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  1. 1. • By Aamir Ali • Roll no:12 OAT Presentation
  2. 2. Introduction • Characteristics • Identification • Nutritive profile • Production • Anti Nutritive Factors • Price
  3. 3. Oat • Scientific Name: Avena sativa • Origin: Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, in Bronze Age Europe.
  4. 4. Oat (Avena sativa)
  5. 5. Characteristics • The oat (Avena sativa) has always been a favourite cereal for ruminant animals and horses but has been less popular in pig and poultry feeding because of its comparatively high fiber content and low energy value. • The nutritive value of oats depends to a large extent on the proportion of kernel (groat) to hull.
  6. 6. CONT… • Oats of high hull content are richer in crude fibre and have a lower metabolisable energy value than low-hulled oats. • Oat proteins are of poor quality and are deficient in the essential amino acids methionine, histidine and tryptophan, • The lysine content is also low but is slightly higher than that of the other cereal proteins. Glutamic acid is the most abundant amino acid of oat protein
  7. 7.  From two to five feet (60 to 150cm) tall  Have narrow, blade-like leaves six to nine inches (15 to 23 cm) long The flower cluster is a panicle, a delicate stalk that branches into small stems called spikelet Oat Identification
  8. 8. Nutritive Profile Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,628 kJ (389 kcal) Carbohydrates 66.3 g Dietary fiber 10.6 g Protein 16.9 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) (66%) Riboflavin (B2) (12%) Minerals Calcium (5%) Iron (38%) Magnesium (50%) Potassium (9%) Zinc (42%)
  9. 9. Manufacturing Process Oat
  10. 10. Handling Processes • To ensure the bacteria, mold, undesired seeds • First step in the processing of oat grains. • To Remove impurities Cleaning and Handling • Removal and separation of husk from the grain, to obtain oat groats. • The cleaned raw oats are fed to a large machine, which throws the grains to a hard surface cause separation of the hull from the kernel called groat Dehulling • The process of absorbing the moisture from the grains. • Kilning also gives a nutty flavor to the oats Kilning
  11. 11. •The groat are fed to sizing systems, where machines separate the groats as per their size. •After separate the large groats, the small groats and the broken pieces are directed to the cutting system. Sizing and Cutting •Two method involve: oat bran milling and whole flour milling. •In the fist method, oat groats are send through roll stands, which separate the bran from the flour. •Second method is used exclusively to produce whole oat flour from the groats. Miling •This process result in the production of oat flakes or rolled oats. •Whole or steel cut oats are steamed (for softening) and then passed to the rolling mill Flaking
  12. 12. Harvesting Techniques Oat
  13. 13. • Oats usually are cut with a grain binder. • Header and the combined harvester- threshers are little used for a few form. • Combine-harvester are efficient and economical. • If oats are exceedingly short/badly lodged, cutting with a mower sometimes is necessary. • If oats are lodged, it is sometimes is practicable to cut them in one direction with a binder. Oat
  14. 14. Combine harvester Grain binder Hand pulling
  15. 15. Stooking, also known shocking Sickle bar mower
  16. 16. Harvesting Period Planting Warmer areas January - April Cooler areas September - October Harvest
  17. 17. How are they stored? (preservation) Oat
  18. 18. Wheat and oat • Stored in a dry place (less than 60 percent humidity). • Moisture level below 12% • Lower the grain temperature below 15°C. • Keep out of dust and insects. • Stored in a cool dry environment away from bright light. • Store away from products with strong scent. • Before being stored in containers, it must be fumigated in order to destroy weevil eggs and other microorganisms living in the wheat and oat. • In conditions of high air moisture, high grains moisture and high temperatures, deterioration of oat occurs faster (Nora, 1992). Oat
  19. 19. Anti Nutritive Factors
  20. 20. Anti nutritional factors Anti-nutritional factors limits their potential as a food source. • Phytate • Trypsin inhibitors • Oxalates • Tannins • Lectins
  21. 21. ANFs Phytate Phytate can significantly influence the functional properties of foods.Phytic acid binds with phosphorus, calcium, Copper, Mg and Mn and reduces availability Trypsin inhibitor It affect the nutritive value and protein digestibility. Tenins It has a large influence on nutritive value of Oat
  22. 22. Price • 500g: Rs 210.00
  23. 23. References • Wegulo, S.N & Carlson, M.P. (n.d) Ergot of Small Grain Cereals and Grasses and its Health Effects on Humans and Livestock. Retrieved from http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/live/ec1880/build/ec1880.pdf • Bloomberg (2013) Wheat Extends Slide to 18-Month Low as Frost-Damage Risks Fades. Farm Journal. Retrieved from http://www.agweb.com/article/wheat • Peter R Shewry, N. G. (2002). The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society Lond B Biol Sci, 133-142. • Randal K. Taylor, M. D. (1995). Harvesting wheat. United States: Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering. • Gutkoski L.C. et al. (n.d.). 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection: Drying and storage conditions in white oat grains quality. Retrieved from http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/9/6276.pdf
  24. 24. • Wiersma, J. (2010). How to Easily Tell Wether Wheat Is Physiological Mature. University of Minnesota, USA. • Kowalski, C. (2014). Wheat - Planting and Harvest Seasons for Wheat Crops. About.com. • Mcmullen, M.S. (2000). Handbook of Cereal Science And Technology 2nd Edition, Revised And Expanded.

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