• The main enemy of a presenter
is tension, which ruins the
voice, posture & spontaneity.
• Voice becomes higher as the
Shoulders tighten up & limit
flexibility while the legs start to
shake & cause unsteadiness.
• The presentation becomes
"canned" as the speaker locks in
on notes & starts to read
directly from them.
“If I had a way to remove all
fear of speaking for you, I
wouldn’t do it. The day you
become casual about speaking
is the day you risk falling on
5. Tips to Eliminate Speech Anxiety…
• Realize that your audience will probably not
recognize your fear.
• Recognize that audiences are
approving & accepting. They want
you to succeed.
• Humanize your delivery. Don’t try
to be someone you are not.
6. Before the Presentation Reduce Tension by Doing:
Stand with you feet about 6 inches apart, arms hanging by your
sides, & fingers unclenched.
Gently shake each part of your body, starting with hands, arms,
shoulders, torso & legs.
Concentrate on shaking out the tension.
Then slowly rotate your shoulders forwards & then backwards.
Move on to your head.
Rotate it slowly clockwise, and then counter-clockwise.
7. • Mental visualization:
- Visualize the room, audience, & giving the presentation.
- Take a moment - a sip of water - a deep breath
concentrate on relaxing - say to your self, "I can do it!"
- Imagine the audience in
• Distract yourself for 10 minutes before you begin.
• Neck exercises
• Breathe deeply
• Prepare answers to anticipated questions
8. SYMPTOM CURE
Nervous energy Talk a walk
Trembling legs Gently or imperceptibly lean on
the lectern or table
Shaking hands Use a handheld microphone.
Avoid holding anything flexible
until you are calm.
Dry mouth; tight throat Take small drinks of warm water
to loosen your vocal cords.
Feeling isolated Make eye contact with the
friendliest faces in the audience
13. Our school is the best in town. The teachers are
friendly, and very knowledgeable about English.
I've studied at the school for two years and my
English is becoming very good. I hope you will
visit our school and try an English class. Maybe
we can become friends, too!
Our school is the BEST in town. The teachers are
friendly, and VERY KNOWLEDGEABLE about
English. I've studied at the school for two years
and my English is becoming VERY GOOD. I hope
you will visit our school and try an English class.
MAYBE we can become FRIENDS!
15. • Enunciation…manner in which you sound parts of words
….. Saying all the sounds in a word clearly.
Do not drop off the ends of words, esp "ing," "ed," "d," "p," or "t."
Talking – talkin Studying – studyin Going to – gonna
Do not muddle the middle of words by replacing sharper sounds
(like "t'") with softer sounds (like "d")
Butter – budder
Do not run words together.
Whadjagit – What did you get Wuzzat – What’s that
16. • Slow you rate of speak to avoid enunciation errors
• Enunciate in front of the mirror (clearly form words
with your lips)
• Pay special attention to /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ when
they come at the end of a word
• open your mouth for vowel sounds so that they are
• Breathe regularly
17. Voice Training Exercises:
• Red leather, yellow leather
• She is a thistle sifter, and she has a sieve of sifted
thistles and a sieve of unsifted thistles, because she
is a thistle sifter.
• Enemy, enemy, many men enemy.
• Many men have many minds
• He generally reads regularly in a government library
particularly rich in Coptic manuscripts, except during
the month of February. (sound every syllable)
• The man from Hong Kong was beating the gong, and
it boomed and it thundered round Pal-en-jen-bang.
19. 06/17/13 19
• Body Language
It could be called a language which conveys
affirmative , ambiguous or negative signals
depending on individual perception.
The point is do we understand them in detail?
If Yes then do we act upon them ?
If No then we need practice.
20. .Gripping the lectern
.Chewing on objects,
.Constant throat clearing
.Playing with hair, beard,
.Rocking back & forth
.Rubbing or picking at
.Jingling coins or keys in
pockets or hands
.Standing extremely rigidly
.Hands on hips
.Pointing index finger
.Hands behind back
.Hands on lapel or hem of
22. People not only listen to you, they also watch you!!!
23. This is 'good' to
'one’ to Italians,
'five' to Japanese
'up yours' to
24. 'OK' to a Westerner,
'money’ to a Japanese,
'zero' to the French
insulting to the Turks &
25. • Proximity
- Cultural norms dictate a
- If there is too much
distance - move around
the room to increase
interaction with your
• Eye Contact
- Helps to regulate the flow
- Signals interest in others &
increases the speaker's
- M or W
26. • Posture & Body Orientation
Standing erect & leaning
forward = approachable,
receptive & friendly.
Looking at the floor or ceiling
Avoid creating barriers
27. • Gestures
- If you fail to gesture while
speaking, you may be
perceived as boring and stiff.
-Beware of distracting
-Avoid standing still, but do
not move constantly
-Avoid rocking movements
30. Mannerisms that Distract & Signal that
you are Nervous…
• Pacing up and down the room
• Crossing your arms in front of your body
• Turning your back to your audience
• Bad posture
• Tapping your feet
• Resting on / tightly grasping the lectern/podium
• Bracing against the lectern/podium
• Sitting on the desk
• Tugging at or playing with clothing or jewelry
• Touching your hair constantly
• Tapping the lectern or projector with a pen, or pointer
• Picking at your fingernails
• Tapping your feet
32. 06/17/13 32
Body Language In Black n White
• Dear John I want a man who knows what
love is all about you are generous kind
thoughtful people who are not like you
admit to being useless and inferior you have
ruined me for other men I yearn for you I
have no feelings whatsoever when we’re
apart Will you let me be yours Gloria
33. 06/17/13 33
Body Language In Black n White
• Dear John,
I want a man who knows what love is all about. You
are generous, kind thoughtful. People who are not
like you admit to being useless and inferior. You
have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I
have no feelings whatsoever when we’re apart
.Will you let me be yours?
35. Preparing an Effective Presentation
• Determine your purpose
• Analyze your audience
• Gather supporting information
• Organize your presentation
• Select appropriate presentation aids
• Prepare your presentation
• Rehearse your presentation
36. Why Get Organized????
• enhances a speaker’s credibility by
demonstrating clear thinking
• increases comprehension & retention
38. Outline Format
I. Main Point
1. More detailed information
2. More detailed material
1. More detailed information
a. Even more specific material
II. Main Point
A . Subpoint
1. More detailed information
a. Even more specific material
B. Subpoint .................
39. Beginning a Speech....
Speech: persuade audience to eat less fat....
“This morning I’d like to persuade you to eat
less fat in your diet.....”
40. Fifty percent of the population of the US is killing itself. On
this room, over half of us are eating ourselves to an early
death brought on by too much fat in our diets. Countless
studies indicate that there is a very real relationship between
our diet & the development of life-threatening diseases such
as cancer, stroke & diabetes. The Surgeon General’s Report on
Nutrition and Health concurs with this correlation by stating
that “the single most influential dietary change one can make
to lower the risks of diseases such as cancer, stroke &
diabetes is to reduce intake of foods high in fat.”
Today I am going to stand before you to convince you to
reduce your daily intake of fat. I will give you three well-
documented reasons that it’s important to eat a low-fat diet
and then we will look at what a healthy diet looks like. Please
attend to my message, as what I say may save your life.
• Who are you?
• What is your topic?
• What is your purpose?
• How will you tell it all?
Get people's attention
State the purpose of your presentation
42. Get people's attention
• If I could have everybody's attention.
• If we can start. OR
• Perhaps we should begin? USE ONE OF THE STRATEGIES
• Let's get started.
• Welcome to LUMS.
• Thank you for coming today.
• Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
• On behalf of Intell, I'd like to welcome you.
• My name's Ali Ahmed and I ……………………….
• For those of you who don't know me, my name's Raza Khan.
43. Strategies for Attracting Attention…
Twelve of our customers have cancelled orders in the past month.
Are you going to have enough money to do the things you want to when you
Author and columnist Earl Wilson said, 'If you wouldn't write it and sign it,
don't say it. This gives us a clue as to how you can gain believability from
44. State the purpose of your presentation
• talk about = to speak about a subject
Today I'd like to talk about our plans for the new site.
I'm going to be talking to you about the results of our survey.
• report on = to tell you about what has been done.
I'm going to be reporting on our results last quarter.
Today I will be reporting on the progress we have made since our last meeting.
• take a look at = to examine
First, let's take a look at what we have achieved so far.
Before we go on to the figures, I'd like to take a look at the changes we have made.
• show = to explain something by doing it or by giving instructions.
The object of this morning's talk is to show you how to put the theory into practice.
Today I'm going to show you how to get the most out of the new software.
45. • tell you about = to speak to someone to give them information or
First, I will tell you about the present situation, then go onto what we
are going to do.
When I have finished, Jack will then tell you about what is happening
• outline = to give the main facts or information about something.
I'd like to outline the new policy and give you some practical examples.
I will only give you a brief outline and explain how it affects you.
• fill you in on = to give some extra or missing information
I'd like to quickly fill you in on what has happened.
When I have finished outlining the policy, Jerry will fill you in on what
we want you to do.
46. • give an overview of = to give a short description with general
information but no details.
Firstly, I would like to give you a brief overview of the situation.
I'll give you an overview of our objectives and then hand over to Peter
for more details.
• highlight = draw attention to or emphasize the important facts.
The results highlight our strengths and our weaknesses.
I'd now like to go on to highlight some of the advantages that these
changes will bring.
• discuss = to talk about ideas or opinions on a subject in more detail.
I'm now going to go on to discuss our options in more detail.
After a brief overview of the results, I'd like to discuss the implications
in more detail.
47. Overview of the main points:
First, I’d like to talk about who the homeless
in Columbus are. Second, I’ll talk about the
services The Open Shelter provides. Finally, I’ll
talk about what you – either individually or as
a group – can do to help.
48. • Use short sentences.
“I’m so nervous …… “
“I really don’t know much about this….”
“I apologize for taking up your time….”
• Organize logically
• Keep the number of main points down to an
• Smooth transitions between your main points
• Clear support for each main point
50. Patterns for Organizing your Speech….
Topical (Climactic) Order
Purpose: To inform my audience about the 3 major areas
of my life
• The most important area of my life is my relationship with my
• The second most important area in my life is my quest for
• Another instrumental area in my life is my work to acquire a
doctorate of philosophy.
51. Chronological Order
Purpose: To inform my audience about the 3
important areas of my life
• A spiritual quest became very important to me in
• After I left the service, I became determined to earn
a doctorate of philosophy
• After college, I developed a strong relationship with
52. Spatial Order
Purpose: To inform my audience about the 4
flours of XYZ
• The first floor will house the gymnasium, auditorium,
cafeteria & offices
• The second story will contain Math & Science
• The third floor will house the humanities classes.
• The fourth floor will contain the art classes.
53. Problem-Solution Order (for persuasion)
Purpose: To persuade my audience that we
need to take legislative action to solve the
growing problem of the homeless.
• There is a large and growing homeless problem in
the United States
• We can solve this problem through a combination of
increased federal social welfare programs and
decreased deinstitutionalizing the mentally ill.
54. Offer a clear signpost as you come to each new point:
“Now we come to the third point: what you can do as a
group or as individuals to help homeless people in
“So much for what we are doing. Now let’s talk about
what you can do to help.”
“You may be wondering, what can I do to help?”
“As you can see, the Shelter is trying to do many things.
We could do more things with your help.”
55. • Hold the listener’s attention
Short, active sentences
Examples & specific details
• Emphasize your main points
“This is my most important point…”
“This then, is the critical issue…”
• Involve your listeners
Help them form images
Tasks & demonstrations
• To signal that the end is near
• To summarize
• To leave your audience with something memorable &
Challenges or Appeals
57. • Restate your main point
• Refer to your opener to create a frame for
• End with a vivid positive picture
• Tell the audience exactly what to do next….
• Signal to the audience that you are finishing
- Transitional devices
- Pause & lower the pitch of your voice
• Connect ideas & help to keep your audience on track.
• First, finally, further, moreover, whereas, however, consider
this, specifically, third, next, thus,
• Prepare your audience for forthcoming information
• “Let’s examine the second impact of XYZ. In this portion of my
speech I will discuss how this research study has
60. Internal Review
• Provides your audience with a summary of your
information before you move on to new ideas.
• Assist audience in retaining important points
• “Over the last half hour, we have examined............
We have also looked at ......... “
61. Survival Language….
If you get your facts wrong.
• I am terribly sorry. What I meant to say was this…
If you have forgotten to make a point.
• Sorry, I should just mention one other thing…
• If I can just go back to the previous point, there is something that I’d like to add…
If you realize that what you are saying makes no sense.
• Let me rephrase that to make it quite clear…
If you are short of time.
• So just to give you the main points…
• As we are short of time, this is just a quick summary of the main points…
If you have been too complicated & want to simplify what you said.
• So, basically, the point I am trying to get across is this…
62. Using Evidence…..
Assertion: I think that people become stronger individuals
as they work through their problems.
Quotation: According to Dr M. Scott, psychologist and
author of the best-selling book The Road Less
Travelled, “It is only because of problems that
we grow mentally and spiritually.”
63. • Statistics
Assertion: The size of the United States is pretty small
compared to the rest of the world.
Statistic: Although the United States is approximately
3,800,000 square miles, its share of the world
land mass is only 6 percent.
Factual or hypothetical
64. Questions about your Evidence…
• Do I have enough evidence to defend my assertion, or do I
need to gather more supporting material?
• Have I explained my evidence clearly?
• Is my evidence taken from an unbiased & credible source?
• Is my evidence current?
• Cue card – brief – key words
• Messages to yourself with different colored
• Clip them together – number them
Questions do not mean you did not explain
the topic good enough, but that the
audience’s interest is deeper than the average
• Keep cool if a questioner disagrees with you.
You are a professional!
• No matter how hard you try, not everyone in
the world will agree with you!
67. • After inviting questions, do not rush ahead if no one asks a question.
Pause for about 6 seconds to allow the audience to gather their thoughts.
• Start the ball rolling
Your own remark: “One question you might have is….”
• When a question is asked, rephrase & repeat the question to ensure
that everyone heard it
• Treat questions with respect
Do not antagonize or embarrass even the most hostile questioner.
“ I don’t blame you for thinking the plan is far-fetched, Sara. We
thought it was strange at first, too, but the more we examined it, the
better it looked.”
68. • If you do not know the answer, be honest, do not
waffle. Tell them you will get back to them...and make
sure you do!
• Address your answer to the entire audience
• Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best.
• Keep your answers focused on your goal
• If someone takes issue with something you said, try to
find a way to agree with part of their argument.
"Yes, I understand your position..."
"I'm glad you raised that point, but..."
.… the idea is to praise their point & agree
69. • Buy time when necessary
Rephrase the question
“It sounds like everything about the project looks good
to you except the schedule, Ali.”
Turn the question around
“How would you deal with the situation and still go
ahead with the project, Mary?”
Turn the question outward
“Raza, you are the best technical person here. What do
you think is the best way to save energy costs?”
70. • When you don't want to answer:
To be honest, I'm not really the person to ask about that.
• When someone interrupts you:
Sorry, could I just finish?
• When you finally understand what they want to know:
Oh I see. So what you are asking is …
• When you realize they don't understand what you said:
Perhaps I didn't make myself clear. What I was trying to say was …
• If you don't want to tell everyone:
Perhaps we can talk about it when I have finished.
• To close off the presentation:
If there are no more questions, we should stop there.
71. • Follow the last question with a summary
I’m grateful for the chance to answer your
questions. Now that we’ve gone over the cost
projections, I think you can see why we’re
convinced that this proposal can help boost
productivity and cut overheads by almost 10%
overnight. We’re ready to make these
changes immediately. The sooner we hear
from you, the sooner we can get started.
72. “How well we communicate is determined not
only by how well we say things, but also by
how well we are understood.”
Hinweis der Redaktion
Biggest fear… thus nervoussssss
Give examples of different types of verbal/non. Ineffective comm. limits you from achieving your personal/professional goals
because the softer sounds require less muscle energy.
List A = nervous n underconfident List B = over confident & aggressive
Grabs attention – informs u about where the speech is headed – why the topic is imp – strong benefit to the audience.