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Network topologies

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types of Network topologies

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Network topologies

  1. 1. Project Network Topology
  2. 2. Why Topology is Important ? • Design Efficient Protocols • Solve Internetworking Problems: - routing - resource reservation - administration • Create Accurate Model for Simulation • Derive Estimates for Topological Parameters • Study Fault Tolerance and Anti-Attack Properties Project Network Topology
  3. 3. •The topology of a network defines how the nodes of a network are connected. •There are two basic categories of network topologies: (To define The network) 1. a physical topology. 2. a logical topology. Project Network Topology
  4. 4. • Physical topology: defines how the nodes of the network are physically connected . • Logical topology: How data is transmitted between nodes  (dedicated connections between certain selected source-destination pairs using the underlying physical topology.)  In order to have an efficient system, the logical topology should be chosen such that either the average hop distance or the packet delay or the maximum flow on any link must be minimal. Project Network Topology
  5. 5. The shape of the cabling layout used to link devices is called the physical topology of the network. This refers to the layout of cabling, the locations of nodes, and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling. The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media, the level of control or fault tolerance desired, and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits. The logical topology, in contrast, is the way that the signals act on the network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. A network's logical topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. Project Network Topology
  6. 6. • Shapes of network topologies : • Mesh • Star • Bus • Ring • Tree and Hybrid Project Network Topology
  7. 7. Mesh Topology • A network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with one another, allowing for most transmissions to be distributed, even if one of the connections go down. This topology is not commonly used for most computer networks as it is difficult and expensive to have redundant connection to every computer. However, this topology is commonly used for wireless networks. Below is a visual example of a simple computer setup on a network using a mesh topology. Project Network Topology
  8. 8. Mesh Topology Project Network Topology
  9. 9. 1. They use dedicated links so each link can only carry its own data load. So traffic problem can be avoided. 2. It is robust. If any one link get damaged it cannot affect others. 3. It gives privacy and security.(Message travels along a dedicated link) 4. Fault identification and fault isolation are easy. Mesh Topology Project Network Topology
  10. 10. 1. The amount of cabling and the number of I/O ports required are very large. Since every device is connected to each devices through dedicated links. 2. The sheer bulk of wiring is larger then the available space. 3. Hardware required to connected each device is highly Mesh Topology expensive. 1. Telephone Regional office. 2. WAN.(Wide Area Network). Project Network Topology
  11. 11. • Here each device has a dedicated point-to-point link to the central controller called “Hub”(Act as a Exchange). • There is no direct traffic between devices. • The transmission are occurred only through the central “hub”. Project Network Topology
  12. 12. • The central point may be “passive”, “active”, or “intelligent”. • A passive hub simply connects the arms of a star, no signal regeneration is performed. • An active hub is like a passive hub, except that it regenerates signals. • Intelligent hubs not only regenerate signals but also perform activities such as intelligent path selection and network management. Project Network Topology
  13. 13. Star Topology Project Network Topology
  14. 14. 1. Less expensive then mesh since each device is connected only to the hub. 2. Installation and configuration are easy. 3. Less cabling is need then mesh. 4. Robustness.(if one link fails, only that links is affected. All other links remain active). 5. Easy to fault identification & to remove parts. Star Topology Project Network Topology
  15. 15. 1. Even it requires less cabling then mesh when compared with other topologies it still large.(Ring or bus). 2. Dependency(whole dependent on one single point(hub). When it goes down. The whole system is dead. Star Topology Project Network Topology
  16. 16. • Star topology used in Local Area Networks(LANs). • High speed LAN often used STAR. Star Topology Project Network Topology
  17. 17. • All communication pass through the central computer. • The communications in the network will stop if the host computer stops functioning. Project Network Topology
  18. 18. • A bus topology is multipoint. • Here one long cable act as a backbone to link all the devices are connected to the backbone by drop lines and taps. • Drop line- is the connection the devices and the cable. • Tap- is the splitter that cut the main link. • This allows only one device to transmit at a time. • Single cable connects all network nodes without intervening connectivity devices. • Devices share responsibility for getting data from one point to another. Project Network Topology
  19. 19. • When a device sends a message, it is broadcast down on the cable in both directions. Terminators at the end of the cable prevent the signal from reflecting back to the sender. • All devices on the cable constantly monitor for messages meant to them. When a device detects a message meant for it, it reads the message from the cable and the other devices will ignore it. • Since all devices are sharing the same cable, some form of control is needed to make sure which device will transmit when, otherwise there will be a collision. Project Network Topology
  20. 20. Bus Topology Project Network Topology
  21. 21. 1. Ease of installation. 2. Less cabling. 3. less expensive. Bus Topology Project Network Topology
  22. 22. 1. Difficult reconfiguration and fault isolation. 2. Difficult to add new devices. 3. Signal reflection at top can degradation in quality. 4. If any fault in backbone can stops all transmission. • Most computer motherboard. Bus Topology Project Network Topology
  23. 23. • The main disadvantage is bad connection to the cable can bring down the entire network. Another problem: collision occurs when 2 nodes send messages simultaneously. Project Network Topology
  24. 24. Ring Topology • Here each device has a dedicated connection with two devices on either side. • The signal is passed in one direction from device to device until it reaches the destination and each device have repeater. • When one device received signals instead of intended another device, its repeater then regenerates the data and passes them along. • To add or delete a device requires changing only two connections. Project Network Topology
  25. 25. Ring Topology Project Network Topology
  26. 26. Advantages: 1. Easy to install. 2. Easy to reconfigure. 3. Fault identification is easy. Disadvantages: 1. Unidirectional traffic. 2. Break in a single ring can break entire network. Ring Topology Project Network Topology
  27. 27. Applications: • Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses. • Today high speed LANs made this topology less popular. Ring Topology Project Network Topology
  28. 28. • Alternatively referred to as a star bus topology. • Tree topology is one of the most common network setups that is similar to a bus topology and a star topology. • A tree topology connects multiple star networks to other star networks. Below is a visual example of a simple computer setup on a network using the star topology. Project Network Topology
  29. 29. Tree Topology Project Network Topology
  30. 30. • A network which contain all type of physical structure and connected under a single backbone channel. Project Network Topology
  31. 31. Hybrid Topology Project Network Topology
  32. 32. • Money-Bus n/w may be the least expensive way to install a n/w. • Length-of cable needed- the linear bus n/w uses shorter lengths of cable. • Future growth-with star topology, expending a n/w is easily done by adding another devices. • Cable type-most common used cable in commercial organization is twisted pair. Which often used with star topologies. Project Network Topology
  33. 33. • Full mesh topology is theoretically the best since every device is connected to every other device.(thus maximizing speed and security. however, it quite expensive to install) • Next best would be tree topology , which is basically a connection of star. Project Network Topology
  34. 34. Backbone Networks: Serial Backbone • Daisy chain: linked series of devices • Hubs and switches often connected in daisy chain to extend a network • Hubs, gateways, routers, switches, and bridges can form part of backbone • Extent to which hubs can be connected is limited Project Network Topology
  35. 35. • Ashikha Alqahtani • Noura Alhuthily • Dalal Alkhneen Project Network Topology

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