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Bruner’s concept attainment model

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Concept attainment model
Concept attainment model
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Bruner’s concept attainment model

  1. 1. Bruner’s Concept Attainment Model
  2. 2. Introduction  Jerome S. Bruner, Jacqueline J. Goodnow George A. Austin developed the idea of concept attainment in their book “A Study of Thinking” in 1956.  The concept attainment model of teaching belongs to the category of information processing models.  It is also termed as “CAM”.
  3. 3.  Dr. Bruner a psychologist and educator at the New York University Law School , was a pioneer in the cognitive revolution in psychology as well as a prime mover in the educational reform movement in 1960’s.  Bruner’s primary contribution to education fall within the arena of the Information Processing Models -The models designed to help students to acquire and operate on
  4. 4.  According to Jerome Bruner, ‘Generalization’ and ‘Categorization’ are general mental tendencies , which help person to form concepts. Theoretical background
  5. 5. Now just observe this box
  6. 6.  Concepts are basic tools of thinking.  Concepts reduce need for constant learning. Concept
  7. 7. Concept means grouping the Objects or incidents on the basis of some common quality in spite of some differences in them. Meaning of Concept
  8. 8.  FRUITS  Generally tastes sweet.  Have sweet fragrance  Juicy  Although different in shape , taste and color.
  9. 9. Concept attainment  Concept attainment is an indirect instructional strategy that uses a structured inquiry process.  Concept attainment is closely related to Inductive thinking ,focuses on the decision making and categorization processes leading up to the creation and understanding of a concept.  In simple words, concept attainment means finding out all the essential attributes of a concept.
  10. 10. Basic assumptions of concept attainment model 1.Capacity of Concept Formation- Our environment is full of diverse things and it would have been impossible to adjust in it if human beings had not been endowed with the capacity of discrimination and categorization things in groups. 2.Reducing Complexities- Complexities of surrounding environment can be reduced if we categorize the things.
  11. 11. 3.Elements Of Concepts Concept Name Examples Attributes Attribute Value Rule
  12. 12. a) Name- Name is the term given to a category i.e. a class of experiences , objects configuration or processes. b) Examples- Examples are instances of the concept. The example may be positive or negative. If apple is a concept then each fruit is an example here bananas and oranges are negative and apples are positive example. c) Attributes- Attributes are common features or characteristics . They help in placing the examples in the same category.
  13. 13. d) Attribute Value-Acceptable Range for a particular attribute is called attribute value. For example-if apple is an attribute then 1.Red apple 2.Green apple 3.Brown apple Are all attribute value. e)Rule- Rule refers to a final statement specifying the essential attributes of a concept.
  14. 14. 4. strategies- strategies in concept formation more or less the same. 5.Two Components-Categorizing activity has two components:- (a) Category Formation or concept Formation (b) Concept Attainment 6.Determining the concept- In concept attainment, the concept is determined in advance then efforts are made to determine the elements of concept. 7.Concept formation and Concept Attainment- In concept formation, new categories are formed . In the concept attainment the concepts which already exist are attained.
  15. 15. 8.Reception & Selection-  In identifying the strategies used to attain concepts , a distinction should be made between two learning conditions of selection and reception.  Weil and Joyce have mentioned the following three models of concept attainment-  The reception model of concept attainment  The selection model of concept attainment  The model of unorganized material
  16. 16. Fundamental elements of Bruner’s concept attainment model 1.Focus- (A)The main focus of the model is to develop inductive reasoning of the students. (B)To present the description of a process by which the students discriminate the attribute of things , persons , events and place them into categories . (C) To help the students in the attainment of a particular concept which is of great use to them in order to live successfully in different life situations.
  17. 17. 2. Syntax- Syntax of the model describes the main steps of teaching through model. structure of the model has the following four phases. (A)Presentation of data-At first the teacher explains to the students how the activity will go on.  Then the teacher says “I have a concept in my mind. Guess about it.”  In order to make the students think he gives one positive and one negative example.  The students are asked to think similar types of positive and negative example.
  18. 18. (B) Analysis of Hypothesis-This phase has following sub phases:  Formation of Hypothesis-Different students form some hypothesis in their minds and they think of positive and negative examples.  Teacher’s Reaction-the teacher reacts to it saying whether it is right or wrong.  Rejection or Confirmation of Hypothesis- hypothesis of some students stand rejected if the hypothesis is wrong and whatever examples they have in their minds stand
  19. 19.  More examples-The students who are thinking on right hypothesis feel encouraged and thus they are able to think few more positive and negative examples. (C)Closure- After the formation of hypothesis the students have many positive and negative examples of the concept, then the students are asked to identify the attributes and define them explicitly. (D)Application-the fourth phase gives an opportunity to practice . The students apply that concept.
  20. 20. 3.Principle of Reaction-  During the process of teaching , the teacher has to react to the responses of the students at every step.  Immediate check of wrong answers and acceptance of right answers is must.  For the wrong answers, the teacher should immediately inform the students that it is wrong, but the teacher has to remain supportive to the students.  Teacher should make all efforts that the interaction between the teacher
  21. 21. 4.Social system-  Teacher motivates the students and guides them in analysis and origin of concepts.  Teacher has an important role in this model because he puts the data in front of students, creates plan and guides students.  The main objective of teacher is help students in the origin of concepts.  Proper interaction between students and teacher make the system socially efficient.
  22. 22. 5.Support system-While presenting the positive and negative examples given by teacher the use of Blackboard Flash cards Flannel boards Real objects Would become a support for the teaching process.
  23. 23. 6. Application –  It is applicable to the students of all age groups and grade levels.  This model works wonders in classrooms for language and mathematics teaching.  This model is used to develop creative ability of an individual .
  24. 24. Principle Of Concept Attainment Model (a) Principle of inductive teaching (b) Principle of imaginary abilities (c) Principle of observation (d) Principle of activity (e) Principle of application
  25. 25. Example  > Step 1: Create a “Yes” and “No” Section  Write “Yes” and “No” on the board if you are using visuals or place “Yes” and “No” tent cards on a table if you are using physical objects.  Explain to students that you are going to play a guessing game. We have a “yes” and “no” section. You are going to take an example and place it in either the yes or no section. The students’ job is to see if they can figure out what the concept is…what the big idea is. If you put it in the “yes” section, that means it is an example of the concept. Keep coming back to the “yes” section. If you put it in the “no” section, that means the item is not an example of the concept. Look for connections in the “yes” section. The “no” section contains all of the non-examples. Anything put in the “no” section is missing something important. Students will be creating a definition that describes all of the “yes” examples.  You will not be discussing the examples and non-examples. After you have placed several in the “yes” and “no” sections, you will give students time to talk. Students should not call out any guesses while you are showing the examples. They can keep it in their head and test each sample to see if they have placed it in the correct category.
  26. 26.  > Step 2: Provide two or three very strong “Yes” examples  Example, show students an image of an equilateral triangle. Place it in the “Yes” section. Say, “This is a strong yes example. Let’s put this in the yes.” Show an isosceles triangle. Place it in the yes, telling students it is a strong yes. Repeat for a scalene triangle.  > Step 3: Provide two or three very strong “No” examples  Example, show students a four sided image. Place it in the “No” section. Say, “This is a strong no example. This belongs in no.” Show a few other examples of shapes that do not have three sides.  > Step 4: Show more examples and non- examples  Hold up an example and ask students to think about where it belongs. Give them some time to process individually. Place the example in the
  27. 27.  > Step 5: Let students discuss and provide either an example or non-example  Give students time with a partner to discuss their thinking around the examples and non-examples. After they have had some time, provide them with either an example or non-example to discuss placement. Once students have had time to decide, place the example/non-example correctly. Ask students to create a beginning definition or description. At this point, students may state that all shapes with three sides are “yes” and anything with more than three sides are “no”.  > Step 6: Show a new non-example  Show students a non-example that challenges their definition. For example, show them a three sided shape where one of the sides is a curve rather than a straight line. Give them time to decide where it belongs. Place it in the non-examples. Give students time to discuss with a partner why it doesn’t fit the “yes” criteria.
  28. 28.  > Step 7: Repeat the process above  Provide students with more examples and non-examples based on the refined criteria. Have them refine their definition based on the new evidence. For example, they may state that the “yes” section consists of shapes with 3 straight sides. Once they have created a new definition, show a new non- example that challenges their definition. For example, show a 3 sided figure that is not closed. Provide partner discussion time and an opportunity to refine their definition again.  > Step 8: Students share, discuss and refine their definitions  Group students with another student to share, discuss and refine their definition. They must come to consensus. Once they do, that group merges with another group, repeating the process. You can do this one more time or skip to the large group discussion. Ask a group to share their definition. Ask the class to respond. Are there questions they have about the definition? Are there opportunities to tighten it up? Are there “holes”? (ie. Did they miss a critical attribute?) Is anything worded in such a way that it could be misinterpreted? As a class, come to consensus on a final definition. Have one of the students prepare a written version that can be displayed in the classroom.
  29. 29. Merits Or Advantages Of Concept Attainment Model  This model develops the power of reasoning in the students.  It develops the imagination ability of the students.  It helps the students in their intellectual development.  It helps in making the students very good observers.  The students learn to analyze things systematically.
  30. 30.  The students remain activity engaged during the process of teaching learning.  It develops the habit of self study among the students.  It is possible to pay individual attention.  Students learn a natural way . They do not face any type of stress or strain.  It enables the students to apply their knowledge in different situations.
  31. 31. Demerits Of Concept Attainment Model  A student may have wrong hypothesis for some time and he may go on thinking in wrong direction.  Some students in the classroom may remain absent minded.  All the students in the classroom may not be able to participate in the teaching – learning process. the students who are active may participate fully and other may not find any opportunity to participate.  The students learn the concepts that have been previously attained , they may not be able to invent new concepts.

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