2. WHAT IS TBLT?
§ Task based Language Teaching is a teaching approach which
focuses on offering learner's tasks so that they can actively engage
in using and practicing language in communicative situations, and
on measuring the language outcomes that will arise from those
tasks. For example, a speaking task can develop student's ability to
speak fluently and accurately when communicating with their
peers. Task based language teaching refers to teaching the target
language through specific tasks, such as going to the doctor, doing
groceries or shopping, going to the bank etc.
§ TBLT was first proposed by an Indian scholar Prabhu. The object
of the method was to teach learners communicative competence in
English through meaningful and authentic activities. TBLT can be
considered a branch of communicative language teaching (CLT).
3. Task based language learning and teaching published in 2003, Rod Ellis in his book has defined tasks or activities having four kind of criteria: -
1. Focus on meaning.
2. Some kind of gap such as information etc.
3. Use your own linguistics resources.
4. Having communicative outcome not simply display of language.
Task is divided into two categories in TBLT:
Nunan classifies task into pedagogical tasks(occurs in classroom) and real-world tasks or target tasks (Occur beyond the classroom). According Ellis, two
types of tasks are as follow:
- Unfocused Task:
Unfocused tasks are tasks that are designed with general sample of language that is to say they have not decided in such a way for useful and essential
- Focused task:
The focused tasks are tasks that have been designed to create a communicative context for the use of predetermined grammatical structure.
According to David Nunan, there are seven principles of TBLT. They are:
Lessons and materials should provide supporting framework within which the learning
Task - dependency:
Within a lesson one task should grow out of and build upon, the ones that have gone
Recycling language maximizes opportunities for learning and activities the “Organic"
Learners learn best by actively using the language they are learning.
Learners should be taught in ways that make clear the relationships between linguistic
form, communicative function and semantic meaning.
Reproduction to creation:
Language should be encouraged to move form reproductive to creative language use.
Learners should be given opportunities to reflect on what they have learned and how well
they are doing.
5. STAGES OF TBLT
Stages of TBLT depend on context. The stages of TBLT are not fixed.
According Ellis, students do not need go and stay in England, America,
Canada, New Zealand or Australia for learning and acquiring English as
Different stages of TBLT are given below:
Pre - Task: It aims to introduce the topic about how to spend a day
through learning language focusing on words and phrases.
Task: Students do the task in groups and plan for a day. They state their
own plan and compare different ideas with their group partners.
Planning: Each group rehearses presenting their plan. The teacher walks
around, helping if students have a problem and noting any language items
or grammatical problems on which to give feedback later.
Report: Each group selects a speaker to report their plan and give detailed
reason for it. Other students can choose the best one after the
Post task: The teacher hands out the Fill in exercises and true of false
questions for the students according to the listening in class. According to
the group discussion, they write a 150-word assignment as homework.
6. 1. Task based learning
is useful for moving the
focus of the learning
process from the
teacher to the student.
2. It gives the student a
different way of
as a tool instead of as a
3. It can take teaching
knowledge to real
4. A Task is helpful in
meeting the immediate
needs of the learners
and provides a
framework for creating
classes that are
interesting and that can
address student needs.
7. Good advice:
• Use the foreign language as much as possible.
• Use only mother tongue when necessary for explanation of exercises.
• The pre-task is meant to help create a good atmosphere for learning
withoutanxiety. Give words and supporting sentences for students to use.
• The pre-task must supply words, phrases, ideas to support the individual
studentin the main task
• Remember that a pre-task can be any of the following:
o audio text
O a video clip
O a brainstorming activity
o a short exercise ( cloze, crossword etc. )
o photos (what do you see?)
o webpage ( what do you see?)
TBLT ACTIVITIES -