Animal kingdom

Animal Kingdom
BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
• Levels of organization: all members are multicellular divided as
1. cellular level of organization: loose cell aggregates with some division of
labour e.g., Porifera
2. Tissue level of organization: Coelentrates & Ctenophora
3. Organ level of organization: Platyhelminthes
4. Organ system level of organization: Aschelminthes  Chordates
BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
• Digestive system:
1. Open(incomplete): Platyhelminthes(single opening)
2. Closed(complete): Aschelminthes  Chordates(two opening as anus & mouth)
• Circulatory system:
1. Open: blood pumped out of the heart and cells and tissues directly bathed in it
2. Closed: blood circulated through series of vessels of varying diameter(arteries,
veins and capillaries)
BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
• Symmetry:
1. Asymmetrical: most of sponges
2. Radial symmetry: any plane passing through central axis divides organism into 2 identical halves e.g.,
cnidaria and ctenophores
3. Bilateral symmetry: body can be divided into identical right and left halves in only 1 plane e.g.,
platyhelminthes  chordates (except echinoderms)
• Germinal layers:
1. Diploblastic: external ectoderm, undifferentiated layer mesoglea & internal endoderm e.g., ctenophores
and cnidaria
2. Triploblastic: mesoderm present between ectoderm and endoderm e.g., platyhelminthes  chordates
BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
• Coelom: is lined by mesoderm and is cavity between gut wall and body wall
1. Coelomates: annelids  chordates
2. Pseudocoelomates: body cavity not lined by mesoderm it present in scattered pouches e.g.,
aschelminthes
3. Acoelomates: body cavity absent e.g., platyhelminthes
• Segmentation: body is externally & internally divided into segments with a serial repetition
of at least some organs e.g., annelids, arthropods & chordates and this phenomenon is called
metamerism
• Notochord: mesodermally derived rod like structure formed on dorsal side during
embryonic development in chordates
Animal kingdom
PORIFERA/SPONGES
• Generally marine
• Mostly asymmetrical
• Primitive multicellular
• Cellular level of organization
• Body is supported by skeleton made of spicules or
spongin fibres
• Hermaphrodite
• Asexual reproduction = fragmentation
• Sexually by gametes
• Intracellular digestion
• Water transport or canal system present and water
moves as:
Ostia  Spongocoel (choanocyte/collar cells lined it
and canals)Osculum
Helpful in:
1. Food gathering
2. Respiratory exchange
3. Removal of waste
• Internal fertilization
• Indirect development
Porifera examples
• Sycon(scypha), Spongilla(Fresh
water sponge) and Euspongia(Bath
sponge)
spongilla
syconeuspongia
COELENTERATA/CNIDARIA
• Aquatic, mostly marine, sessile, free swimming,
radially symmetrical animals
• Name cnidaria derived from cnidoblasts or
cnidocytes(contain stinging capsules called
nematocytes) present on tentacles and body.
• Corals skeleton composed of calcium carbonate
• Two basic body forms are:
1. Polyp: sessile and cylindrical e.g., Hydra,
Adamsia
2. Medusa: umbrella shaped & free swimming e.g.,
Aurelia or jelly fish
• Cnidarians which exists in 2 forms exhibit
metagenesis like polyp to medusa asexually and
reverse through sexually e.g., Obelia
• Cnidoblast use:
1. Anchorage
2. Defence
3. Capture of prey
• Tissue level of organization, diploblastic
• Have a central gastro-vascular cavity with single
opening mouth on hypostome
• Digestion is both extra and intra cellular
examples
Meandrina(Brain coral)
Gorgonia(Sea fan)
Hydra
Pennatula(Sea pen)
Adamsia(Sea anemone)Aurelia(Jelly fish)
Some more examples
Physalia(Portuguese man of war)
Obelia medusa
Obelia polyp
CTENOPHORA/SEA WALNUTS/COMB
JELLIES
• Exclusively marine
• Radially symmetrical
• Diploblastic
• Tissue level of organization
• Body bears eight external rows of
ciliated comb plates help in
locomotion
• Digestion both extra and intra
cellular
• Bioluminescence
• HMB
• Reproduction only by sexual means
• External fertilization and indirect
development
examples
Pleurobrachia
Ctenoplana
PLATYHELMINTHES/FLAT WORMS
• Dorso-ventrally flattened body
• Mostly endoparasites
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic
and acoelomate animals with organ
level of organization
• Hooks and suckers present in parasitic
forms and absorb nutrients directly
from the host body surface
• Flame cells help in osmoregulation and
excretion
• HMB
• Internal fertilization
• Indirect development
• Planaria has high regeneration capacity
examples
Fasciola(Liver fluke) Planaria Taenia(tape worm)
ASCHELMINTHES/ROUND WORMS
• Circular cross section
• May be free living aquatic and
terrestrial or parasitic in plants and
animals
• Organ system level of organization
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic &
pseudocoelomate
• Alimentary canal complete with
developed muscular pharynx
• Excretory tube removes body waste
from body cavity through excretory
pore
• Dioecious females longer than males
• Internal fertilization, development
could be both direct or indirect
examples
Ancyclostoma(hookworm) Wucheria(Filarial worm) Ascaris(round worm)
ANNELIDA
• May be aquatic or terrestrial, free living or
some time parasitic
• Organ system level of organization, bilateral
symmetry, triploblastic, metamerically
segmented, coelomate animals
• Body surface distinctly marked out into
segments/metameres
• Annelida(Latin, annulus: little ring)
• Nereis is dioecious but earthworms and
leeches are monoecious.
• Reproduction is sexual
• Possess longitudinal and circular muscles
help in locomotion
• Aquatic annelids like Nereis possess lateral
appendages, parapodia which help in
swimming.
• Closed circulatory system present
• Nephridia help in osmoregulation and
excretion
• Nervous system consist of paired ganglia
connected by lateral nerves to a double
ventral nerve cord
examples
Pheretima(Earthworm) Nereis Hirudinaria(Blood sucking leech)
ARTHROPODA
• Largest phylum( over 2/3 of all named
species on earth)
• Organ system level of organization
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic,
segmented and coelomate animals
• Body covered by chitinous exoskeleton
and divided into head thorax and abdomen
• Have jointed appandages
• Respiratory organs are gills, book gills,
book lungs or tracheal system
• Open circulatory system
• Sensory organs like antennae, eyes(simple
or compound), statocyst or balance organs
are present.
• Excretion through malphigian tubules
• Mostly dioecious, internal fertilization
• Mostly oviparous, development may be
direct or indirect
Economically important insects
Apis(Honey bee) Bombyx(Silk worm) Laccifer(Lac insect)
Vectors
Anopheles Culex Aedes
GREGARIOUS PEST LIVING FOSSIL
Locusta(Locust)
Limulus(King crab)
MOLLUSCA
• Second largest
• Terrestrial or aquatic
• Organ system level of organization
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and
coelomate.
• Body covered by calcareous shell and
unsegmented with distinct head, muscular
foot and visceral hump
• Usually dioecious, oviparous and indirect
development
• Soft and spongy layer of skin forms a
mantle over the visceral hump
• Space between hump and mantle called
mantle cavity in which feather like gills are
present which have respiratory and
excretory functions
• Anterior head region has sensory tentacles
• Mouth contain file like rasping organ for
feeding called radula
examples
Pila(Apple snail)
Chaetoplrura( chiton) Dentalium(tusk shell)Pinctada(pearl oyster)
Loligo(squid)
Some more examples
Aplysia(sea hare) Octopus(devil fish)
One more examples
Sepia(cuttlefish)
ECHINODERMATA
• Endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles
• Spiny bodied organisms
• All marine, organ system level,
coelomate and triploblastic
• Adult are radial and larva are bilateral
• Complete digestive system with mouth
on lower(ventral) side and anus on
upper(dorsal) side
• Water vascular system helps in
locomotion, capture and transport of
food and respiration
• Excretory system absent
• Sexes separate and sexual reproduction
• External fertilization
• Indirect development with free
swimming larva
examples
Antedon(sea lily) Echinus(sea urchin)
Cucumaria(sea cucumber)
Ophiura(brittle star)
HEMICHORDATA
• Small group of worm like marine
animals with organ system level of
organization
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic
and coelomate
• Cylindrical body composed of
anterior proboscis, a collar and a
long trunk
• Open circulatory system
• Respiration through gills
• Excretory organ is proboscis gland
• Separate sexes
• External fertilization
• Indirect development
EXAMPLES
Balanoglossus Saccoglossus
CHORDATA
• Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, organ system level of
organization
• Three subphyla: Urochordata or tunicata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata
Urochordata and cephalochordata referred as
protochordates and are exclusively marine
• UROCHORDATA: notochord present only in larval tail e.g., Ascidia, Salpa
& Doliolum
• CEPHALOCHORDATA: notochord extends from head to tail and is
persistent throughout their life e.g., Branchiostoma(Amphioxus or Lancelet)
Examples of urochordata
Pyrosoma
atlanticum
Doliolum Ascidia Salpa
Examples of
urochordata
Branchiostoma(Amphioxus and lancelet)
VERTEBRATA
• Possess notochord during embryonic period replaced by cartilaginous or
bony vertebral column in the adult thus “all vertebrates are chordates but
all chordates are not vertebrates”
• Ventral muscular heart with 2, 3 or 4 chambers
• Kidneys for excretion or osmoregulation and paired appendages which may
be fins or limbs
VERTEBRATA
CLASSIFICATION
CYCLOSTOMATA
• All are ectoparasite on fishes
• Have elongated body bearing 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration
• Sucking and circular mouth without jaws
• Body devoid of scales and paired fins
• Cranium and vertebral column are cartilaginous
• Closed circulatory system
• Marine but migrate to fresh water for spawning and after it they die in few days and
their larva after metamorphosis returns to ocean
examples
Myxine(hag fish)
Petromyzon(lamprey)
CHONDTICHTHYES
• Marine animals with streamlined body and cartilaginous endoskeleton
• Mouth located ventral and notochord persistent throughout life
• Gill slits are separate and without operculum(gill cover)
• Tough skin containing minute placoid scales
• Teeth are modified placoid scales backwardly directed and have powerful jaw
• Predaceous, absence of air bladder, hence swim constantly
• 2 chambered heart(1 auricle & 1 ventricle), cold blooded(poikilothermous)
• Sexes separate, males pelvic fins bears claspers, internal fertilization & many are viviparous
• Some have electric organs (e.g., torpedo) or poison sting(e.g., trygon)
examples
Trygon(sting ra
Carcharodon(Great
white shark)
Torpedo(poison sti
Pristis(Saw fish)
Scoliodon(dog fish)
Osteichthyes
• Includes both marine and fresh water
fishes with bony endoskeleton
• Streamlined body
• Terminal mouth
• 4 pairs of gills covered by operculum
• Skin covered by cycloid or ctenoid
scales
• Air bladder present regulates buoyancy
• 2 chambered heart(1 auricle & 1
ventricle)
• Cold blooded animals
• Separate sexes
• External fertilization
• Mostly oviparous and direct
development
examples
Marine
Exocoetus(Flying fish) Hippocampus(sea horse)
Fresh water
Catla(Katla)
Clarias(Magur)
Labeo(Rohu)
Aquarium
Betta(flying fish) Pterophyllum(angel fish)
AMPHIBIA
• Live in aquatic as well as terrestrial habitats
• Most have two pairs of limbs
• Body divisible into head and trunk
• Tail may be present in some
• Skin is moist and without scales
• Eyes have eyelids
• Tympanum represents ear
• Alimentary canal, urinary and reproductive tracts
open into a common chamber called cloaca which
opens to the exterior
• Respiration by gills, lungs and through skin
• Heart is 3 chambered(2 auricle and 1 ventricle)
• Cold blooded animals
• Sexes separate
• External fertilization
• Oviparous
• Indirect development
examples
Salamandra(salamander) Bufo(toad)
Ichthyophis(Limbless amphibia) Hyla(Tree frog)
Rana(Frog)
REPTILIA
• Creeping or crawling mode of
locomotion(latin, repere or reptum to
creep or crawl)
• Mostly terrestrial and body covered by dry
and cornified skin, epidermal scales or
scutes
• Tympanum represents ear
• Limbs when present are 2 pairs
• Heart usually 3 chambered but 4
chambered in crocodiles
• Poikilotherms
• Snakes and lizards shed their scales as skin
cast
• Sexes separate
• Internal fertilization
• Oviparous and direct development
examples
Crocodilus(crocodile)
Chelone(Turtle)
Chameleon(Tree lizard)
Testudo(Tortoise) Hemidactylus(wall lizard)
Alligator
Naja(cobra)
Vipera(viper)
Bangarus(krait) Calotes(garden lizard)
AVES
• Presence of feather and most of them can
fly except flightless birds(e.g.,Ostrich)
• Possess beak, forelimbs modified into wings,
hindlimbs have scales and modified for
walking, swimming or clasping the tree
branches, skin dry without glands except oil
gland at base of tail
• Fully ossified(bony) endoskeleton
• Pneumatic bones present(long bones are
hollow with air cavities)
• Digestive tract have additional chambers
called crop and gizzard
• Heart 4 chambered and warm
blooded(homoiothermous)
• Respiration by lungs, air sacs connected to
lungs supplement respiration
• Sexes separate
• Internal fertilization
• Oviparous
• Direct development
examples
Corvus(Crow Columba(pigeon)
Psittacula(parrot) Struthio(Ostrich)
Neophron(vulture)
Aptenodytes(Penguin) Pavo(peacock)
MAMMALIA
• Resides variety of habitats
• Presence of mammary glands is
unique
• 2 pair of limbs have diff adaptation
• Skin possess hair, external
ears(pinnae) present
• Heterodont dentition
• 4 chambered heart
• Homoiothermous
• Respiration by lungs
• Sexes separate, internal fertilization
and direct development
• Viviparous with few exception
examples
Ornithorhyncus(platypus):
oviparous
Macropus(Kangaroo)
Pteropus(flying fox)
Camelus(camel)
Macaca(monkey)
Rattus(rat)
Canis(dog)
Felis(cat)
Elephas(elephant)
Equus(Horse)
Delphinus(dolphin)
Balaenoptera(blue whale)
P. leo(Lion)
P.tigris(tiger)
SALIENT FEATURES
OF DIFFERENT
PHYLA IN ANIMAL
KINGDOM
1 von 77

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Animal kingdom

  • 2. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • Levels of organization: all members are multicellular divided as 1. cellular level of organization: loose cell aggregates with some division of labour e.g., Porifera 2. Tissue level of organization: Coelentrates & Ctenophora 3. Organ level of organization: Platyhelminthes 4. Organ system level of organization: Aschelminthes  Chordates
  • 3. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • Digestive system: 1. Open(incomplete): Platyhelminthes(single opening) 2. Closed(complete): Aschelminthes  Chordates(two opening as anus & mouth) • Circulatory system: 1. Open: blood pumped out of the heart and cells and tissues directly bathed in it 2. Closed: blood circulated through series of vessels of varying diameter(arteries, veins and capillaries)
  • 4. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • Symmetry: 1. Asymmetrical: most of sponges 2. Radial symmetry: any plane passing through central axis divides organism into 2 identical halves e.g., cnidaria and ctenophores 3. Bilateral symmetry: body can be divided into identical right and left halves in only 1 plane e.g., platyhelminthes  chordates (except echinoderms) • Germinal layers: 1. Diploblastic: external ectoderm, undifferentiated layer mesoglea & internal endoderm e.g., ctenophores and cnidaria 2. Triploblastic: mesoderm present between ectoderm and endoderm e.g., platyhelminthes  chordates
  • 5. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION • Coelom: is lined by mesoderm and is cavity between gut wall and body wall 1. Coelomates: annelids  chordates 2. Pseudocoelomates: body cavity not lined by mesoderm it present in scattered pouches e.g., aschelminthes 3. Acoelomates: body cavity absent e.g., platyhelminthes • Segmentation: body is externally & internally divided into segments with a serial repetition of at least some organs e.g., annelids, arthropods & chordates and this phenomenon is called metamerism • Notochord: mesodermally derived rod like structure formed on dorsal side during embryonic development in chordates
  • 7. PORIFERA/SPONGES • Generally marine • Mostly asymmetrical • Primitive multicellular • Cellular level of organization • Body is supported by skeleton made of spicules or spongin fibres • Hermaphrodite • Asexual reproduction = fragmentation • Sexually by gametes • Intracellular digestion • Water transport or canal system present and water moves as: Ostia  Spongocoel (choanocyte/collar cells lined it and canals)Osculum Helpful in: 1. Food gathering 2. Respiratory exchange 3. Removal of waste • Internal fertilization • Indirect development
  • 8. Porifera examples • Sycon(scypha), Spongilla(Fresh water sponge) and Euspongia(Bath sponge) spongilla syconeuspongia
  • 9. COELENTERATA/CNIDARIA • Aquatic, mostly marine, sessile, free swimming, radially symmetrical animals • Name cnidaria derived from cnidoblasts or cnidocytes(contain stinging capsules called nematocytes) present on tentacles and body. • Corals skeleton composed of calcium carbonate • Two basic body forms are: 1. Polyp: sessile and cylindrical e.g., Hydra, Adamsia 2. Medusa: umbrella shaped & free swimming e.g., Aurelia or jelly fish • Cnidarians which exists in 2 forms exhibit metagenesis like polyp to medusa asexually and reverse through sexually e.g., Obelia • Cnidoblast use: 1. Anchorage 2. Defence 3. Capture of prey • Tissue level of organization, diploblastic • Have a central gastro-vascular cavity with single opening mouth on hypostome • Digestion is both extra and intra cellular
  • 10. examples Meandrina(Brain coral) Gorgonia(Sea fan) Hydra Pennatula(Sea pen) Adamsia(Sea anemone)Aurelia(Jelly fish)
  • 11. Some more examples Physalia(Portuguese man of war) Obelia medusa Obelia polyp
  • 12. CTENOPHORA/SEA WALNUTS/COMB JELLIES • Exclusively marine • Radially symmetrical • Diploblastic • Tissue level of organization • Body bears eight external rows of ciliated comb plates help in locomotion • Digestion both extra and intra cellular • Bioluminescence • HMB • Reproduction only by sexual means • External fertilization and indirect development
  • 14. PLATYHELMINTHES/FLAT WORMS • Dorso-ventrally flattened body • Mostly endoparasites • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and acoelomate animals with organ level of organization • Hooks and suckers present in parasitic forms and absorb nutrients directly from the host body surface • Flame cells help in osmoregulation and excretion • HMB • Internal fertilization • Indirect development • Planaria has high regeneration capacity
  • 16. ASCHELMINTHES/ROUND WORMS • Circular cross section • May be free living aquatic and terrestrial or parasitic in plants and animals • Organ system level of organization • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic & pseudocoelomate • Alimentary canal complete with developed muscular pharynx • Excretory tube removes body waste from body cavity through excretory pore • Dioecious females longer than males • Internal fertilization, development could be both direct or indirect
  • 18. ANNELIDA • May be aquatic or terrestrial, free living or some time parasitic • Organ system level of organization, bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, metamerically segmented, coelomate animals • Body surface distinctly marked out into segments/metameres • Annelida(Latin, annulus: little ring) • Nereis is dioecious but earthworms and leeches are monoecious. • Reproduction is sexual • Possess longitudinal and circular muscles help in locomotion • Aquatic annelids like Nereis possess lateral appendages, parapodia which help in swimming. • Closed circulatory system present • Nephridia help in osmoregulation and excretion • Nervous system consist of paired ganglia connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord
  • 20. ARTHROPODA • Largest phylum( over 2/3 of all named species on earth) • Organ system level of organization • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, segmented and coelomate animals • Body covered by chitinous exoskeleton and divided into head thorax and abdomen • Have jointed appandages • Respiratory organs are gills, book gills, book lungs or tracheal system • Open circulatory system • Sensory organs like antennae, eyes(simple or compound), statocyst or balance organs are present. • Excretion through malphigian tubules • Mostly dioecious, internal fertilization • Mostly oviparous, development may be direct or indirect
  • 21. Economically important insects Apis(Honey bee) Bombyx(Silk worm) Laccifer(Lac insect)
  • 23. GREGARIOUS PEST LIVING FOSSIL Locusta(Locust) Limulus(King crab)
  • 24. MOLLUSCA • Second largest • Terrestrial or aquatic • Organ system level of organization • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and coelomate. • Body covered by calcareous shell and unsegmented with distinct head, muscular foot and visceral hump • Usually dioecious, oviparous and indirect development • Soft and spongy layer of skin forms a mantle over the visceral hump • Space between hump and mantle called mantle cavity in which feather like gills are present which have respiratory and excretory functions • Anterior head region has sensory tentacles • Mouth contain file like rasping organ for feeding called radula
  • 25. examples Pila(Apple snail) Chaetoplrura( chiton) Dentalium(tusk shell)Pinctada(pearl oyster) Loligo(squid)
  • 26. Some more examples Aplysia(sea hare) Octopus(devil fish)
  • 28. ECHINODERMATA • Endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles • Spiny bodied organisms • All marine, organ system level, coelomate and triploblastic • Adult are radial and larva are bilateral • Complete digestive system with mouth on lower(ventral) side and anus on upper(dorsal) side • Water vascular system helps in locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration • Excretory system absent • Sexes separate and sexual reproduction • External fertilization • Indirect development with free swimming larva
  • 29. examples Antedon(sea lily) Echinus(sea urchin) Cucumaria(sea cucumber)
  • 31. HEMICHORDATA • Small group of worm like marine animals with organ system level of organization • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and coelomate • Cylindrical body composed of anterior proboscis, a collar and a long trunk • Open circulatory system • Respiration through gills • Excretory organ is proboscis gland • Separate sexes • External fertilization • Indirect development
  • 33. CHORDATA • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, organ system level of organization • Three subphyla: Urochordata or tunicata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata
  • 34. Urochordata and cephalochordata referred as protochordates and are exclusively marine • UROCHORDATA: notochord present only in larval tail e.g., Ascidia, Salpa & Doliolum • CEPHALOCHORDATA: notochord extends from head to tail and is persistent throughout their life e.g., Branchiostoma(Amphioxus or Lancelet)
  • 37. VERTEBRATA • Possess notochord during embryonic period replaced by cartilaginous or bony vertebral column in the adult thus “all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates” • Ventral muscular heart with 2, 3 or 4 chambers • Kidneys for excretion or osmoregulation and paired appendages which may be fins or limbs
  • 39. CYCLOSTOMATA • All are ectoparasite on fishes • Have elongated body bearing 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration • Sucking and circular mouth without jaws • Body devoid of scales and paired fins • Cranium and vertebral column are cartilaginous • Closed circulatory system • Marine but migrate to fresh water for spawning and after it they die in few days and their larva after metamorphosis returns to ocean
  • 41. CHONDTICHTHYES • Marine animals with streamlined body and cartilaginous endoskeleton • Mouth located ventral and notochord persistent throughout life • Gill slits are separate and without operculum(gill cover) • Tough skin containing minute placoid scales • Teeth are modified placoid scales backwardly directed and have powerful jaw • Predaceous, absence of air bladder, hence swim constantly • 2 chambered heart(1 auricle & 1 ventricle), cold blooded(poikilothermous) • Sexes separate, males pelvic fins bears claspers, internal fertilization & many are viviparous • Some have electric organs (e.g., torpedo) or poison sting(e.g., trygon)
  • 46. Osteichthyes • Includes both marine and fresh water fishes with bony endoskeleton • Streamlined body • Terminal mouth • 4 pairs of gills covered by operculum • Skin covered by cycloid or ctenoid scales • Air bladder present regulates buoyancy • 2 chambered heart(1 auricle & 1 ventricle) • Cold blooded animals • Separate sexes • External fertilization • Mostly oviparous and direct development
  • 51. AMPHIBIA • Live in aquatic as well as terrestrial habitats • Most have two pairs of limbs • Body divisible into head and trunk • Tail may be present in some • Skin is moist and without scales • Eyes have eyelids • Tympanum represents ear • Alimentary canal, urinary and reproductive tracts open into a common chamber called cloaca which opens to the exterior • Respiration by gills, lungs and through skin • Heart is 3 chambered(2 auricle and 1 ventricle) • Cold blooded animals • Sexes separate • External fertilization • Oviparous • Indirect development
  • 55. REPTILIA • Creeping or crawling mode of locomotion(latin, repere or reptum to creep or crawl) • Mostly terrestrial and body covered by dry and cornified skin, epidermal scales or scutes • Tympanum represents ear • Limbs when present are 2 pairs • Heart usually 3 chambered but 4 chambered in crocodiles • Poikilotherms • Snakes and lizards shed their scales as skin cast • Sexes separate • Internal fertilization • Oviparous and direct development
  • 60. AVES • Presence of feather and most of them can fly except flightless birds(e.g.,Ostrich) • Possess beak, forelimbs modified into wings, hindlimbs have scales and modified for walking, swimming or clasping the tree branches, skin dry without glands except oil gland at base of tail • Fully ossified(bony) endoskeleton • Pneumatic bones present(long bones are hollow with air cavities) • Digestive tract have additional chambers called crop and gizzard • Heart 4 chambered and warm blooded(homoiothermous) • Respiration by lungs, air sacs connected to lungs supplement respiration • Sexes separate • Internal fertilization • Oviparous • Direct development
  • 64. MAMMALIA • Resides variety of habitats • Presence of mammary glands is unique • 2 pair of limbs have diff adaptation • Skin possess hair, external ears(pinnae) present • Heterodont dentition • 4 chambered heart • Homoiothermous • Respiration by lungs • Sexes separate, internal fertilization and direct development • Viviparous with few exception