1. MATILDE C. TONEL, Ed.D.
SOC. STUD. 113
(Integrative Methods in Teaching Social Science
Discipline in Basic Education)
2. Course Title: Integrative Methods in Teaching Social Science Discipline in Basic
Course Number: SOCSTUD 113
The course provides the students the basic concepts and practice of integrative teaching
which is grounded in disciplines that value questions, investigations and a desire to better
understand the world and its people. The course will focus on connecting skills and knowledge
from multiple sources and experiences; understanding issues and utilizing diverse and even
Total Learning Time: 6 hours (3hrs/week=2 weeks)
Methods and teaching are inseparable. All classroom activities that are understand
without a conscious plan that should be followed in pursuing a learning objective cannot be
considered actual teaching. They may be classified as acts aimed at “informing” with no
At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to:
1) Distinguish among methods, approach, strategy and technique.
2) Understand the role of methods in defining ways of teaching.
3) Identify the elements common to different teaching methods, criteria in
selecting methods, factors to consider in selecting methods to use, different
classification of methods and its characteristics and the preparation of
4) Compare direct and indirect instruction with deductive and inductive
methods of teaching.
3. specific direction to take. In order to be considered teaching, as to its nature and purpose,
the learning activities are planned and organized following step-by-step procedure and, most
important, directed toward the pursuance of a desired learning goal.
Methods then, is an integral part of teaching. It essentially influences a teacher’s
entire performance in a given learning situation. Therefore, they must be knowledgeable and
proficient in employing a wide variety of teaching methodologies. Deciding on a particular
method to be used, a strategy or technique to be tried or an innovative approach to ne
introduced is a crucial task that every teacher must carefully reflect on.
Al teaching methodologies, whether individually carried out or group-focused
follow a number of steps that lead to a definite direction. Basically, it starts with a clear
definition of the learning objectives and a motivation phase, followed by an orderly
sequence of the learning tasks. An assessment of the nature of the performance taking place
during and after each task is an immediate step that should be undertaken. An on-the-stop
revision may be resorted to, if needed. The final step is an evaluation of the whole
In order to fully grasp the importance of methods in teaching, a teacher must have a
clear concept of what teaching is, together with the inherent elements of the profession.
Definitely, ones regard about teaching, be it a lifetime vocation or an economic
venture, will essentially influence the effectiveness of her teaching performance, given a
whole range of diverse learning situations.
Methods And Teaching
Methods, Approaches, Strategies, And Techniques
Role Of Methods
Factors Involved In Choice
Criteria For Methods Selection
Basic Steps Followed
Evaluating The Method Used
Different Method Of Teaching
4. A. METHODS AND TEACHING
Teaching is defined as instructing, tutoring or educating. It stands for pedagogy, training
and nurturing. As a profession it is taken as a mission to mold the young. Other are prepared
to assume certain defined duties and responsibilities. It may be regarded as a teacher’s role
in educating children. Some refer to it as an occupation for a living.
Teaching as an educational endeavor, refers to the vital role of teachers in engaging
students in activities that will enable them to acquire knowledge and skills, at the same time
develop worthwhile values and attitudes. It consists of organized activities aimed in
inducing learning. Learning is the ultimate goal. This is achieved by stimulating positive
interactions as a teacher and her students go through a well-planned step-by-step procedure
that is directed towards a desired learning outcome. The systematized actions end with the
development of competence in applying the knowledge and skills acquired and practicing
the moral standards gained.
In order to realize the instructional goals formulated, a teacher must possess the ability
to plan and organize all the needed tasks to be performed, appropriately timed and
adequately provided with suitable materials. Only then will actual teaching be smoothly
paved towards the desired ends.
To underscore, it is hardly possible to make children learn without a precise method, or
else the class activities will end up hit-and-miss or segmented operations.
B. METHODS, APPROACHES, STRATEGIES, AND TECHNIQUES
In teaching, method is a systematic plan to achieve a learning objective. It is a
procedure that must followed “strictly” to attain a goal. It refers to series of related and
progressive acts performed by the teacher and students to achieve the objective of a lesson.
It is a well-planned procedure that guides the direction in undertaking a learning activity.
Educators take method as “a pattern or manner of treating people, objects and events, that is
directly purposely toward the achievement of an instructional goal”. Some author call it
Approaches is a set of assumptions that define beliefs and theories about the nature
of the learner and the process of learning.
Strategy, a term originated from the military, stands for a carefully devised plan of
action to achieve an objective in the battlefield. It denotes a “clever” and cunning design to
achieve one end:
In teaching, strategy suggest a teacher’s unique way of presenting a topic to the
learners, characterized by adeptness in performing the steps with utmost care to insure the
attainment of a learning objective. Example, two teachers may be following the same
method but one may differ in selecting the teaching devices that she will use to insure a
smooth procedure. It is also referred to a task or activity.
Techniques refers to the art, style, or manner of a teacher’s performance in following a
procedure. It includes one’s ability or expertise in carrying out a task in a cautious and
“watchful” way. An alert teachers may vary her technique in a class demonstration by using
more attractive familiar materials in the room, instead of what is commonly used.
C. ROLE OF METHODS
As a clearly defined way of teaching, various methodologies present unique courses
of action that will help teacher immensely in planning how to go about a daily lesson.
Deciding on a method to be used assists in a number of ways:
1. It serves as a guide in preparing all the materials, simple tools and equipment that will be
2. The activities or learning task that will be performed could be determines, including the
approximate time to be allotted for each and the proper sequencing to be followed.
3. How the activities will be performed in order to progress in the right direction will be clearly
understood and anticipated by the leaders if some are assigned.
4. A method that would require movement from one place to another will be planned with much
care to avoid confusion, unnecessary delays and time wastage. Adequate space will be
provided for ease in transfers.
5. The instructional objective that would be highlighted will dictate the method to be employed.
The method chosen should turn be directed towards it/them be it learning of concepts or
development of skills, or both.
6. The method will serve as a guide in observing performance indicators, that is, whether the
students are progressing or finding difficulty in the procedure.
7. The method employed could help the assessment instruments that could reveal whether the
objective has been achieved.
6. 8. A well-planned procedure will as to a strong feeling of confidence and security for the
teacher as well for the students. It helps in insuring a smooth an enjoyable lesson.
9. It is so fullfiling and gratifying for a teacher to develop competence in deciding on a method
to use and implementing it successfully.
D. COMMON POINTS
Elements common to different teaching methods are helpful to gain a clear concept
of methods. The common steps in teaching are:
1) Preparation of instruction. This includes gathering materials, preparing a lesson plan, and
2) Motivation. This includes what the teacher does to catch the attention of the students.
3) Presentation of learning tasks. What the student is to learn.
4) Inducement of the trial response. What the teacher asks the students to do in order to
determine whether the student has learned the material or presented.
5) Correction of the trial response. What the teacher does in order to correct the response of the
6) Fixation of response. To assure that the students retains what he has learned.
7) Test response and evaluation. To determine how well the student has learned the task
E. FACTORS INVOLVED
These are the factors involved in the choice of a particular method. The teacher
needs criteria in order to decide which method is appropriate. The method should:
1) Suit the teacher’s abilities, knowledge of subject matter and interests. He/she should draw on
2) Suit the student’s abilities – both verbal and psychomotor.
3) Suit the type of teaching aimed at such as teaching how to (skill-oriented) teaching that
(knowledge-oriented) or teaching to be (value-oriented).
4) Suit the time and place context of the teaching situation.
5) Suit the subject matter at hand. Example, to teach the effects of oxygen to metal, laboratory
exercises or demonstration would be more appropriate.
6) Suit the number of students to be taught.
7) Suit the interests and experience of the students.
8) Suit the teacher’s relationship with the students.
7. In summary, the teacher must consider the following aspects: the context of the
teaching situation (time and place); the number, ability, interests and previous experience of
the students; the nature of the subject matter; the teacher’s own abilities; and what he/she
wished to empathize in his/her teaching – skills, knowledge, or values.
F. CRITERIA FOR METHOD SELECTION
The choice of a particular method to use rests upon the crucial decision a teacher
arrives at. A number of factors must be considered such as the following:
1) Objective to be pursued.
Just like a trip that one is embarking on, the question to be answered is, “Where am I
going?” In a lesson being planned, a teacher starts with the goal, aim or purpose which sets
the direction of all activities to be undertaken. He asks, “What will I try to accomplish?”
Learning objectives are classified into: 1) knowledge, facts or information to be
learned; 2) skills or proficiency in employing scientific processes and procedures, and 3)
values and attitudes to be developed. The teacher should know which of the three or a
combination of two or all of the three he is aiming at. Then, provide the students
opportunities to attain them.
2) Subject to be taught.
The nature and scope of the subject dictates the method to be employed. One which
is appropriate in reviewing printed materials or publications will be different form one
which will find out the effect of a variable on the growth of plants. Some topics are better
taught through focused discussions, others through controlled experimentations or through
3) Instructional equipment, tools and materials.
Laboratory setting would require a method different form one which will need
computerization and information-search through electronic gadgets. The availability of such
learning resources must be considered in deciding which method is implementable.
4) The students’ abilities.
Manual skill will required in manipulating laboratory equipment, handling simple
tools and preparing needed materials. The teacher should carefully consider whether the
students are equipped with dexterity before deciding to employ a procedure with such
demands. Verbal and writing abilities must likewise be assessed before the students are
immersed into oral and written activities.
5) The students’ interests.
It is easy to discover the interests of students through informal story-telling
interviews and formal and informal observations. Such occasions can serve as starting point
in selecting the most likely method to follow. It could be interest in reading or in outdoor
8. games or hobbies like gardening. A methodology that caters to their interests will insure a
smooth flow of all the tasks to be done. Self-motivation can likewise be of great help.
6) Previous learning or experiences.
A background knowledge is needed to connect the present learning tasks being
planned. A review of the past discussions could show if they will be ready to tackle the
lesson being planned. Past experience may likewise add background information.
7) The kind of participation expected.
Learning from a method that would need a whole class participation would certainly
be different from one which would require an active involvement of each one. The
experience that could be gained from individual-oriented procedures will differ
considerably. This is a factor that should not be overlooked in selecting a teaching
8) Context of the teaching situation.
A teacher should know the time and place or where and when the teaching chores
will be conducted. In so doing, a method that is suited for the time of the day learning
activities should be undertaken and whether said activities should be performed in a
conducive location such as a laboratory, gym or library, will be easy to choose.
9) Knowledge and ability of the teacher.
The teacher must be knowledgeable about a wide variety of teaching methodologies
and be skilled in employing each of them or else the choice would end up with overused
classroom routine teaching. A creative teacher is capable of trying new ways of teaching,
thus adding to his repertoire of teaching methodologies.
10) Safety precautions.
The method must consider the safety measure to be undertaken if it will take them to
the field as well as the reminders on proper behavior that might be solicited to insure a
gainful learning episode.
G. CLASSIFYING METHODS
Teaching methods may be classified as to the following:
1. Where suitably undertaken
a. In the laboratory room
Examples: Experimenting, problem solving, discovery, student research
b. In the field/community
Examples: field study, exploring community resources, collections, educational tour
c. In the library/examining printed materials
Examples: preparing special reports, reading, narratives, creative writing
d. Classroom-based/out of classroom
Examples: discussion, demonstration, interest learning centers, field study
9. 2. Focused participants: individual or Group
Examples: Inviting specialists, lecture, team-teaching, cooperative learning, writing
journals, peer-tutoring, team teaching, independent study
Examples: Role playing, socio-drama, simulation games, projects, direct instruction
Examples: Using audio-visual media, experiential teaching approach, microteaching
5. According to Goals
Cognitive Examples: research, special reports, lectures, reading
Affective Examples: Writing journals, narrative, cooperative learning, creative writing
Psychomotor Examples: Experimenting, projects, simulations, collection
6. According to Time Available
1. Class period Examples: Demonstrations, Inviting specialist
2 or 3 days Examples: field trip, exploring community resources, research reading.
H. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
Methods and techniques employed by teachers can be describes and labeled as traditional or
progressive. Following are the observed description and characteristics of each.
TRADITIONAL METHODS PROGRESSIVE METHODS
Subject-centered-goal is mastery of
Student-centered-goal is gain to
knowledge, develop skills and instill
They are subject matter experts and
dominate lesson activities.
Facilitates, guides, and encourages more
Use teacher-organized content and
sequencing is strictly to be followed.
Content is flexible and may include
related subjects as in an integrated
Step-by-step procedures in lesson
activities is strictly followed and teacher-
Allows substitution of materials during
the activities if needed. Alternative steps
are undertaken to avoid misdirection or
Uses objective tests and other qualitative Uses qualitative assessment tools such as
10. measures. informal observations, interviews and
I. STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED
After deciding on a method/technique to be employed, a teacher should be adept in
following a number of steps or phrases to insure a smooth flow of the learning activities.
Each of the following steps is easily observed in what a teacher does.
1. Initial preparation. The teacher prepares a complete plan for the entire learning episode.
It includes objectives, a list of all activities to be performed in the proper sequence and
assessment instrument to be used.
2. He gathers all the materials that will be needed, prepares them in the right amount
and arranges them on a table nearby for accessibility.
3. Motivation phase. He may tell a story, recall a previously earned content, solicit ideas
about current events, or simply appear enthusiastic to start the day’s lesson.
4. Lesson proper. A) The objectives are defined. B) They discuss how they will proceed.
C) The activities are performed one after another, whether each is done individually or
5. He observes how they are progressing from one activity to another. He may ask
questions to find out if they are learning from the task. He could take note of positive
and negative reactions and responses to questions. This will indicate whether they are
leading towards the right direction.
6. Summarizing phase. After completing the activities successfully, they are now ready to
formulate concluding statement about the lesson they have learned. If the activities
planned fail, they will be assisted in tracing the problem or difficulty encountered.
7. Assessment. He employs an assessment technique to determine the gains or failures such
as a short test, a class discussion or a written summary.
8. Evaluation. The entire method will be evaluated to find out whether the procedure was
followed as planned. If there were revisions undertaken, did they improve the
J. EVALUATING THE METHOD USED
Why should we evaluate the effectiveness and usefulness of a particular teaching
method? Evaluating the worth and effectiveness of a method used is as important an
undertaking in a teacher’s decision-making as its successful implementation to attain a desired
Systematic review of the factor that contribute significantly to a smooth step-by-step
procedure would constitute a good feedback for the following purpose.
11. a. To be able to trace the step that was missed or overdone.
b. Determine additional criteria that should have been considered.
c. Assess the appropriateness and adequacy of the materials used.
d. Improve further the learning situation (time and place context)
e. A feeing of confidence is derived from a satisfactory teaching performance.
2. How can a Method be evaluated?
To be able to judge the desirability and reliability of a method as used in teaching, the
following assessment procedures are suggested.
a. Observations, informal and formal
Consciously or unconsciously, a teacher is continuously observing his students’ behavior
throughout the lesson. He is able to collect information regarding the interaction between
himself and the students, between the students themselves as well as the extent of whole
class or individual involvement and active participation in the learning tasks. The ease or
difficulty encountered at every step is revealed and briefly recorded for future lesson
planning. Instant remarks and facial expressions shows their eagerness to continue with
Another teacher may be requested to observe the class. Sometimes an outside observer
may be invited. In this manner, he can concentrate on his own teaching rather than
distracted by a wrong response. The information gathered will be objective and free from
bias since the other observer may not know the students.
b. Use of assessment instrument.
Formal observations could be undertaken with the use of teacher-made observation
instruments that are recorded. Some of the more commonly used are:
It consists of a series of questions directly answered by the one being observed.
It includes the criteria standards and the corresponding degree of acceptance is
The teacher may be asked to recount his own impressions and comments. Again this
kind of observation may be accomplished by the teacher himself or an outside observer.
c. Recording through the use of audio-visual instrument.
A series of photographs taken while a teacher is teaching could be viewed to detect both
good and erroneous steps. Questions and answers from both teacher and students could
be recorded and replayed over and over in order to assess the flow of the discussions.
d. Journals submitted by the students may be reviewed to find out which step was missed.
Serving as feedback, the parts of the lesson enjoyed and earned could be traced to an
effective implementation of the method used.
12. e. Objectives and essay tests given after completing a lesson or at the end of a chapter are
also sure measures whether the objectives are being achieved or not. The needed revisions
of sequence of steps will also be revealed factor.
K. THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TEACHING
1) Direct and Indirect Methods
Methods of teaching can be direct or indirect.
The Direct Method is teacher-dominated. You lecture immediately on what you
want the students to learn without necessary involving them in the process. This is the
traditional OBE (outcome-based education) that emphasizes on subject-specific content.
Example: You want to teach students how to locate countries in maps and globes,
identify the basic directions, or how to read and draw a map. To teach them the skill or
process, you show them how by demonstrating it. This is the “telling” and the “showing”
method. You are lecturer and demonstrator.
The Indirect Method is learner-dominated. You give the student an active role in
the learning process.
Example: You ask students to share their comments on a news article, share their
thoughts about a lesson-related pictures, their stand on a controversial issues like the new
“Terror Bill”, the COVID 19 effects. After listening to their thoughts, you continue
facilitating the teaching-learning process by asking more thought-provoking questions and
by leading them to the drawing of generalization, abstraction or conclusion.
In the indirect method, you synthesize what have been shared to connect loose ends
and give a whole picture of the past class proceedings and ideas shared before you lead
them to the drawing of generalizations or conclusions. As teacher, who is expected to know
more that the student, you add to what the students shared. You must have a significant
input. It is important that you supplement information given by the students. These are
essential in the drawing of valid conclusions.
In the indirect method, your task is to ask your students questions to provoke their
thinking, imagination, and thought-organizing skills. You are a questioner, a facilitator, a
2) Deductive and Inductive Methods
Methods of teaching can also be grouped into deductive and inductive methods.
In the Deductive Method, you begin your lesson with a generalization, a rule a
definition and end with examples and illustration or with what is concrete.
13. 1. You start your lesson in economics with the law of supply and demand and then give
examples to illustrate.
2. You present your lesson in geography with the destruction of the environment and
then give examples of effect.
3. You present your lesson in World history with the effect of World War Two then
show a video documentary clips on how it provokes.
4. You give the definition of Globalization then give examples to illustrate the meaning.
In contrast to the deductive method, in the Inductive Method you begin your lesson
with the examples, with what is known, with the concrete and with details. You end with the
student giving the generalization, abstraction or conclusion.
1. For a lesson on the law of supply and demand, you start by giving many instances
that illustrate the law then with your questioning skills the class will arrive at the
general statement showing the relationship of supply and demand which is actually
the law of supply and demand in economics.
2. For a lesson on the destruction of environment, you start the class by many pictures
showing the different destructions in the environment. Then ask the students
questions that would generate critical thinking so they could arrive in a conclusion on
the causes of the destruction of environment.
3. For lesson on the effects of world war two, you start the class by letting the students
watch a documentary videos on world war two and ask questions afterwards to arrive
in the conclusions on how the world war two provoke and the effect of it to many
4. For lesson on globalization, you present to the class the definition of globalization
then as the students to give examples that best describe globalization and how it exist.
To enable the student to derive the rule, state the definition, be sure you gave enough
examples, illustrations, and details for them to be able to see a pattern and come up with a
generalization or rule or definition.
After describing these methods, we can see that direct and deductive methods of
teaching go to together while indirect and inductive teaching also go together.
Here is more detailed example of lesson taught directly and deductive the taught
inductively and indirectly.
The topic is imagery.
This is direct instruction, deductive teaching.
1. The teacher begins by presenting students with a definition for imagery.
2. The teacher gives an example of it.
14. 3. Then he/she instructs students to read a short story and underline sentences and passages
where the author used imagery.
Some topic is taught using indirect instruction and inductive method.
1. The teacher dramatically reads aloud a short story, asking students that whenever they
can picture something – see an image in their minds – put a star by those words.
2. Then, students partner up and draw a picture to go with each star they have in common.
After this, pairs of students team up (in groups of four) and share what they’ve drawn.
The teacher asks them to also discuss in their groups how seeing these pictures in their
minds made the story more interesting.
3. The teacher finally reveals that this is called imagery, and rather than provide a
definition, asks each group to write a definition for imagery together. Each group then
shares the definition with the whole class.
The contrast of deductive and direct instruction and inductive and indirect instruction is
Deductive and Direct Instruction
Begins with the abstract, rule, definition, generalization, unknown and ends with
experience, examples, details, known.
Inductive and Indirect Instruction
Begins with the concrete, experience, examples, details, known and ends with rule,
definition, generalization or conclusion.
15. WHICH IS THE BEST METHOD?
Which between the two groups of teaching methods (Inductive and Indirect Instruction
and Deductive and Direct Instruction) is more interactive? Stated in another way, which
engages the students to talk, think and do more?
Obviously, the inductive and indirect method give more opportunities for students to
participate in the learning process. In the inductive-indirect method, the students are made to
study details, examples or concrete experience, make sense of these details and state in their
own words relationships that they see. The teacher does not tell the pattern in the details nor
does he/she state the generalization and rule but leads the students to the generalization or
rule with her/his questioning skills.
In the deductive and direct method, the teacher tells directly the rule and the
generalization and follows it up with concrete examples and illustrious. The students are
engaged in the drills-mental or physical – that come after the teacher has told them what
they need to know or demonstrated that which they should be able to do.
So which is the best method to use in teaching?
There is no such thing as better or best method. The best method is the method that
works, the method that is effective, the method that will enable you to realize your intended
The effectiveness of a method is dependent on many factors such as:
1) Teacher’s readiness,
2) Learner’s readiness,
3) Nature of the subject matter
4) Time allotment for a subject
The inductive-indirect method is superior to the deductive-direct method in terms of
learner’s engagement. This method is more in keeping with the time-tested principle that
learning is an active process, the better his/her learning.
However, there are times when the inductive-indirect method does not work. In
cases when the learners are not yet capable of drawing generalizations or abstractions, you
may employ all facilitating skills you have learned but students can’t draw and state the
generalization or abstraction you ask for, so you will end up giving the generalization
16. yourself after spending so much time asking them questions to help them draw the
Another instance when the inductive-indirect method may not be advisable is when
subject matter is quite difficult, very new or no reading material is readily available. In
short, you, the teacher, are the only one knowledgeable about the subject. No matter how
well-formulated your questions are, if your students practically know nothing about the
subject, there is nothing substantial that you can get. You can’t squeeze blood out of turnips.
Manipulative skills like dancing tango, focusing the microscope, playing the guitar,
cooking at the recipe are better taught with the direct method. Cognitive content like the law
of conservation of matter and energy, the laws of the land (constitution) are better taught
with the direct method also.
The objective of the study of these laws is understanding to the point of mastery.
Observe a class in the college of medicine and the college of law and I bet you will hear and
see the instructor doing direct or deductive instruction.
The inductive and indirect method require more time than the deductive method and
direct method. Time is needed for students to interact, think, analyze and do abstraction. If
you don’t have the luxury of time for one reason or another, it is wise not to go inductive.
The readiness of the teacher to employ the inductive and indirect method is crucial. A method
may be superior in terms of interaction but if the teacher lacks the facilitating skills for its
effective use, insisting on its use may court disaster. In short, we advocate the use of the
inductive and indirect method because it is more engaging and interactive. However, to ensure
its effective use, both students and teacher must be ready, the subject matter is something that
the student shave knowledge about, and that time allotted enables you to have maximum
Activity #1: COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Directions: Differentiate direct and indirect instruction from deductive and inductive
methods by filling out the chart below.
METHODS OF TEACHING DIFFERENCES
A. Direct Instruction and Indirect
B. Deductive Method and Inductive
17. ASSESSMENT TASK
Activity #2: UNDERSTANDING THE METHOD
Direction: Applying the concept about methods learned, answer the following below.
1) Differentiate methods, approach, strategy and technique.
2) Suppose you decide on a method which will need equipment but which is not available at the
time. What will you do?
3) Form your own daily experience, why is a well-planned method important?
4) As you plan for the days learning activities what is the first step you should undertake? What
is the last step?
5) Which method would be best for beginning teacher – deductive and direct or inductive and
Activity #3: DEDUCTIVE AND DIRECT METHOD VS. INDUCTIVE AND
Directions: Summarize the process of utilizing the deductive and direct instruction, and
inductive and indirect instruction as methods in teaching. Fill in the diagram of the correct
Direction: Applying the concept about methods learned, choose THREE (3) the following
1) How can you evaluate the method you employ?
2) How do you decide on which method to use?
I t ti
18. 3) Why is the deductive method said to be teaching by proceeding from the unknown to the
known, while inductive method is teaching from the known to the unknown? What are meant
by the words “known” and “unknown”?
4) Are direct instruction and the deductive method robbed of student activity? Or is there a part
in direct instruction and deductive method of teaching that the students are also engaged in
an activity? Where?
5) Compare direct and indirect instruction with deductive and inductive methods of teaching.
Use a table for the comparison.
Corpuz, Brenda B, & Salandanan, Gloria G. 2014. Principles of Teaching 2. Brenda B.
Corpuz and Gloria G. Salandanan and published by LORIMAR PUBLISHING, INC. ISBN
971-685-783-2. p. 11; 14; 18-25; 29-31; 33-35
Corpuz, Brenda B, & Salandanan, Gloria G. 2007. Principles of Teaching 1.Brenda B.
Corpuz and Gloria G. Salandanan and published by LORIMAR PUBLISHING, INC. ISBN
971-685-680-4. p. 69-73
Salandanan, Gloria G. 2012. Methods of Teaching, 2nd
revised edition, Dr. Gloria G.
Salandanan and published by LORIMAR PUBLISHING, INC. ISBN 971-685-741-2. p. 13-
Brown, D. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 5th
ed. White plains:
Corpuz, Brenda B, & Salandanan, Gloria G. 2014. Principles of Teaching 2, p. 11; 14; 18-25;
Corpuz, Brenda B, & Salandanan, Gloria G. 2007. Principles of Teaching 1, p. 69-73
DepEd Order # 73, s. 2012
Department of Education (2013) K to 12 Curriculum Guide in Araling Panlipunan
Department of Education (2013) K to 12 Curriculum Guide. Section 5 of the Enhance Basic
Education Act of 2013
Salandanan, Gloria G. 2012. Methods of Teaching, 2nd
revised edition, p. 13-23; 114-115.
Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society: the Development of higher psychological processes.
19. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.