• The term ‘litter’ has to do with the throwing
around of items such as wrappers, cans, bottles
or packaging, cigarette ends or large items such
as bags of rubbish.
• Littering is a criminal offence punishable by law.
• Throwing litter from a moving vehicle is one of
the commonest offences which Ghanaians are
Some littering facts
• Litter consists of waste products that have been
disposed improperly, without consent, at an
inappropriate location (Wikipedia).waste is any
material that arises from human and animal activities
that are normally discarded as useless or unwanted.
• In Ghana, considerable amounts of plastic waste can
be found within the Municipal Solid Waste stream
due to the littering habit of the people. The most
common type of waste is plastic waste.
“sachet” water is the major source of plastic waste in the
municipal plastic waste stream.
• Indiscriminate littering contributes to flooding in some
According to a feasibility study on plastic waste by
CSIR, GHS 1,200,000 can be generated in the
country every a month, if plastic waste go through
various stages towards recycling. Recycling
therefore provide opportunities for effective
management of plastics waste management, as
well as income generation.
Agbogloshie is one of the top ten most dirtiest
places in the world.
Reduce the amount of waste
Stop the ‘drop’ (littering)
The most successful way to manage waste is not to
produce it in the first place and this is the driving force
behind the idea of waste minimisation.
Re-use involves the repeated use of products and
components for the same purpose for which they were
conceived. Refrigerators, ink cartridges and computer
printers, for example, can all be refurbished for re-use.
The re-use of products or materials such as clothes and
furniture that would otherwise become waste has social,
economic and environmental benefits, creating jobs and
making products available to consumers who could not
necessarily afford to buy them new.
Recycling, in simple terms, is defined as the conversion
of used materials (waste) into new products. The
purpose of recycling is to:
Prevent waste of potentially useful materials,
Reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials,
Reduce energy usage,
Reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water
pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for
"conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse
gas emissions as compared to virgin production.
Plastics are almost all derived from oil wastes which
are of a high calorific value. Energy recovered from
plastic waste can make a major contribution to energy
Another option for sustainable plastic waste
management is conversion into artefacts such beads,
bags, door mats and hats. This option should be
promoted in basic and secondary schools.
• Recycling Saves Energy
The following recycled materials save energy
compared with manufacturing them:
aluminum, 95 percent
plastics, 70 percent
steel, 60 percent
newspaper, 40 percent
glass, 40 percent
Even if the difference in costs is small between a
recycled product and a new product, recycling helps
the overall finances of a community by reducing the
amount of waste that must be incinerated, put in a
landfill, or otherwise treated.
• The conversion of waste materials into soil
additives is called composting. Composting is the
process of turning organic household waste into
fertilizer through aerobic fermentation. This fertilizer
can be used in lawns, parks, and gardens.
• Composting is a minimally used form of waste
disposal in Accra and does not contribute to the
danger of food pollution. Of the 1250 tons of
garbage collected per day – about 10 – 15% is
Recycling and composting generate many
environmental and economic benefits. For
example, they create jobs and income, supply
valuable raw materials to industry, produce soil-
enhancing compost, and reduce greenhouse gas
emissions and the number of landfills and
Send to Landfill
Send waste that cannot be prevented, reused or
recycled to the landfill.
Do not dump them anywhere. That is also littering.
As citizens we have the responsibility of disposing
our waste at the appropriate place.
Tips on how to be less wasteful
Think before you buy!
1. Is the product recycled or recyclable? This
will reduce the environmental impact as a new
product has not had to be made from raw
2. Avoid packaging waste: food packaged
into separate compartments or presented as a
mini-kit is not only more expensive but also
produces more waste.
3. Buy the amount of fresh food you will use and
enjoy your leftovers by turning them into exciting
4. Use reusable and high-quality batteries which
last longer and produce less waste. Reusable
products are better than disposable products.
Think before you throw!
6. Old clothing has all sorts of innovative uses as
well as giving it to charity, clothing can also be
shredded and turned into pillows.
8. Non-meat kitchen scraps can become fertile soil.
Build a compost bin either in your garden or even a
small one in your house. A good ‘recipe’ is to layer
carbon materials (dry leaves, shredded paper, dead
plants) with nitrogen materials (green weeds, grass,
non-meat kitchen scraps) in a 3 to 1 ratio.
1. Solomon Kusi Ampofo ‘ Report on The options for the effective
management of plastic waste in Ghana ’
2. Felix Puopiel ‘solid waste management in Ghana: the case of Tamale
Metropolitan Area ’(2010)
3. Being wise with waste: the EU’s approach to waste management
Hinweis der Redaktion
. Plastics can be co-incinerated with other wastes or used as alternative fuel (e.g. coal) in several industry processes (cement kilns). The energy content of plastic waste can be recovered in other thermal and chemical processes such as pyrolisis.