SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 27
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Presented to:
Resp. Kirti ma’am
Faculty
College of Nursing
VMMC & SJH
Presented by:
T.H Sasiine Linda
B.Sc (H) Nsg 4TH year
00450306618
EYE EXAMINATION
The Human Eye:
• Eye is an important and one of the most complex organ. It
helps in visualizing objects and also helps us in light, color
and depth perception.
• It is spherical in shape.
• It is about 2.5cm in diameter
• It is situated in orbital cavity.
EYE EXAMINATION:
• An eye examination is a series of tests
performed by an ophthalmologist ,
optometrist or orthoptist, opticians to assess
vision and ability to focus and discern objects
as well as other tests and examinations
pertaining to the eyes.
ASSESSMENT OF EYE DISORDERS
OCULAR HISTORY-
Questions asked during examination:
- What does the patient perceive to be problem?
- Is visual acuity diminished?
- Does patient experience blurred, double or distorted vision?
- Is there pain? Is it sharp or dull? Is it worse while blinking?
- Is the discomfort an itching sensation or more of a foreign
body sensation?
- Are both eyes affected?
- Is there any history of discharges? If so, enquire about colour
consistency and odour.
Contd.
• Describe the onset of problem(sudden or
gradual) Is it worsening?
• What is the duration of the problem?
• Is there any systemic diseases? What
medications are used for treatment?
• What makes the symptoms improve or
worsen?
• Is there any history of eye surgery?
• Does any other family members have the
same symptoms or condition.
VISUAL ACUITY
• VISIUAL ACUITY- .Visual acuity is tested for
both near 14 inches away and distance 20 feet
away Vision and is performed on each eye
separately with a standardized Snellen’s chart
for distance and a Rosenbaum pocket vision
screener for near vision.
• The fraction 20/20 or 6/6 is considered the
standard of normal vision
EXTERNAL EYE EXAMINATION
• The Nurse assess for symmetry and placement
of eyelids, pupils and muscles.
• The extraocular movements of the eyes are
tested by having the patient follow the
examiner‘s finger, pencil or a hand light
through the six cardinal directions of gaze
– Important when screening patients for Ocular
trauma or neurologic disorders such a myasthenia
gravis
Contd.
• The nurse observes for ptosis (drooping of the
eyelids) ectropion (turning out of lower
eyelid) entropion(turning in of eyelid) may
involve trichiasis (turning in of eyelashes).
Eyelids and eyelashes should be free of
drainage or scaling.
• The room should be darkened so that pupils
can be examined. The pupillary response is
checked with a penlight to determine if pupils
are equally reactive and regular.
DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
• DIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPY- A direct ophthalmoscopy
is a handled instrument with various plus and minus
lenses
• The lenses can be rotated into place, enabling the
examiner to bring the cornea, lens and retina into focus
sequentially. The examiner holds the ophthalmoscope
in right hand and uses the right eye to examine
patient’s right eye. The examiner switches to the
patient left hand and left eye when examining patient’s
left eye.
• During the examination room should be on same level
as examiner eyes. The patient and examiner should be
comfortable and both should breath normally.
Contd.
INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPY- it is used to see
large areas of retina although in a unmagnified
state. It produces a bright and intense light. The
light source is affixed with a pair of binocular
lenses mounted on the examiner’s head. The
ophthalmoscope is used with a handheld 20-
diopter lens.
SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION-
• It is a binocular microscope mounted on a table.
This instrument enables the user to examine eye
with magnification of 10-40 times real image. The
illumination can be varied from broad to narrow
beam of light for different view of eye.
• By varying width and intensity of light anterior
chamber can be examined for signs of
inflammation. These structures can be examined
eyelid, cornea, sclera, conjunctiva, iris aqueous
humor natural crystalline lens.
Contd.
• Once in the examination chair, physician will place
instrument in front of patient so as to rest chin and
forehead. This helps steady head for exam. Drops
containing yellow dye called Fluorescent are put in
eye which will wash away tear and make
abnormalities on surface of cornea more visible.
Additional drops may also be put in eyes to allow
pupils to dilate.
TONOMETRY
• It is a procedure to determine intraocular pressure( the
fluid pressure inside eye).It is an important test in
evaluation of patient’s at risk of glaucoma(Normal IOP=12-
22 mmHg).The device used for measuring IOP is an
accurately calibrated tonometer which measures the
pressure needed to flatter the cornea just a bit. Doctor will
adjust the tension until they get a proper reading. Because
the probe touches the highly sensitive cornea a topical
anaesthetic eye drops is administered prior to test
measurement.
COLOUR VISION TEST
• The most common color vision test is performed
using Ishihara polychromatic plates
• On each plate are dots of primary colors that are
integrated into a background of secondary colors
• Patients with diminished color vision may be unable
to identify the hidden shapes.
AMSLER GRID
• It is a test often used for patient with macular
problem such as macular degeneration. It consist of
geometric grid of identical squares with a central
fixation point. The grid should be viewed by the
patient wearing normal reading glasses. Each eyes is
tested separately. The patient is instructed to stare at
central fixation spot on the grid and report any
distortion in squares of grid itself.
FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY
• Fundus photography is used to detect and
document retinal lesions. The patient’s pupils
are usually widely dilated before procedure.
The resulting fundus photographs can be
viewed stereoscopically so that elevations
such as macular edema can be identified.
LASER SCANNING
• Various scanning techniques use laserlight in
diagnostic evaluation of eye disorders.
• confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy provides
a 3- dimensional image of optic nerve topography
and is used alone or in conjunction with fundus
photography to provide comparative data for
suspected optic nerve disease such as glaucoma
and papilledema (swelling of optic disc due to
increased intracranial pressure ICP)
ULTRASONOGRAPHY
• Ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic
technique especially when the view of retina
is obscured by opaque media such as cataract
or hemorrhage. An ultrasonography B- scans
identifies pathology such as orbital tumors,
retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage.
• Ultrasonography A-scans are used to measure
axial length for implants prior to cataract
surgery.
ANGIOGRAPHY
• Angiography is done by using fluorescein or
indocyanine green and contrast agents.
• Fluorescein angiography is used to evaluate clinically
significant macular edema, document macular capillary
nonperfusion and identify retinal and chlorodal
neovascularization (growth of abnormal new blood
vessel).
• It is an invasive procedure in which fluorescein dye is
injected usually into an anticubital vein. Within retinal
vessels black and white photographs are taken by
retinal vasculature over a period of 10 mins.
Contd.
• Indocyanine green angiography is used to
evaluate abnormalities in the choroidal
vasculature, which often are seen in macular
degeneration.
• Indocyanine green dye is injected
Intravenously and multiple images captured
over a period of 30 secs to 20 minutes
SUMMARY
1. Introduction and Definition of Eye
2. Assessment of eye disorders:
– Ocular history, Visual acuity, external eye
examination
3. Diagnostic evaluation:
– opthalmoscopy, slit lamp examination,
tonometry, colour vision test, amsler grid, fundus
photography, laser scanning, ultrasonography and
angiography.
EYE EXAMINATION(Linda).pptx

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Retinal detachment new
Retinal detachment newRetinal detachment new
Retinal detachment new
 
pre and post-operative management of cataract surgery
pre and post-operative management of cataract surgerypre and post-operative management of cataract surgery
pre and post-operative management of cataract surgery
 
Eye banking
Eye bankingEye banking
Eye banking
 
Eye bank
Eye bankEye bank
Eye bank
 
Refractive errors
Refractive errorsRefractive errors
Refractive errors
 
Eyelid infections ppt
Eyelid infections pptEyelid infections ppt
Eyelid infections ppt
 
Eye banking and corneal transplantation 10.03.16,dr.k.n.jha
Eye banking and corneal transplantation 10.03.16,dr.k.n.jhaEye banking and corneal transplantation 10.03.16,dr.k.n.jha
Eye banking and corneal transplantation 10.03.16,dr.k.n.jha
 
examination of the eye
 examination of the eye examination of the eye
examination of the eye
 
Catract
Catract Catract
Catract
 
Cataract
CataractCataract
Cataract
 
Trachoma
TrachomaTrachoma
Trachoma
 
Cataract
Cataract Cataract
Cataract
 
Refractive error
Refractive errorRefractive error
Refractive error
 
Eye banking
Eye  bankingEye  banking
Eye banking
 
Refractive error
Refractive errorRefractive error
Refractive error
 
Blepharitis
BlepharitisBlepharitis
Blepharitis
 
Chalazion
ChalazionChalazion
Chalazion
 
Glaucoma
GlaucomaGlaucoma
Glaucoma
 
Keratitis
KeratitisKeratitis
Keratitis
 
Tonometry ppt
Tonometry pptTonometry ppt
Tonometry ppt
 

Ähnlich wie EYE EXAMINATION(Linda).pptx

Assessment 191008083120
Assessment 191008083120Assessment 191008083120
Assessment 191008083120Sindewmahmud
 
Presentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxPresentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxmahendra singh
 
Presentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxPresentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxmahendra singh
 
Nursing assessment and assessment of eye
Nursing assessment and assessment of eyeNursing assessment and assessment of eye
Nursing assessment and assessment of eyeNEHA BHARTI
 
ASSESSMENT OF EYE
ASSESSMENT OF EYEASSESSMENT OF EYE
ASSESSMENT OF EYEowshidha
 
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptxannieamjad1
 
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptxAnnie Amjad
 
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency Awaneesh Katiyar
 
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres Reporting
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres ReportingCLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres Reporting
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres ReportingPaulineMAntolo
 
Ophthalmoscope workshop
Ophthalmoscope workshopOphthalmoscope workshop
Ophthalmoscope workshopazza mokhtar
 
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by Parash
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by ParashOpthalmoscopy Uploaded by Parash
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by ParashParash39
 
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptx
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptxdirectophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptx
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptxanju468752
 
Fundoscopy ppt 2012
Fundoscopy ppt 2012Fundoscopy ppt 2012
Fundoscopy ppt 2012Reina Ramesh
 

Ähnlich wie EYE EXAMINATION(Linda).pptx (20)

Assessment 191008083120
Assessment 191008083120Assessment 191008083120
Assessment 191008083120
 
Presentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxPresentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptx
 
Presentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptxPresentation Retina.pptx
Presentation Retina.pptx
 
Nursing assessment and assessment of eye
Nursing assessment and assessment of eyeNursing assessment and assessment of eye
Nursing assessment and assessment of eye
 
ASSESSMENT OF EYE
ASSESSMENT OF EYEASSESSMENT OF EYE
ASSESSMENT OF EYE
 
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
 
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
1. Methods of eye examination.pptx
 
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency
Eye Examination - Trauma Emergency
 
Presentation mopb.pptx
Presentation mopb.pptxPresentation mopb.pptx
Presentation mopb.pptx
 
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres Reporting
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres ReportingCLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres Reporting
CLMMRH Ophthalmology Case Pres Reporting
 
Ophthalmoscope workshop
Ophthalmoscope workshopOphthalmoscope workshop
Ophthalmoscope workshop
 
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by Parash
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by ParashOpthalmoscopy Uploaded by Parash
Opthalmoscopy Uploaded by Parash
 
Opthalmoscopy
OpthalmoscopyOpthalmoscopy
Opthalmoscopy
 
General Ophthalmic Evaluation and Management
General Ophthalmic Evaluation and ManagementGeneral Ophthalmic Evaluation and Management
General Ophthalmic Evaluation and Management
 
Healt assessment - Eyes
Healt assessment - EyesHealt assessment - Eyes
Healt assessment - Eyes
 
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptx
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptxdirectophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptx
directophthalmoscope-180730142501 (2).pptx
 
Fundoscopy ppt 2012
Fundoscopy ppt 2012Fundoscopy ppt 2012
Fundoscopy ppt 2012
 
Ophthalmoscopy
OphthalmoscopyOphthalmoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy
 
Ophthalmoscopy
OphthalmoscopyOphthalmoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy
 
OPTHALMOSCOPY.pdf
OPTHALMOSCOPY.pdfOPTHALMOSCOPY.pdf
OPTHALMOSCOPY.pdf
 

Mehr von NeharikaKumari5

Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptx
Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptxMaterial management and inventory control 4th year.pptx
Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptxNeharikaKumari5
 
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...NeharikaKumari5
 
Third stage of labour.pdf
Third stage of labour.pdfThird stage of labour.pdf
Third stage of labour.pdfNeharikaKumari5
 
International health agencies new.pptx
International health agencies new.pptxInternational health agencies new.pptx
International health agencies new.pptxNeharikaKumari5
 
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdf
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdfPresentation Rh Incompatibility.pdf
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdfNeharikaKumari5
 
national nutritional program chn1.pptx
national nutritional program chn1.pptxnational nutritional program chn1.pptx
national nutritional program chn1.pptxNeharikaKumari5
 
mini mental status examination final.pdf
mini mental status examination final.pdfmini mental status examination final.pdf
mini mental status examination final.pdfNeharikaKumari5
 
MANAGEMENT OF DELUSION.pdf
MANAGEMENT OF      DELUSION.pdfMANAGEMENT OF      DELUSION.pdf
MANAGEMENT OF DELUSION.pdfNeharikaKumari5
 
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptx
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptxPhysiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptx
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptxNeharikaKumari5
 
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.pptx
MILLENNIUM  DEVELOPMENTAL  GOALS.pptxMILLENNIUM  DEVELOPMENTAL  GOALS.pptx
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.pptxNeharikaKumari5
 

Mehr von NeharikaKumari5 (13)

Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptx
Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptxMaterial management and inventory control 4th year.pptx
Material management and inventory control 4th year.pptx
 
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...
in service education.pptxNature & scope of in-service education program , org...
 
Third stage of labour.pdf
Third stage of labour.pdfThird stage of labour.pdf
Third stage of labour.pdf
 
International health agencies new.pptx
International health agencies new.pptxInternational health agencies new.pptx
International health agencies new.pptx
 
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdf
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdfPresentation Rh Incompatibility.pdf
Presentation Rh Incompatibility.pdf
 
national nutritional program chn1.pptx
national nutritional program chn1.pptxnational nutritional program chn1.pptx
national nutritional program chn1.pptx
 
mini mental status examination final.pdf
mini mental status examination final.pdfmini mental status examination final.pdf
mini mental status examination final.pdf
 
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS.pptx
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS.pptxMYASTHENIA GRAVIS.pptx
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS.pptx
 
MANAGEMENT OF DELUSION.pdf
MANAGEMENT OF      DELUSION.pdfMANAGEMENT OF      DELUSION.pdf
MANAGEMENT OF DELUSION.pdf
 
mental health.pptx
mental health.pptxmental health.pptx
mental health.pptx
 
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptx
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptxPhysiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptx
Physiological changes in puerperium normal puerperium.pptx
 
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.pptx
MILLENNIUM  DEVELOPMENTAL  GOALS.pptxMILLENNIUM  DEVELOPMENTAL  GOALS.pptx
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.pptx
 
OLD AGE PROBLEMS.pptx
OLD AGE PROBLEMS.pptxOLD AGE PROBLEMS.pptx
OLD AGE PROBLEMS.pptx
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceDr Vijay Vishwakarma
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 

EYE EXAMINATION(Linda).pptx

  • 1. Presented to: Resp. Kirti ma’am Faculty College of Nursing VMMC & SJH Presented by: T.H Sasiine Linda B.Sc (H) Nsg 4TH year 00450306618 EYE EXAMINATION
  • 2. The Human Eye: • Eye is an important and one of the most complex organ. It helps in visualizing objects and also helps us in light, color and depth perception. • It is spherical in shape. • It is about 2.5cm in diameter • It is situated in orbital cavity.
  • 3. EYE EXAMINATION: • An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist , optometrist or orthoptist, opticians to assess vision and ability to focus and discern objects as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
  • 4. ASSESSMENT OF EYE DISORDERS OCULAR HISTORY- Questions asked during examination: - What does the patient perceive to be problem? - Is visual acuity diminished? - Does patient experience blurred, double or distorted vision? - Is there pain? Is it sharp or dull? Is it worse while blinking? - Is the discomfort an itching sensation or more of a foreign body sensation? - Are both eyes affected? - Is there any history of discharges? If so, enquire about colour consistency and odour.
  • 5. Contd. • Describe the onset of problem(sudden or gradual) Is it worsening? • What is the duration of the problem? • Is there any systemic diseases? What medications are used for treatment? • What makes the symptoms improve or worsen? • Is there any history of eye surgery? • Does any other family members have the same symptoms or condition.
  • 6. VISUAL ACUITY • VISIUAL ACUITY- .Visual acuity is tested for both near 14 inches away and distance 20 feet away Vision and is performed on each eye separately with a standardized Snellen’s chart for distance and a Rosenbaum pocket vision screener for near vision. • The fraction 20/20 or 6/6 is considered the standard of normal vision
  • 7. EXTERNAL EYE EXAMINATION • The Nurse assess for symmetry and placement of eyelids, pupils and muscles. • The extraocular movements of the eyes are tested by having the patient follow the examiner‘s finger, pencil or a hand light through the six cardinal directions of gaze – Important when screening patients for Ocular trauma or neurologic disorders such a myasthenia gravis
  • 8. Contd. • The nurse observes for ptosis (drooping of the eyelids) ectropion (turning out of lower eyelid) entropion(turning in of eyelid) may involve trichiasis (turning in of eyelashes). Eyelids and eyelashes should be free of drainage or scaling. • The room should be darkened so that pupils can be examined. The pupillary response is checked with a penlight to determine if pupils are equally reactive and regular.
  • 9.
  • 10. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION • DIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPY- A direct ophthalmoscopy is a handled instrument with various plus and minus lenses • The lenses can be rotated into place, enabling the examiner to bring the cornea, lens and retina into focus sequentially. The examiner holds the ophthalmoscope in right hand and uses the right eye to examine patient’s right eye. The examiner switches to the patient left hand and left eye when examining patient’s left eye. • During the examination room should be on same level as examiner eyes. The patient and examiner should be comfortable and both should breath normally.
  • 11.
  • 12. Contd. INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPY- it is used to see large areas of retina although in a unmagnified state. It produces a bright and intense light. The light source is affixed with a pair of binocular lenses mounted on the examiner’s head. The ophthalmoscope is used with a handheld 20- diopter lens.
  • 13. SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION- • It is a binocular microscope mounted on a table. This instrument enables the user to examine eye with magnification of 10-40 times real image. The illumination can be varied from broad to narrow beam of light for different view of eye. • By varying width and intensity of light anterior chamber can be examined for signs of inflammation. These structures can be examined eyelid, cornea, sclera, conjunctiva, iris aqueous humor natural crystalline lens.
  • 14.
  • 15. Contd. • Once in the examination chair, physician will place instrument in front of patient so as to rest chin and forehead. This helps steady head for exam. Drops containing yellow dye called Fluorescent are put in eye which will wash away tear and make abnormalities on surface of cornea more visible. Additional drops may also be put in eyes to allow pupils to dilate.
  • 16. TONOMETRY • It is a procedure to determine intraocular pressure( the fluid pressure inside eye).It is an important test in evaluation of patient’s at risk of glaucoma(Normal IOP=12- 22 mmHg).The device used for measuring IOP is an accurately calibrated tonometer which measures the pressure needed to flatter the cornea just a bit. Doctor will adjust the tension until they get a proper reading. Because the probe touches the highly sensitive cornea a topical anaesthetic eye drops is administered prior to test measurement.
  • 17. COLOUR VISION TEST • The most common color vision test is performed using Ishihara polychromatic plates • On each plate are dots of primary colors that are integrated into a background of secondary colors • Patients with diminished color vision may be unable to identify the hidden shapes.
  • 18. AMSLER GRID • It is a test often used for patient with macular problem such as macular degeneration. It consist of geometric grid of identical squares with a central fixation point. The grid should be viewed by the patient wearing normal reading glasses. Each eyes is tested separately. The patient is instructed to stare at central fixation spot on the grid and report any distortion in squares of grid itself.
  • 19. FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY • Fundus photography is used to detect and document retinal lesions. The patient’s pupils are usually widely dilated before procedure. The resulting fundus photographs can be viewed stereoscopically so that elevations such as macular edema can be identified.
  • 20. LASER SCANNING • Various scanning techniques use laserlight in diagnostic evaluation of eye disorders. • confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy provides a 3- dimensional image of optic nerve topography and is used alone or in conjunction with fundus photography to provide comparative data for suspected optic nerve disease such as glaucoma and papilledema (swelling of optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure ICP)
  • 21. ULTRASONOGRAPHY • Ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic technique especially when the view of retina is obscured by opaque media such as cataract or hemorrhage. An ultrasonography B- scans identifies pathology such as orbital tumors, retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage. • Ultrasonography A-scans are used to measure axial length for implants prior to cataract surgery.
  • 22.
  • 23. ANGIOGRAPHY • Angiography is done by using fluorescein or indocyanine green and contrast agents. • Fluorescein angiography is used to evaluate clinically significant macular edema, document macular capillary nonperfusion and identify retinal and chlorodal neovascularization (growth of abnormal new blood vessel). • It is an invasive procedure in which fluorescein dye is injected usually into an anticubital vein. Within retinal vessels black and white photographs are taken by retinal vasculature over a period of 10 mins.
  • 24. Contd. • Indocyanine green angiography is used to evaluate abnormalities in the choroidal vasculature, which often are seen in macular degeneration. • Indocyanine green dye is injected Intravenously and multiple images captured over a period of 30 secs to 20 minutes
  • 25.
  • 26. SUMMARY 1. Introduction and Definition of Eye 2. Assessment of eye disorders: – Ocular history, Visual acuity, external eye examination 3. Diagnostic evaluation: – opthalmoscopy, slit lamp examination, tonometry, colour vision test, amsler grid, fundus photography, laser scanning, ultrasonography and angiography.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. .