czech Republic Argentina Saudi Arabia OECD average EU21 average Ireland Hungary Germany Austria Spain Japan Chile Italy Switzerland Estonia France Turkey Greece Mexico Belgium Luxembourg Indonesia China % All students Excluding international students Chart C3.1
  • 21. Women and men are differently represented in some fields of education Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2012) Chart A.3 - Field Education Health and welfare Science Engineering, manufacturing and construction All fields 100 80 60 40 20 0 Poland Estonia Iceland Slovak Republic Slovenia Brazil Sweden Hungary Italy New Zealand Argentina Czech Republic Finland Norway Luxembourg Portugal Canada Denmark Israel OECD average United States Australia Spain Ireland Netherlands Chile France United Kingdom Austria Belgium Germany Mexico Switzerland Turkey Korea Japan
  • 22. Women are more likely than men to earn a university degree, but less likely a doctorate Percentage of graduas teawarded to women by level of educatio() 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Latvia Greece Iceland Sweden Slovenia Estonia Slovak Republic Poland Luxembourg Czech Republic Finland Norway Brazil Brazil New Zealand Argentina Denmark Canada Hungary Australia OECD average Portugal Austria Spain Israel United States United Kingdom Ireland Netherlands Chart A3_G ender Chile France Belgium Switzerland Mexico Germany Korea Turkey Advanced research qualifications Tertiary-type A first degree
  • 23. China has almost caught up with the US in terms of high-school completion Upper secondary graduation rates (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Slovenia Iceland Germany Netherlands Hungary United Kingdom Ireland Japan Spain Finland Denmark Korea Norway Canada Israel Slovak Republic EU 21 average New Zealand Poland Chile Italy OECD average Czech Republic United States Sweden China Greece Luxembourg Austria Turkey Mexico Total <25 years old ≧25 years old Chart A2.1 %
  • 24. In many countries those without an upper secondary education face an increasing unemployment risk Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Korea Mexico Brazil Norway Chile Australia Luxembourg New Zealand Netherlands Iceland Austria Switzerland Turkey Below upper secondary education Denmark Israel United Kingdom Canada Finland Belgium Russian Federation Italy Sweden Germany OECD average France Slovenia United States Portugal EU21 average Poland Estonia Hungary Latvia Ireland Greece Czech Republic Spain Slovak Republic 2012 2005 2010 Chart A5.2 - BS %
  • 25. Qualifications don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 26
  • 26. Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment but not in the same way across countries Mean literacy score, by educational attainment (2012) 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 Japan Netherlands Finland Sweden Australia Czech Republic Flanders (Belgium) Norway United States Average Poland Austria England/N. Ireland (UK) Slovak Republic France Germany Denmark Ireland Korea Canada Estonia Spain Italy Russian Federation Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart A1.4
  • 27. The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are very different across countries Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Japan Finland Netherlands Sweden Australia Norway Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK) United States Czech Republic Average Poland Canada Austria Germany Ireland France Denmark Estonia Slovak Republic Korea Russian Federation Spain Italy Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education % Chart A1.5
  • 28. The rising tide has not lifted all boats… …and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 33
  • 29. Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated than their parents Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility) or lower than (downward mobility) that of their parents 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Czech Republic Germany Austria United States Slovak Republic Italy Norway Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Spain Average Australia Japan Sweden Estonia Canada Netherlands Poland Ireland France Flanders (Belgium) Finland Korea Russian Federation Downward mobility Upward mobility % Chart A4.3 - Mob
  • 30. In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to be lower in the younger generations Proportion of upward mobility across age groups 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Average France Germany Italy Spain Sweden United States England/N. Ireland (UK) 55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 Upward Mobility Age groups Graph Mobility A4
  • 31. Across OECD countries, about one in two 15-19 year-olds not in education is not working Percentage of 15-19 year-olds not in education, by labour market status (2012) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Mexico Turkey Japan Brazil Israel Chile New Zealand Australia Canada United Kingdom Norway Italy Iceland United States OECD average Spain Ireland Austria Portugal Switzerland Belgium Korea Estonia Denmark Sweden EU21 average France Finland Slovak Republic Netherlands Czech Republic Greece Hungary Germany Poland Slovenia Luxembourg NEET, unemployed NEET, inactive Not in education, employed Chart C5.3 %
  • 32. Europe is now driving international student mobility… …the US accommodates a large but declining share of the market. 43
  • 33. In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4.1 Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2012) Million students 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Worldwide OECD G20 countries Europe North America Oceania 25% of EU target 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  • 34. In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or the United States Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2012) United States¹ 16% United Kingdom¹ 13% Germany 6% Other OECD countries 8% Belgium 1% Korea 1% Netherlands 1% Switzerland 1% South Africa 2% New Zealand 2% Austria 2% Italy 2% China 2% Spain 2% Japan 3% Canada² 5% Australia¹,³ 6% France 6% Russian Federation 4% Other non-OECD countries 17% Chart C4.2
  • 35. New players are emerging in the international education market Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012). Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination 25 20 15 10 5 0 United State United Kingdom Germany France Australia Canada Russian Federation Japan Spain China Italy Austria New Zealand South Africa Switzerland Netherlands Korea Belgium Other OECD Other G0 and non-OECD 2000 2012 Market share (%) OECD countries Other G20 and non-OECD countries 2000 2012 Chart C4.3
  • 36. International students comprise around 8% of tertiary enrolments, on average Student mobility in tertiary education (2012) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Luxembourg Australia United Kingdom Switzerland New Zealand Austria Belgium Canada¹ Denmark Netherlands Sweden Ireland Iceland Finland Portugal Hungary Slovak Republic United States Japan Spain Estonia Slovenia Norway Poland Chile France Czech Republic South Africa¹ Greece Italy Saudi Arabia Russian Federation Korea Israel Turkey China Brazil International students Foreign students2 % OECD average Chart C4.4
  • 37. More than half of foreign students in tertiary education come from Asia Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2012) Asia 53% Europe 23% Not specified 3% Oceania 1% North America 3% Latin America and the Caribbean 6% Africa 12% Chart C4.5
  • 38. Education remained a priority during the crisis… 49
  • 39. Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut public expenditure on educational institutions Impact of the economic crisis on public expenditure on education 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 United Kingdom Czech Republic New Zealand Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in Gross Domestic Product Change in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP Denmark Slovak Republic Brazil Finland Australia Ireland Netherlands Japan Switzerland Germany Slovenia Chile Canada Portugal Mexico Korea OECD average Austria Spain EU21 average Norway Belgium France Sweden Israel Iceland United States Russian Federation Poland Estonia Italy Hungary Index of change (2008=100) Chart B2.3 - T
  • 40. Expenditure per primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary student increased by at least 10% in most countries Chart B1.5 - PS Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary Switzerland Norway United States Austria Sweden Belgium Annual expenditure per student (2011, USD) France Australia United KingdomGermany Denmark CanadaIreland Netherlands Korea Iceland Japan Finland Italy Spain New Zealand Czech Republic Poland Portugal Israel Slovak Republic Estonia Hungary Chile R² = 0.2707 Mexico Brazil 20 000 19 000 18 000 17 000 16 000 15 000 14 000 13 000 12 000 11 000 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 (%) OECD average OECD average
  • 41. Between 2005 and 2011, expenditure per tertiary student increased by 10%, on average Chart B1.5 - T Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 United States Annual expenditure per student (2011, USD) Switzerland Tertiary education OECD average Denmark Sweden Norway Finland Netherlands Germany Japan Ireland Slovenia Belgium Austria France Spain Israel United Kingdom Brazil Italy Czech Republic Portugal Poland Korea Chile Hungary OECD average Mexico Slovak Republic Estonia Iceland Russian Federation New Zealand R² = 0.079 27 000 26 000 25 000 24 000 23 000 22 000 21 000 20 000 19 000 18 000 17 000 16 000 15 000 14 000 13 000 12 000 11 000 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 (%)
  • 42. In 2011, OECD countries spent an average of 1.6% of their GDP on tertiary education Chart B2.2 - T Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2011). From public and private sources, by level of education and source of funds 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Finland Denmark Norway Canada Sweden Estonia Austria Switzerland Belgium Netherlands France EU21 average Argentina Ireland Czech Republic Slovenia Germany Iceland Spain Poland New Zealand Latvia Portugal Hungary United States Brazil Israel Mexico United Kingdom Russian Federation Colombia Slovak Republic Chile Italy Korea Australia Japan % of GDP Tertiary education Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions OECD average (total expenditure)
  • 43. Few European countries have sustainable financing for tertiary education 60
  • 44. The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions increased from 25% in 2000 to 31% in 2011 Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2008 and 2011) % 2011 2008 2000 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Chile Korea United Kingdom Japan United States Australia Israel Canada Russian Federation Italy Mexico Portugal OECD average Netherlands Poland Slovak Republic Spain EU21 average Estonia Ireland France Czech Republic Germany Slovenia Chart B3.3 - T Austria Sweden Belgium Iceland Denmark Finland Norway
  • 45. Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to supporting students, households and other private entities Public support for tertiary education (2011) 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 United Kingdom United States Chart B5.3. Public subsidies for education in tertiary Slovenia Denmark Italy Chile Slovak Republic Austria Germany Portugal New Zealand Belgium Latvia Finland Australia OECD average Netherlands Ireland Hungary Poland Norway Israel Sweden Spain France Switzerland Canada Mexico Brazil Turkey Korea Estonia Indonesia Czech Republic Argentina Japan Iceland % of total public expenditure on tertiary education Student loans Transfers and payments to other private entities Scholarships/ other grants to households Chart B5.3
  • 46. The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000, while the net private return is over USD 180 000 Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010) 500 000 450 000 400 000 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 Turkey Denmark Spain Estonia Sweden New Zealand Greece Korea Japan Canada Slovak Republic Poland Norway Israel Czech Republic France Australia Finland OECD average Portugal EU21 average Austria United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Belgium Slovenia Germany United States Hungary Ireland Equivalent USD Private net returns Public net returns Chart A7.1
  • 47. 93 Good progress in raising early childhood participation Several EU countries have surpassed 2020 targets
  • 48. Some 70% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood education (2005 and 2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Belgium France Denmark Iceland Spain Norway United Kingdom Sweden Italy Germany Estonia New Zealand Israel Korea Slovenia Netherlands Latvia EU21 average Portugal Japan Hungary Luxembourg OECD average Russian Federation Austria Slovak Republic Czech Republic Poland Finland Chile Ireland Mexico United States Argentina Brazil Australia Colombia Indonesia Turkey Switzerland % 2012 2005 Chart C2.1
  • 49. The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level of resources devoted to pre-primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2012). Public and private institutions, calculation based on full-time equivalents 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Israel Indonesia Mexico Chile France Turkey United Kingdom Brazil Poland Belgium Portugal Korea Netherlands Japan OECD average Austria Czech Republic EU21 average Spain Slovak Republic Germany United States Italy Luxembourg Hungary Finland Slovenia Estonia New Zealand Sweden Iceland Student to teaching staff ratio Chart C2.4
  • 50. Countries spend their money differently on schools… …and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of teachers over the size of classes. 96
  • 51. The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching time Chart B7.4 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2012) in USD 3 200 2 200 1 200 200 - 800 -1 800 -2 800 -3 800 Belgium (Fl.) Germany Austria Spain Portugal Australia Norway Canada France Ireland Netherlands United States Korea Italy Finland England Slovenia Israel Poland Czech Republic Turkey Hungary Chile Slovak Republic Estonia USD Contribution of teachers' salary Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teaching time Contribution of estimated class size difference with OECD average
  • 52. Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours of instruction during their primary and lower secondary education Compulsory instruction time in general education (2014) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Hungary 8 Latvia 9 China1 9 Poland 9 Turkey 8 Slovenia 9 Finland 9 Korea 9 Austria 8 Estonia 9 Belgium (Fl.) 8 Sweden 9 Slovak Republic 9 Czech Republic 9 Belgium (Fr.) 8 Greece 9 Germany 9 EU21 average 9 Japan 9 Italy 8 OECD average 9 Portugal 9 Iceland 10 Norway 10 England 9 Denmark 10 Luxembourg 9 Canada 9 France 9 Ireland 9 Mexico 9 Chile 8 Netherlands7 9 Israel 9 United States 9 Spain 10 Colombia1 9 Australia 10 Primary education Lower secondary education Duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years Chart D1.1 Total number of compulsory instruction hours
  • 53. Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers higher than those of comparably educated workers Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers aged 25-64 (2012 or latest available year). Lower secondary teachers' salaries, in public institutions 1.5 1 0.5 0 Korea Spain Luxembourg Portugal Turkey New Zealand Canada Finland Germany England Australia Greece Denmark OECD average Belgium (Fl.) France EU21 average Israel Estonia Poland Scotland Sweden Belgium (Fr.) Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Chile Norway United States Italy Austria Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic Ratio Chart D3.1
  • 54. Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education OECD average, for countries with available data for all reference years, of the index of change between 2005 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant p rices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training. 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Primary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary education Chart Box D.3.2 Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  • 55. 107 107 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 – The publication – The methodologies – The complete database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion