Microspheres

N
Nirupama K vStudent at Bharathi College of Pharmacy
MICROSPHERES
Presented by:
Nirupama K V
II M Pharm (P. Ceutics)
BCP. Bharathinagara
As a Drug Delivery System
CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION.
TYPES OF MICROSPHERES.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.
POLYMERS USED IN THE PREPARATION OF MICROSPHERES.
METHODS OF PREPARATION.
CHARACTERIZATION (Evaluation).
APPLICATIONS.
CONCLUSION.
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION:
o Oral route of administration.
o Conventional drug delivery system frequent administration.
o Significant fluctuation in drug levels.
o Novel drug delivery system.
o Sustained and controlled release .
Definition of microspheres:
• Micro-particles or microspheres small, insoluble, free flowing spherical
particles.
• Size -10 to 1000 µm.
• Ideally, completely spherical and homogeneous in size.
• Polymers or proteins biodegradable .
• Drug dispersed or dissolved controlled release of the drug.
• Prolonged release & targeting.
Types of Microspheres:
• Microcapsule: An encapsulated core particle .
• Micromatrix (Mcrospheres): Homogenous dispersion.
Types of Microspheres:
ADVANTAGES:
• Sustained and Controlled release .
• Patient compliance is increased.
• Toxic effect is less.
• Targeting the tissue is possible.
• Improve bioavailability.
• They enable controlled release of drug.
Ex: narcotic, antagonist, steroid hormones.
• Protect the drug from enzymatic and photolytic cleavage so it is best for drug delivery of
protein.
DISADVANTAGES:
• The cost is more.
• Reproducibility is less.
• Stability may affected by process conditions.
• Degradation of product.
• Intended mainly for parenteral route which causes pain.
• Polymer may produce toxic effects
Polymers used in the Microsphere preparation:
Synthetic Polymers
Non-biodegradable
• PMMA(Poly methyl Methacrylate).
• Acrolein
• Epoxy polymers
• Glycidyl methacrylate
Biodegradable
• Lactides and Glycolides copolymers
• Polyalkyl cyanoacrylates
• Polyanhydrides
Natural Materials
Proteins
• Albumins
• Gelatin
• Collagen
Carbohydrates
• Starch agarose
• Carrageenan
• Chitosan
Chemically modified carbohydrates
• Poly(acryl)dextran
• Poly(acryl)starch
 Emulsion solvent evaporation technique.
-Single emulsion method
-Double emulsion method.
 Emulsion cross linking method.
 Coacervation method.
 Spray drying and Spray Congealing technique.
 Solvent Extraction technique.
 Ionic gelation.
 Solvent evaporation method:
METHODS OF PREPARATION:
Emulsion solvent evaporation technique:
A. Single Emulsion Technique:
Aq solution & suspension of polymer(natural polymer)
Stirring / Sonication
Dispersion in Organic phase oil/CHCl3
Heat denaturation (by adding Chemical crosslinking
dispersion To heated oil). (Butanol, HCHO, Glutaraldehyde)
.
Microspheres in org.phase
Centrifugation, washing, & separation
Microspheres
B. Double Emulsion Technique:
Aqueous solution of polymer & drug
dispersion in oil/organic phase, vigorous
homogenisation(sonication)
Primary emulsion(w/o)
addition of aqueous solution of PVA
W/O/W multiple emulsion
Addition of large aqu. phase
Microspheres in solution
Separation, washing, drying MICROSPHERES.
SPRAY DRYING AND SPRAY CONGEALING:
Polymer dissolved in organic phase (acetone)
Drug is dispersed in polymer solution under high speed homogenization
Atomized in a stream of hot air
Formation of small droplets
Solvent evaporation
Microspheres
Separated by cyclone separator and traces of solvent is
removed by vacuum drying
SOLVENT EXTRACTION METHOD:
Organic phase is removed by extraction with water
Polymer in organic solvent
Drug is dispersed in organic solvent (water miscible organic solvents like
isopropanol)
MICROSPHERES.
SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD:
Suitable amounts of polymer(Eudragit) + chloroform solution of the drug.
The aqueous phase (0.2% PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) in water).
The mixture was stirred with a propeller at 500 rpm for 3 hrs at 250C.
For complete removal of chloroform.
Filtration & collection.
Washed with deionized water.
Microspheres dried at room temperature for 24 hrs.
IONIC GELATION METHOD:
Sodium alginate is dissolved in distilled water.
stirred + drug & calcium carbonate (1:1).
Gelation medium (calcium chloride in 2% glacial acetic acid)(21G syringe needle) .
The gel microspheres formed in solution.
Stirred for 30 min at room temperature.
Then microsphere is collected, washed, dried & stored in desicator.
Evaluation of Microspheres:
• Drug content.
• Drug entrapment efficiency.
• Particle size analysis.
• Surface morphology.
• Angle of repose, Bulk density and Tapped density.
• In vitro release.
• Kinetic modeling.
• Stability studies as per ICH guidelines.
EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES:
1) Drug content: UV Spectrometer.
2) Drug entrapment efficiency:
% Entrapment = Actual content / Theoretical content x 100.
3) Particle size : Compound microscope, (Stage micrometer and
Eye piece micrometer).
4) Surface morphology: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
5) Angle of repose: Funnel method (Cone method).
tan θ =h/r
Where h & r are the height and radius of the powder cone.
6)Bulk density:
Bulk density = mass of microspheres / bulk volume.
7)Tapped density:
Tapped density = mass of microspheres /Tapped volume.
8) In vitro methods:
 United States of Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution apparatus II.
 Phosphate buffer.
 Rotating paddle apparatus.
9) Kinetic modeling: a) Zero order kinetics: Qt = Qo + Ko t
Where,
Qt = Amount of drug dissolved in time t,
Qo = Initial amount of drug in the solution and
Ko = Zero order release constant
b) First order kinetics: log Qt = log Qo + K1t / 2.303
Where,
Qt = Amount of drug released in time t,
Qo = Initial amount of drug in the solution and
K1 = First order release constant
c) Higuchi model: Qt = KH.t ½
Where,
Qt = Amount of drug released in time t and,
KH = Higuchi dissolution constant.
d) Korsmeyer - peppas release model: Mt/M∞ = K.tn
Where,
Mt / M∞ = Fraction of drug release,
K= Release constant,
t = Drug release time and
n = Diffusional exponent for the drug release that is
dependent on the shape of the matrix dosage form.
10) Stability Studies:
• A stability study as per (ICH) guidelines.
• Accelerated Stability testing studies 6 months.
• Temperature 40 ± 2 ℃ and 75 ± 5 % RH.
• At the end of 1,3&6 months % entrapment & Drug release (Physical
parameters).
APPLICATIONS:
 Ophthalmic Drug Delivery
 Oral drug delivery
 Gene delivery
 Nasal drug delivery
 Buccal drug delivery
 Gastrointestinal drug delivery
 Transdermal drug delivery
 Colonic drug delivery
OTHER APPLICATIONS:
• Diagnosis for ex; thermographic detection of tumours.
• Biotechnology industry.
• Culturing of a feline breast tumor line.
• Haemoperfusion.
CONCLUSION:
• Controlled and sustained delivery.
• Drug targeting.
• Taste masking.
• Aqueous solubility & absorption.
• Improved Stability.
• This area of novel drug delivery has innumerable applications and there is a
need for more research to be done in this area.
REFERENCES:
1. Metkari V.B, Kulkarni L.B, Patil P.S, Jadhav P.A, Bamane G.S, Kumbhar C.M.
Microspheres - A New Drug Delivery System: A Review. Journal of Current Pharma
Research 2014;4(2):1128-1133.
2. Pratibha Muntha. Microspheres - Novel Drug Carriers. Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;3(3):83-86.
3. Kadam N. R., Suvarna V. Microspheres: A Brief Review. Asian Journal of
Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;5(47):13-19.
4. Chitra Singh, Suresh Purohit, Madhu Singh , Pandey B.L. Design and evaluation of
microspheres: a review. Journal of drug delivery research. 2013;2(2):18-27.
cont…..
5. Nisha Sharma , Neha Purwar , Prakash Chandra Gupta. Microspheres as drug
carriers for controlled drug delivery: a review. International Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research IJPSR, 2015;6(11):4579- 4587.
6. S.P.Vyas., R.K.Khar, International Journal for Targeted & Controlled Drug
Delivery, Novel Carrier Systems., First Edition :2002.,Reprint :2007 page
no:417,453.
7. N.K.Jain ,Controlled and novel drug delivery edited by reprint 2007 pg.no.236-
255.
…..
1 von 33

Recomendados

MICROENCAPSULATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION von
MICROENCAPSULATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION MICROENCAPSULATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION
MICROENCAPSULATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION Sagar Thoke
92.8K views48 Folien
Sustained and controlled drug delivery system von
Sustained and controlled drug delivery systemSustained and controlled drug delivery system
Sustained and controlled drug delivery systemprashant bhamare
74.8K views31 Folien
Microspheres von
MicrospheresMicrospheres
MicrospheresShikha Swetha
68.5K views33 Folien
Microencapsulation von
Microencapsulation Microencapsulation
Microencapsulation Md. Shimul Bhuia
13K views52 Folien
Formulation and evaluation of tdds von
Formulation and evaluation of tddsFormulation and evaluation of tdds
Formulation and evaluation of tddsPankaj Verma
43.7K views26 Folien

Más contenido relacionado

Was ist angesagt?

Ppt microencapsulation von
Ppt microencapsulationPpt microencapsulation
Ppt microencapsulationSANA TABASSUM
51.9K views36 Folien
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system von
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systemEvaluation of transdermal drug delivery system
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systemSagar Savale
25.6K views24 Folien
Microencapsulation ppt by Riteksha von
Microencapsulation ppt by RitekshaMicroencapsulation ppt by Riteksha
Microencapsulation ppt by RitekshaRiteksha Patel
5.7K views30 Folien
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of Microspheres von
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of MicrospheresMicrospheres - Methods for Preparation of Microspheres
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of MicrospheresSagar Savale
26.5K views30 Folien
Microspheres von
MicrospheresMicrospheres
MicrospheresThilak Chandra
19.8K views35 Folien

Was ist angesagt?(20)

Ppt microencapsulation von SANA TABASSUM
Ppt microencapsulationPpt microencapsulation
Ppt microencapsulation
SANA TABASSUM51.9K views
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system von Sagar Savale
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systemEvaluation of transdermal drug delivery system
Evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system
Sagar Savale25.6K views
Microencapsulation ppt by Riteksha von Riteksha Patel
Microencapsulation ppt by RitekshaMicroencapsulation ppt by Riteksha
Microencapsulation ppt by Riteksha
Riteksha Patel5.7K views
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of Microspheres von Sagar Savale
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of MicrospheresMicrospheres - Methods for Preparation of Microspheres
Microspheres - Methods for Preparation of Microspheres
Sagar Savale26.5K views
Formulation and evaluation_of_microspheres[1] von Dadhichi Thakkar
Formulation and evaluation_of_microspheres[1]Formulation and evaluation_of_microspheres[1]
Formulation and evaluation_of_microspheres[1]
Dadhichi Thakkar7.6K views
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system von Anita Duduskar
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systemMucoadhesive drug delivery system
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system
Anita Duduskar57.2K views
PPT MICROENCAPSULATION von SANA TABASSUM
PPT MICROENCAPSULATIONPPT MICROENCAPSULATION
PPT MICROENCAPSULATION
SANA TABASSUM10.6K views
Coacervation Phase Separation Techniques von Gargi Nanda
Coacervation Phase Separation TechniquesCoacervation Phase Separation Techniques
Coacervation Phase Separation Techniques
Gargi Nanda53.1K views
Microspheres von Arshad Khan
MicrospheresMicrospheres
Microspheres
Arshad Khan18.2K views
buccal drug delivery system von rasikawalunj
buccal drug delivery systembuccal drug delivery system
buccal drug delivery system
rasikawalunj47K views
Microspheres and microcapsules von JayBhavsar41
Microspheres and microcapsulesMicrospheres and microcapsules
Microspheres and microcapsules
JayBhavsar412.3K views
OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM von Riteksha Patel
OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMOSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Riteksha Patel60.1K views
Floating drug delivery system ppt von Shireen Zeba
Floating drug delivery system ppt Floating drug delivery system ppt
Floating drug delivery system ppt
Shireen Zeba64.5K views

Similar a Microspheres

Microspheres drug delivery system von
Microspheres  drug delivery  systemMicrospheres  drug delivery  system
Microspheres drug delivery systemPriyaManeDeshmukh
242 views31 Folien
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptx von
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptxMicrospheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptx
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptxRAHUL PAL
719 views31 Folien
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdf von
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdfMicrospheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdf
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdfPrachi Pandey
35 views31 Folien
Microspheres von
Microspheres Microspheres
Microspheres Dhruv Patel
3.7K views44 Folien
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ... von
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...alok prakash kar
1K views28 Folien

Similar a Microspheres(20)

Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptx von RAHUL PAL
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptxMicrospheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptx
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pptx
RAHUL PAL719 views
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdf von Prachi Pandey
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdfMicrospheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdf
Microspheres Preparation and Evaluations.pdf
Prachi Pandey35 views
Microspheres von Dhruv Patel
Microspheres Microspheres
Microspheres
Dhruv Patel3.7K views
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ... von alok prakash kar
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ...
alok prakash kar1K views
Nanoparticles and liposomes ppt von ruvadashraf
Nanoparticles and liposomes pptNanoparticles and liposomes ppt
Nanoparticles and liposomes ppt
ruvadashraf6.7K views
Magnetic Microspheres.pptx von teekamchand3
Magnetic  Microspheres.pptxMagnetic  Microspheres.pptx
Magnetic Microspheres.pptx
teekamchand360 views
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CAPECITABINE IN COLON TARGETING von Rakesh Chandra Parida
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CAPECITABINE IN COLON TARGETINGFORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CAPECITABINE IN COLON TARGETING
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CAPECITABINE IN COLON TARGETING
Micro capsules or microspheres von PV. Viji
Micro capsules or microspheresMicro capsules or microspheres
Micro capsules or microspheres
PV. Viji3.3K views
Nanoparticle von biniyapatel
NanoparticleNanoparticle
Nanoparticle
biniyapatel30.4K views
Nanoparticle targeted drug delivery system von BINDIYA PATEL
Nanoparticle targeted drug delivery systemNanoparticle targeted drug delivery system
Nanoparticle targeted drug delivery system
BINDIYA PATEL35K views
Formulation and evaluation of sustained release microspheres of von Reshma Fathima .K
Formulation and evaluation of sustained release microspheres ofFormulation and evaluation of sustained release microspheres of
Formulation and evaluation of sustained release microspheres of
Reshma Fathima .K3.3K views
Biopharmaceutical system , methods of permeability , generic biologics, gener... von Siddhapura Pratik
Biopharmaceutical system , methods of permeability , generic biologics, gener...Biopharmaceutical system , methods of permeability , generic biologics, gener...
Biopharmaceutical system , methods of permeability , generic biologics, gener...
Siddhapura Pratik3.4K views
Nanoparticle by ankit parulkar von Ankit Parulkar
Nanoparticle by ankit parulkarNanoparticle by ankit parulkar
Nanoparticle by ankit parulkar
Ankit Parulkar275 views

Último

MercerJesse2.1Doc.pdf von
MercerJesse2.1Doc.pdfMercerJesse2.1Doc.pdf
MercerJesse2.1Doc.pdfjessemercerail
237 views5 Folien
GSoC 2024 von
GSoC 2024GSoC 2024
GSoC 2024DeveloperStudentClub10
81 views15 Folien
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptx von
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptxCollective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptx
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptxCenter for Integrated Training & Education
94 views57 Folien
Create a Structure in VBNet.pptx von
Create a Structure in VBNet.pptxCreate a Structure in VBNet.pptx
Create a Structure in VBNet.pptxBreach_P
75 views8 Folien
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptx von
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptxREPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptx
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptxiammrhaywood
107 views26 Folien
Drama KS5 Breakdown von
Drama KS5 BreakdownDrama KS5 Breakdown
Drama KS5 BreakdownWestHatch
87 views2 Folien

Último(20)

Create a Structure in VBNet.pptx von Breach_P
Create a Structure in VBNet.pptxCreate a Structure in VBNet.pptx
Create a Structure in VBNet.pptx
Breach_P75 views
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptx von iammrhaywood
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptxREPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptx
REPRESENTATION - GAUNTLET.pptx
iammrhaywood107 views
Drama KS5 Breakdown von WestHatch
Drama KS5 BreakdownDrama KS5 Breakdown
Drama KS5 Breakdown
WestHatch87 views
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November) von Esquimalt MFRC
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)
Esquimalt MFRC58 views
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx von ISSIP
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptxEIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
ISSIP379 views
Structure and Functions of Cell.pdf von Nithya Murugan
Structure and Functions of Cell.pdfStructure and Functions of Cell.pdf
Structure and Functions of Cell.pdf
Nithya Murugan701 views
7 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM.pptx von Sachin Nitave
7 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM.pptx7 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM.pptx
7 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM.pptx
Sachin Nitave61 views
Education and Diversity.pptx von DrHafizKosar
Education and Diversity.pptxEducation and Diversity.pptx
Education and Diversity.pptx
DrHafizKosar177 views
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB... von Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx von AKSHAY MANDAL
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptxUse of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx
AKSHAY MANDAL104 views
11.28.23 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx von mary850239
11.28.23 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx11.28.23 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
11.28.23 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
mary850239304 views
How to empty an One2many field in Odoo von Celine George
How to empty an One2many field in OdooHow to empty an One2many field in Odoo
How to empty an One2many field in Odoo
Celine George72 views

Microspheres

  • 1. MICROSPHERES Presented by: Nirupama K V II M Pharm (P. Ceutics) BCP. Bharathinagara As a Drug Delivery System
  • 2. CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION. TYPES OF MICROSPHERES. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES. POLYMERS USED IN THE PREPARATION OF MICROSPHERES. METHODS OF PREPARATION. CHARACTERIZATION (Evaluation). APPLICATIONS. CONCLUSION. REFERENCES
  • 3. INTRODUCTION: o Oral route of administration. o Conventional drug delivery system frequent administration. o Significant fluctuation in drug levels. o Novel drug delivery system. o Sustained and controlled release .
  • 4. Definition of microspheres: • Micro-particles or microspheres small, insoluble, free flowing spherical particles. • Size -10 to 1000 µm. • Ideally, completely spherical and homogeneous in size.
  • 5. • Polymers or proteins biodegradable . • Drug dispersed or dissolved controlled release of the drug. • Prolonged release & targeting.
  • 6. Types of Microspheres: • Microcapsule: An encapsulated core particle . • Micromatrix (Mcrospheres): Homogenous dispersion. Types of Microspheres:
  • 7. ADVANTAGES: • Sustained and Controlled release . • Patient compliance is increased. • Toxic effect is less. • Targeting the tissue is possible. • Improve bioavailability. • They enable controlled release of drug. Ex: narcotic, antagonist, steroid hormones. • Protect the drug from enzymatic and photolytic cleavage so it is best for drug delivery of protein.
  • 8. DISADVANTAGES: • The cost is more. • Reproducibility is less. • Stability may affected by process conditions. • Degradation of product. • Intended mainly for parenteral route which causes pain. • Polymer may produce toxic effects
  • 9. Polymers used in the Microsphere preparation: Synthetic Polymers Non-biodegradable • PMMA(Poly methyl Methacrylate). • Acrolein • Epoxy polymers • Glycidyl methacrylate Biodegradable • Lactides and Glycolides copolymers • Polyalkyl cyanoacrylates • Polyanhydrides
  • 10. Natural Materials Proteins • Albumins • Gelatin • Collagen Carbohydrates • Starch agarose • Carrageenan • Chitosan Chemically modified carbohydrates • Poly(acryl)dextran • Poly(acryl)starch
  • 11.  Emulsion solvent evaporation technique. -Single emulsion method -Double emulsion method.  Emulsion cross linking method.  Coacervation method.  Spray drying and Spray Congealing technique.  Solvent Extraction technique.  Ionic gelation.  Solvent evaporation method: METHODS OF PREPARATION:
  • 12. Emulsion solvent evaporation technique: A. Single Emulsion Technique: Aq solution & suspension of polymer(natural polymer) Stirring / Sonication Dispersion in Organic phase oil/CHCl3 Heat denaturation (by adding Chemical crosslinking dispersion To heated oil). (Butanol, HCHO, Glutaraldehyde)
  • 13. . Microspheres in org.phase Centrifugation, washing, & separation Microspheres
  • 14. B. Double Emulsion Technique: Aqueous solution of polymer & drug dispersion in oil/organic phase, vigorous homogenisation(sonication) Primary emulsion(w/o) addition of aqueous solution of PVA W/O/W multiple emulsion Addition of large aqu. phase Microspheres in solution Separation, washing, drying MICROSPHERES.
  • 15. SPRAY DRYING AND SPRAY CONGEALING: Polymer dissolved in organic phase (acetone) Drug is dispersed in polymer solution under high speed homogenization Atomized in a stream of hot air Formation of small droplets Solvent evaporation Microspheres
  • 16. Separated by cyclone separator and traces of solvent is removed by vacuum drying
  • 17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION METHOD: Organic phase is removed by extraction with water Polymer in organic solvent Drug is dispersed in organic solvent (water miscible organic solvents like isopropanol) MICROSPHERES.
  • 18. SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD: Suitable amounts of polymer(Eudragit) + chloroform solution of the drug. The aqueous phase (0.2% PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) in water). The mixture was stirred with a propeller at 500 rpm for 3 hrs at 250C. For complete removal of chloroform. Filtration & collection. Washed with deionized water. Microspheres dried at room temperature for 24 hrs.
  • 19. IONIC GELATION METHOD: Sodium alginate is dissolved in distilled water. stirred + drug & calcium carbonate (1:1). Gelation medium (calcium chloride in 2% glacial acetic acid)(21G syringe needle) . The gel microspheres formed in solution. Stirred for 30 min at room temperature. Then microsphere is collected, washed, dried & stored in desicator.
  • 20. Evaluation of Microspheres: • Drug content. • Drug entrapment efficiency. • Particle size analysis. • Surface morphology. • Angle of repose, Bulk density and Tapped density. • In vitro release. • Kinetic modeling. • Stability studies as per ICH guidelines.
  • 21. EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES: 1) Drug content: UV Spectrometer. 2) Drug entrapment efficiency: % Entrapment = Actual content / Theoretical content x 100. 3) Particle size : Compound microscope, (Stage micrometer and Eye piece micrometer).
  • 22. 4) Surface morphology: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). 5) Angle of repose: Funnel method (Cone method). tan θ =h/r Where h & r are the height and radius of the powder cone.
  • 23. 6)Bulk density: Bulk density = mass of microspheres / bulk volume. 7)Tapped density: Tapped density = mass of microspheres /Tapped volume.
  • 24. 8) In vitro methods:  United States of Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution apparatus II.  Phosphate buffer.  Rotating paddle apparatus. 9) Kinetic modeling: a) Zero order kinetics: Qt = Qo + Ko t Where, Qt = Amount of drug dissolved in time t, Qo = Initial amount of drug in the solution and Ko = Zero order release constant
  • 25. b) First order kinetics: log Qt = log Qo + K1t / 2.303 Where, Qt = Amount of drug released in time t, Qo = Initial amount of drug in the solution and K1 = First order release constant c) Higuchi model: Qt = KH.t ½ Where, Qt = Amount of drug released in time t and, KH = Higuchi dissolution constant.
  • 26. d) Korsmeyer - peppas release model: Mt/M∞ = K.tn Where, Mt / M∞ = Fraction of drug release, K= Release constant, t = Drug release time and n = Diffusional exponent for the drug release that is dependent on the shape of the matrix dosage form.
  • 27. 10) Stability Studies: • A stability study as per (ICH) guidelines. • Accelerated Stability testing studies 6 months. • Temperature 40 ± 2 ℃ and 75 ± 5 % RH. • At the end of 1,3&6 months % entrapment & Drug release (Physical parameters).
  • 28. APPLICATIONS:  Ophthalmic Drug Delivery  Oral drug delivery  Gene delivery  Nasal drug delivery  Buccal drug delivery  Gastrointestinal drug delivery  Transdermal drug delivery  Colonic drug delivery
  • 29. OTHER APPLICATIONS: • Diagnosis for ex; thermographic detection of tumours. • Biotechnology industry. • Culturing of a feline breast tumor line. • Haemoperfusion.
  • 30. CONCLUSION: • Controlled and sustained delivery. • Drug targeting. • Taste masking. • Aqueous solubility & absorption. • Improved Stability. • This area of novel drug delivery has innumerable applications and there is a need for more research to be done in this area.
  • 31. REFERENCES: 1. Metkari V.B, Kulkarni L.B, Patil P.S, Jadhav P.A, Bamane G.S, Kumbhar C.M. Microspheres - A New Drug Delivery System: A Review. Journal of Current Pharma Research 2014;4(2):1128-1133. 2. Pratibha Muntha. Microspheres - Novel Drug Carriers. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;3(3):83-86. 3. Kadam N. R., Suvarna V. Microspheres: A Brief Review. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;5(47):13-19. 4. Chitra Singh, Suresh Purohit, Madhu Singh , Pandey B.L. Design and evaluation of microspheres: a review. Journal of drug delivery research. 2013;2(2):18-27.
  • 32. cont….. 5. Nisha Sharma , Neha Purwar , Prakash Chandra Gupta. Microspheres as drug carriers for controlled drug delivery: a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research IJPSR, 2015;6(11):4579- 4587. 6. S.P.Vyas., R.K.Khar, International Journal for Targeted & Controlled Drug Delivery, Novel Carrier Systems., First Edition :2002.,Reprint :2007 page no:417,453. 7. N.K.Jain ,Controlled and novel drug delivery edited by reprint 2007 pg.no.236- 255.
  • 33. …..