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8 - 1
Chapter 8
Consumer Attitude
Formation and Change
Prepared By:
Mr. Nishant Agrawal
8 - 2
Chapter Outline
• What Are Attitudes?
• Structural Models of Attitudes
• Attitude Formation
• Strategies of Attitude Changes
• Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude Formation
8 - 3
Attitude
A learned
predisposition /
tendency to behave
in a consistently
favorable or
unfavorable manner
with respect to a
given object.
8 - 4
A Company Which Specializes in Attitude
Measurement
8 - 5
What Are Attitudes?
• The Attitude “Object”
– Attitude should be interpreted broadly to include specific consumption
• Attitudes are a learned predisposition
– Attitude relevant to purchase are formed as a result of direct experience
with the product
• Attitudes have consistency
– Attitude is relatively consistent with behavior they reflect.
• Attitudes occur within a situation
– Consumer can have variety of attitude towards particular object.
8 - 6
This attempts to
change the
attitude toward
calcium in a soft
drink situation.
8 - 7
Structural Models of Attitudes
• Tricomponent Attitude Model
• Multiattribute Attitude Model
• The Trying-to-Consume Model
• Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
8 - 8
Cognition
Tricomponent Attitude Model
Figure 8.2
8 - 9
The Tricomponent Model
• Cognitive
• Affective
• Conative
Components
•The knowledge and perceptions that
are acquired by a combination of direct
experience with the attitude object and
related information from various sources.
Ex. LCD Vs LED
•It is important from viewpoint of
developing brand and new product are
launched.
8 - 10
The Tricomponent Model
• Cognitive
• Affective
• Conative
•A consumer’s emotions or
feelings about a particular product
or brand
•This emotions are treated by
consumer researches as primarily
evaluation in nature.
Components
8 - 11
Broadband Internet Access
Figure 8-3
8 - 12
The Tricomponent Model
• Cognitive
• Affective
• Conative
•The tendency that an individual
will undertake a specific action or
behave in a particular way with
regard to the attitude object.
•It is frequently treated as an
expression of consumer’s
intention to buy.
Components
8 - 13
Discussion Question
• Explain your attitude toward your college/university
based on the tricomponent attribute model.
Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and
conative elements
8 - 14
MultiattributeMultiattribute
AttitudeAttitude
ModelsModels
Attitude models that
examine the work of
consumer attitudes
in terms of selected
product attributes
or beliefs.
8 - 15
Multiattribute Attitude Models
• The attitude-toward-
object model
• The attitude-toward-
behavior model
• Theory-of-
reasoned-action
model
• Attitude is function of evaluation
of product-specific beliefs and
evaluations
• Useful to measure attitudes
toward brands or product.
• What customer feel are important
feature.
• Ex. LCD Vs LED
Types
8 - 16
Positive attitudes
toward brands
help with brand
extensions
8 - 17
Multiattribute Attitude Models
• The attitude-toward-
object model
• The attitude-toward-
behavior model
• Theory-of-
reasoned-action
model
• Is the attitude toward behaving
or acting with respect to an
object, rather than the attitude
toward the object itself
• Corresponds closely to actual
behavior.
• Ex. BMW
Types
8 - 18
Multiattribute Attitude Models
• The attitude-toward-
object model
• The attitude-toward-
behavior model
• Theory-of-
reasoned-action
model (TRA)
• Includes cognitive, affective,
and conative components
• Includes subjective norms in
addition to attitude
• Arrange in the different
pattern than tricomponent
model.
Types
8 - 19
A Simplified Version of the Theory of
Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5
8 - 20
Discussion Question
• Now use the theory of reasoned action to describe
your attitude toward your college/university when
deciding on which school to attend.
8 - 21
Subjective Norms Are Extremely Important
for Teens
8 - 22
Theory of
Trying to
Consume
An attitude theory
designed to account for
the many cases where the
action or outcome is not
certain but instead
reflects the consumer’s
attempt to consume (or
purchase).
8 - 23
Ad illustrating the
theory of trying
to consume
8 - 24
Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential
Impediments That Might Impact Trying
POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS
“I wonder whether my hair will be longer by the time of my wedding.”
“I want to try to lose two inches off my waist by my birthday.”
“I’m going to try to get tickets for the Rolling Stones concert for our anniversary.”
“I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.”
“I am going to increase how often I run two miles from three to five times a
week.”
“Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.”
POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS
“The first 1,000 people at the baseball game will receive a team cap.”
“Sorry, the car you ordered didn’t come in from Japan on the ship that docked
yesterday.”
“There are only two cases of chardonnay in our stockroom. You better come in
sometime today.”
“I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of an
electrical problem.”
8 - 25
Attitude-Attitude-
Toward-the-Toward-the-
Ad ModelAd Model
A model that proposes that a
consumer forms various
feelings (affects) and
judgments (cognitions) as the
result of exposure to an
advertisement, which, in turn,
affect the consumer’s attitude
toward the ad and attitude
toward the brand.
8 - 26
A Conception of the Relationship among
Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model -
Figure 8.7
8 - 27
Issues in Attitude Formation
• How attitudes are learned
– Conditioning and experience
– Knowledge and beliefs
• Sources of influence on attitude formation
– Personal experience
– Influence of family, friend ,Direct marketing & mass media
• Personality factors
– Celebrity personality
8 - 28
Strategies of Attitude Change
1. Changing the Basic Motivational Function
2. Associating the Product with an Admired Group or
Event
3. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes
4. Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
5. Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands
8 - 29
Discussion Question
• A local pizza restaurant is having a hard time
attracting customers due to a poor image. Explain
how they can change people’s attitudes
8 - 30
Changing the Basic Motivational Function
1. Utilitarian
– Consumer value a particular brand because of its valuable function.
When a consumer is having an experience of using a product in
past, he will tend to have positive opinion about it.
– So marketer can change the attitude of consumer by focusing on
the useful function which the consumers are not aware of.
– Eg: Hit which can be used to kill mosquito and cockroach.
8 - 31
Continue…
2. Ego-defensive
– It is natural that most of the consumer wants to protect their self
images and they want to feel secure and safe about the product
which they are going to buy.
– Many advertisements helps the consumer to feel secure and
confident by which the marketer tries to changes the attitude by
offering reassurance to the consumers self concept. Eg: Bolero
advertisement.
3. Knowledge
– Customers always have the advise of knowing more about the
products. This “need to know” is considered to be important while
positioning the product..
8 - 32
Continue…
4. Value-expressive
– Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer’s general
values, lifestyles, and outlook.
– If a consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward
owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes toward new
brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that orientation.
– Thus by knowing target consumers attitudes, marketers can better
anticipate their values, lifestyles or outlook and can reflect these
characteristics in their advertising and direct marketing efforts.
8 - 33
Swiffer Appeals to Utilitarian Function
weblink
8 - 34
Crest uses
a
knowledge
appeal.
8 - 35
ElaborationElaboration
LikelihoodLikelihood
ModelModel
(ELM)(ELM)
A theory that suggests
that a person’s level
of involvement during
message processing is
a critical factor in
determining which
route to persuasion is
likely to be effective.
8 - 36
Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude
Formation?
• Cognitive Dissonance
Theory
• Attribution Theory
Behave (Purchase)Behave (Purchase)
Form AttitudeForm AttitudeForm Attitude
8 - 37
Cognitive
Dissonance
/
disagreement
Theory
There is a tendency for
individuals to seek
consistency among their
beliefs, opinions. When there
is an inconsistency between
attitudes or behaviours
something must change to
eliminate the conflict.
8 - 38
AttributionAttribution
TheoryTheory
A theory concerned
with how people assign
causalty to events and
form their attitudes as
an outcome of
assessing their own or
other people’s
behavior.
8 - 39
Issues in Attribution Theory
• Self-perception Theory
– Foot-in-the-Door Technique
• Attributions toward Others
• Attributions toward Things
• How We Test Our Attributions
– Distinctiveness
– Consistency over time
– Consistency over modality
– Consensus
8 - 40
End of Session
"I have not failed.
I’ve just found 10,000
ways that won’t
work."

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Consumer Attitude Formation and change

  • 1. 8 - 1 Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Prepared By: Mr. Nishant Agrawal
  • 2. 8 - 2 Chapter Outline • What Are Attitudes? • Structural Models of Attitudes • Attitude Formation • Strategies of Attitude Changes • Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude Formation
  • 3. 8 - 3 Attitude A learned predisposition / tendency to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
  • 4. 8 - 4 A Company Which Specializes in Attitude Measurement
  • 5. 8 - 5 What Are Attitudes? • The Attitude “Object” – Attitude should be interpreted broadly to include specific consumption • Attitudes are a learned predisposition – Attitude relevant to purchase are formed as a result of direct experience with the product • Attitudes have consistency – Attitude is relatively consistent with behavior they reflect. • Attitudes occur within a situation – Consumer can have variety of attitude towards particular object.
  • 6. 8 - 6 This attempts to change the attitude toward calcium in a soft drink situation.
  • 7. 8 - 7 Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Multiattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
  • 8. 8 - 8 Cognition Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2
  • 9. 8 - 9 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative Components •The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. Ex. LCD Vs LED •It is important from viewpoint of developing brand and new product are launched.
  • 10. 8 - 10 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative •A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand •This emotions are treated by consumer researches as primarily evaluation in nature. Components
  • 11. 8 - 11 Broadband Internet Access Figure 8-3
  • 12. 8 - 12 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative •The tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. •It is frequently treated as an expression of consumer’s intention to buy. Components
  • 13. 8 - 13 Discussion Question • Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model. Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and conative elements
  • 14. 8 - 14 MultiattributeMultiattribute AttitudeAttitude ModelsModels Attitude models that examine the work of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
  • 15. 8 - 15 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model • Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations • Useful to measure attitudes toward brands or product. • What customer feel are important feature. • Ex. LCD Vs LED Types
  • 16. 8 - 16 Positive attitudes toward brands help with brand extensions
  • 17. 8 - 17 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself • Corresponds closely to actual behavior. • Ex. BMW Types
  • 18. 8 - 18 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model (TRA) • Includes cognitive, affective, and conative components • Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude • Arrange in the different pattern than tricomponent model. Types
  • 19. 8 - 19 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5
  • 20. 8 - 20 Discussion Question • Now use the theory of reasoned action to describe your attitude toward your college/university when deciding on which school to attend.
  • 21. 8 - 21 Subjective Norms Are Extremely Important for Teens
  • 22. 8 - 22 Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).
  • 23. 8 - 23 Ad illustrating the theory of trying to consume
  • 24. 8 - 24 Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I wonder whether my hair will be longer by the time of my wedding.” “I want to try to lose two inches off my waist by my birthday.” “I’m going to try to get tickets for the Rolling Stones concert for our anniversary.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I run two miles from three to five times a week.” “Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first 1,000 people at the baseball game will receive a team cap.” “Sorry, the car you ordered didn’t come in from Japan on the ship that docked yesterday.” “There are only two cases of chardonnay in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.” “I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of an electrical problem.”
  • 25. 8 - 25 Attitude-Attitude- Toward-the-Toward-the- Ad ModelAd Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.
  • 26. 8 - 26 A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model - Figure 8.7
  • 27. 8 - 27 Issues in Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned – Conditioning and experience – Knowledge and beliefs • Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience – Influence of family, friend ,Direct marketing & mass media • Personality factors – Celebrity personality
  • 28. 8 - 28 Strategies of Attitude Change 1. Changing the Basic Motivational Function 2. Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event 3. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes 4. Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model 5. Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands
  • 29. 8 - 29 Discussion Question • A local pizza restaurant is having a hard time attracting customers due to a poor image. Explain how they can change people’s attitudes
  • 30. 8 - 30 Changing the Basic Motivational Function 1. Utilitarian – Consumer value a particular brand because of its valuable function. When a consumer is having an experience of using a product in past, he will tend to have positive opinion about it. – So marketer can change the attitude of consumer by focusing on the useful function which the consumers are not aware of. – Eg: Hit which can be used to kill mosquito and cockroach.
  • 31. 8 - 31 Continue… 2. Ego-defensive – It is natural that most of the consumer wants to protect their self images and they want to feel secure and safe about the product which they are going to buy. – Many advertisements helps the consumer to feel secure and confident by which the marketer tries to changes the attitude by offering reassurance to the consumers self concept. Eg: Bolero advertisement. 3. Knowledge – Customers always have the advise of knowing more about the products. This “need to know” is considered to be important while positioning the product..
  • 32. 8 - 32 Continue… 4. Value-expressive – Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer’s general values, lifestyles, and outlook. – If a consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes toward new brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that orientation. – Thus by knowing target consumers attitudes, marketers can better anticipate their values, lifestyles or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their advertising and direct marketing efforts.
  • 33. 8 - 33 Swiffer Appeals to Utilitarian Function weblink
  • 34. 8 - 34 Crest uses a knowledge appeal.
  • 35. 8 - 35 ElaborationElaboration LikelihoodLikelihood ModelModel (ELM)(ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.
  • 36. 8 - 36 Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase)Behave (Purchase) Form AttitudeForm AttitudeForm Attitude
  • 37. 8 - 37 Cognitive Dissonance / disagreement Theory There is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their beliefs, opinions. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviours something must change to eliminate the conflict.
  • 38. 8 - 38 AttributionAttribution TheoryTheory A theory concerned with how people assign causalty to events and form their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior.
  • 39. 8 - 39 Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-perception Theory – Foot-in-the-Door Technique • Attributions toward Others • Attributions toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions – Distinctiveness – Consistency over time – Consistency over modality – Consensus
  • 40. 8 - 40 End of Session "I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work."

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Changing the Basic Motivational Function Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands by using three of the following:
  2. Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.