Learning from emerging approaches - Benjamin DEQUIEDT, France

OECD Governance
OECD GovernanceOECD Governance
Green Budgeting -
Existing initiatives on
climate economic
analysis
Benjamin Dequiedt
Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary
Transition - General Commission on
Sustainable Development
June 20
2
Introduction
Green Budgeting Statement implications :
Tax revenues
Expenditures
Assess the balance between negative and positive impacts in terms of
GHG
A trajectory to reach our goals
3
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
4
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
W&M
DTP
Landscape
EEA
5
I. Tax revenues
6
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
W&M
7
« Ways and means assessment »
« Ways and means assessment »
Annexed to the Budget Bill
Exposes the tax revenues estimates
Identifies revenues from energy and environmental
taxes
Identifies tax expenditure
Useful to identify fossil fuel subsidies for some sectors
8
« Ways and means assessment »
Agriculture
sectors
exposed
to
the
risk
of carbon
leakage
energy-intensive
societies
Boats
Road
Freight Transport
off-road
diesel
Aviation
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Main Tax Expenditures on Energy taxes in 2018
Asapercentage
ofthetotalestimatedrevenues
9
« Ways and means assessment »
Advantages :
Important number of programs integrated
Same timing as the annual Finance Bill
National budget
Blind spots :
Some tax expenditures are not mentioned (gasoline vs diesel)
No identification of the environmental dimension concerned by the taxe
expenditure
No quantification of environmental impact
10
II. Expenditures
11
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
Landscape
12
Landscape of Climate Finance
Landscape of Climate Finance - I4CE
The Landscape tracks climate investment
expenditure and analyses how these
expenditures are financed.
32 billion euros invested in favor of climate
in France in 2016
64% of investment is made by households
and private companies in 2016
Household spending totalled 10.8 billion
euros
Companies and project developers
invested 9.8 billion euros in favour of
climate
13
Landscape of Climate Finance
14
Landscape of Climate Finance
Investments in renewable electricity generation:
15
Landscape of Climate Finance
Landscape of Climate Finance - I4CE
Advantages
Allows to follow with good precisions the economic flows between the
sources (Public administration, Public finance, households), the project
initiators (private compagnies, public developers) and the sector which
benefit from the expenditures (Transport, industry, buildings etc.)
Allows to clearly identify the financing instruments (household deposits,
grants, public investments, concessional debt, etc.)
Blind spots :
Absence of tax revenues accounting (revenues from the carbon
component)
Absence of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies accounting
Absence of impact quantification
A lag of one year between the actual expenditures and the assessment
16
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
DTP
17
Document of transversal policy on the fight
against climate change
Document of transversal policy on the fight against
climate change
Annexed to the Budget Bill
Expose the means in the General Budget
implemented to tackle France’s abatement
objectives (-14 % in 2020 ; -40 % in 2030 ; -75 % in
2050)
Expose all the measures considered to have a
significant impact in termes of GHG mitigation :
Tax expenditures (example : tax credit for the
energy efficiency of buildings)
Budget expenditures (example : investments in
transport infrastructure)
Gathering of 39 programs across sectors (justice,
security, diplomacy, research, energy policy,
diplomacy, etc) and assessment of their climate
share
18
Document of transversal policy on the fight
against climate change
Tax Expenditures - 2018 : 2,02 B€ Budget Expenditures - 2018 : 7,52 B€
19
Document of transversal policy on the fight
against climate change
Advantages :
Important Number of programs integrated
Same timing as the annual Finance Bill
National budget
Blind spots :
Absence of tax revenues accounting (revenues from the carbon
component)
No harmful expenditure
Lack of quantification
20
Tax Pillar Investments Pillar
Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive
Expenditures Expenditures
RevenuesRevenues
EEA
21
Environmental Economic
Accounts
Environmental Economic Accounts
Environmental taxation
49,9 Md€ in 2016 (2,2 % of GDP)
Environmental protection expenditures :
 67,7 b€ in 2015 (39 % for water
treatment ; 35 % for Waste
management and recycling ; 4 %
for Air and Climate)
Employment for environmental goods
and services production
441 000 personnes in eco-activities
(1,7 % domestic employment),
22
Environmental Economic
Accounts
Environmental Economic accounts
Advantages
Tacke into account several environmental dimensions (landscape, soil
protection, waste, water, etc.)
Allows comparability with other European States
Include tax revenues accounting
Blind spots :
A lag of three years between the actual expenditures and the assessment
Absence of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies accounting
Absence of impact quantification
23
III. Long-term trajectory
24
French Low Carbon Strategy
French Low Carbon Strategy
Gives strategic orientations to reach France
mitigation commitments in particular a
reduction of 75 % of GHG in 2050
Carbon budgets are defined by sectors by
periods of 4-5 years
Annual monitoring, assessment every 5 years,
and annual
Working group is currently screening and
gathering informations to assess the impact of
each recommanded measure
67 recommandations to reach these objectif :
Recommandations by sectors :
● Efficiency in the transport
sector
Transversal recommandations :
● Research and innovation
policy, Education, etc.
25
French Low Carbon Strategy
26
French Low Carbon Strategy
French Low Carbon Strategy
Advantages
Sets a GHG trajectory at the national and sectors level
Working group is currently screening and gathering informations to assess
the impact of each recommanded measure
27
Conclusion
Current initiatives give mainly information on :
Tax revenues which potentially have an impact on GHG (energy tax)
Expenditures which have a positive impact on climate
GHG pathways (FLCS)
To achieve the Green Budget Statement, future works should
mainly focus on :
Coordination
Identification of potential gaps
Labelling economic flows
Definition of the relevant perimeter
Identification of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies
Tax reduction of fossil fuel
Expenditure
Impact quantification
FIN
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Learning from emerging approaches - Benjamin DEQUIEDT, France

  • 1. Green Budgeting - Existing initiatives on climate economic analysis Benjamin Dequiedt Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary Transition - General Commission on Sustainable Development June 20
  • 2. 2 Introduction Green Budgeting Statement implications : Tax revenues Expenditures Assess the balance between negative and positive impacts in terms of GHG A trajectory to reach our goals
  • 3. 3 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues
  • 4. 4 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues W&M DTP Landscape EEA
  • 6. 6 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues W&M
  • 7. 7 « Ways and means assessment » « Ways and means assessment » Annexed to the Budget Bill Exposes the tax revenues estimates Identifies revenues from energy and environmental taxes Identifies tax expenditure Useful to identify fossil fuel subsidies for some sectors
  • 8. 8 « Ways and means assessment » Agriculture sectors exposed to the risk of carbon leakage energy-intensive societies Boats Road Freight Transport off-road diesel Aviation 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Main Tax Expenditures on Energy taxes in 2018 Asapercentage ofthetotalestimatedrevenues
  • 9. 9 « Ways and means assessment » Advantages : Important number of programs integrated Same timing as the annual Finance Bill National budget Blind spots : Some tax expenditures are not mentioned (gasoline vs diesel) No identification of the environmental dimension concerned by the taxe expenditure No quantification of environmental impact
  • 11. 11 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues Landscape
  • 12. 12 Landscape of Climate Finance Landscape of Climate Finance - I4CE The Landscape tracks climate investment expenditure and analyses how these expenditures are financed. 32 billion euros invested in favor of climate in France in 2016 64% of investment is made by households and private companies in 2016 Household spending totalled 10.8 billion euros Companies and project developers invested 9.8 billion euros in favour of climate
  • 14. 14 Landscape of Climate Finance Investments in renewable electricity generation:
  • 15. 15 Landscape of Climate Finance Landscape of Climate Finance - I4CE Advantages Allows to follow with good precisions the economic flows between the sources (Public administration, Public finance, households), the project initiators (private compagnies, public developers) and the sector which benefit from the expenditures (Transport, industry, buildings etc.) Allows to clearly identify the financing instruments (household deposits, grants, public investments, concessional debt, etc.) Blind spots : Absence of tax revenues accounting (revenues from the carbon component) Absence of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies accounting Absence of impact quantification A lag of one year between the actual expenditures and the assessment
  • 16. 16 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues DTP
  • 17. 17 Document of transversal policy on the fight against climate change Document of transversal policy on the fight against climate change Annexed to the Budget Bill Expose the means in the General Budget implemented to tackle France’s abatement objectives (-14 % in 2020 ; -40 % in 2030 ; -75 % in 2050) Expose all the measures considered to have a significant impact in termes of GHG mitigation : Tax expenditures (example : tax credit for the energy efficiency of buildings) Budget expenditures (example : investments in transport infrastructure) Gathering of 39 programs across sectors (justice, security, diplomacy, research, energy policy, diplomacy, etc) and assessment of their climate share
  • 18. 18 Document of transversal policy on the fight against climate change Tax Expenditures - 2018 : 2,02 B€ Budget Expenditures - 2018 : 7,52 B€
  • 19. 19 Document of transversal policy on the fight against climate change Advantages : Important Number of programs integrated Same timing as the annual Finance Bill National budget Blind spots : Absence of tax revenues accounting (revenues from the carbon component) No harmful expenditure Lack of quantification
  • 20. 20 Tax Pillar Investments Pillar Positive NegativeNegativeNegativeNegativePositive Expenditures Expenditures RevenuesRevenues EEA
  • 21. 21 Environmental Economic Accounts Environmental Economic Accounts Environmental taxation 49,9 Md€ in 2016 (2,2 % of GDP) Environmental protection expenditures :  67,7 b€ in 2015 (39 % for water treatment ; 35 % for Waste management and recycling ; 4 % for Air and Climate) Employment for environmental goods and services production 441 000 personnes in eco-activities (1,7 % domestic employment),
  • 22. 22 Environmental Economic Accounts Environmental Economic accounts Advantages Tacke into account several environmental dimensions (landscape, soil protection, waste, water, etc.) Allows comparability with other European States Include tax revenues accounting Blind spots : A lag of three years between the actual expenditures and the assessment Absence of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies accounting Absence of impact quantification
  • 24. 24 French Low Carbon Strategy French Low Carbon Strategy Gives strategic orientations to reach France mitigation commitments in particular a reduction of 75 % of GHG in 2050 Carbon budgets are defined by sectors by periods of 4-5 years Annual monitoring, assessment every 5 years, and annual Working group is currently screening and gathering informations to assess the impact of each recommanded measure 67 recommandations to reach these objectif : Recommandations by sectors : ● Efficiency in the transport sector Transversal recommandations : ● Research and innovation policy, Education, etc.
  • 26. 26 French Low Carbon Strategy French Low Carbon Strategy Advantages Sets a GHG trajectory at the national and sectors level Working group is currently screening and gathering informations to assess the impact of each recommanded measure
  • 27. 27 Conclusion Current initiatives give mainly information on : Tax revenues which potentially have an impact on GHG (energy tax) Expenditures which have a positive impact on climate GHG pathways (FLCS) To achieve the Green Budget Statement, future works should mainly focus on : Coordination Identification of potential gaps Labelling economic flows Definition of the relevant perimeter Identification of Environmentally Harmful Subsidies Tax reduction of fossil fuel Expenditure Impact quantification
  • 28. FIN