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Hyperloop is a new mode of transport ?
Proposed by ELON MUSK American business magnate,
investor, and inventor. He is currently the CEO & CTO of
SpaceX and CEO & Chief Product Architect of Tesla
A high-speed train that promises travel at twice the speed of
a commercial aircraft, transporting passengers from Los
Angeles to San Francisco in just 30 minutes.
A high-level alpha design for the system was published
on August 12, 2013, in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla
and SpaceX blogs.
Musk has also said he invites feedback to "see if the
people can find ways to improve it"; it will be an open
source design, with anyone free to use and modify it.
A Hyperloop would be "an elevated, reduced-pressure
tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within
the tube by a number of linear electric motors.”
This system can achieve an average speed of 598 mph
(962 km/h), and a top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h).
Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with
capsules that are transported at both low and high
speeds throughout the length of the tube.
Hyperloop conceptual diagram.
Hyperloop tube stretching from Los Angeles to San Francisco.
Passengers may enter and exit Hyperloop at stations
located either at the ends of the tube, or branches along
the tube length.
Sealed capsules carrying 28 passengers each that travel
along the interior of the tube depart on average every 2
minutes from Los Angeles or San Francisco (up to
every 30 seconds during peak usage hours).
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum
height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is
equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) frontal area, not
including any propulsion or suspension components.
The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear
accelerator affixed at various stations on the low
pressure tube with rotors contained in each capsule.
Hyperloop passenger capsule subsystem notional locations (not to scale).
For travel at high speeds, the greatest power
requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.
Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed,
and thus the power requirement increases with the cube
For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must
overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and
input eight times the power.
Just as aircraft climb to high altitudes to travel through
less dense air, Hyperloop encloses the capsules in a
reduce pressure tube.
The pressure of air in Hyperloop is about 1/6 the
pressure of the atmosphere on Mars.
This is an operating pressure of 100 Pascal’s, which
reduces the drag force of the air by 1,000 times relative
to sea level conditions and would be equivalent to
flying above 150,000 feet altitude
The capsules are separated within the tube by
approximately 23 miles (37 km) on average during
The capsules are supported via air bearings that operate
using a compressed air reservoir and aerodynamic lift.
Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design sketch.
Hyperloop passenger capsule version with doors open at the station.
Hyperloop passenger capsule version cutaway with passengers onboard.
Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design rendering.
Streamlines for capsule traveling at high subsonic velocities inside Hyperloop.
The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded
together in a side by side configuration to allow the
capsules to travel both directions.
Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the
Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to
provide power to the system.
The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft 4
in. (2.23 m) which is small enough to keep material
cost low while large enough to provide some
alleviation of choked air flow around the capsule.
The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2)
giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a diameter
ratio of 60%.
Hyperloop capsule in tube cutaway with attached solar arrays.
high-speed transport more generally, have historically
been impeded by the difficulties in
managing friction and air resistance, both of which
become substantial when vehicles approach high
vactrain concept : tubes kept at a complete vacuum,
allowing for theoretical speeds of thousands of miles
The expected pressure inside the tube will be
maintained around 100pa (less pressure).
This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the
capsule while maintaining the relative ease of pumping
out the air from the tube.
Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of
the tube at various locations to accelerate the capsules.
Stators are located on the capsules to transfer
momentum to the capsules via the linear accelerators.
Rotor (mounted to capsule)
Stator (mounted to tube)
Rotor and stator 3D diagram
There will be a station at Los Angeles and San
Francisco. Several stations along the way will be
possible with splits in the tube.
The majority of the route will follow highway and the
tube will be constructed in the median
Overview of Hyperloop route from Los Angeles to San Francisco.
Total cost of the Hyperloop passenger transportation system.
Ready when the passenger is ready to travel (road)
Environmentally friendly (rail/road via electric cars)
Sustainable (uses solar energy)
Runs trough the median of existing highway
A number of economists and transportation experts
have expressed the belief that the US$6 billion price
tag dramatically understates the cost of designing,
developing, constructing and testing an all-new form of
In 1812 the British mechanical engineer and
inventor George Medhurst wrote a book detailing his idea
of transporting passengers and goods through air-tight tubes
using air propulsion.
Atmospheric railways were built in Ireland and England,
most notably the London and Croydon Railway, the first
stage opening in 1846.
The Crystal Palace pneumatic railway operated around
1864 and used large fans, some 22 feet (6.7 m) in diameter,
that were powered by a steam engine. The tunnels are now
lost but the line operated successfully for over a year.
In the 1910s, vacuum trains were first described by rocket
pioneer Robert Goddard. While Hyperloop has significant
innovations over early proposals for reduced pressure or
vacuum-tube transportation apparatus, the work of Goddard
"appears to have the greatest overlap with the Hyperloop."
Swissmetro was a proposal to run a maglev train in a low
pressure environment. Concessions were granted to
Swissmetro in the early 2000s to connect the Swiss cities of
St. Gallen, Zurich, Basel and Geneva. Studies of
commercial feasibility reached differing conclusions and
the vactrain was never built.
Hyperloop is a new idea of solar powered
transportation system with high speed of up to 800mph,
which is developed by US entrepreneur Elon Musk.
He proposed this transportation system to the route
from the Los Angeles region to the San Francisco Bay
Area. In this presentation, the possibilities and
construction of the system is explained with the details
of different components of the system.
The technical details of the Hyperloop in this
presentation are based on the design details released by
Elon musk on 12th august, 2013.
◦ Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha". SpaceX.
◦ “Hyperloop” ,Wikipedia
◦ Garber, Megan (July 13, 2012). "The Real iPod: Elon
Musk's Wild Idea for a 'Jetson Tunnel' from S.F. to
L.A.". The Atlantic.
◦ "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon
Musk's proposed transit system".Gizmag.com. August 22,
◦ Bilton, Nick. "Could the Hyperloop Really Cost $6 Billion?
Critics Say No". The New York Times.