History of Delhi- Final.ppt

History of Delhi
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
 Delhi is believed to be the site of
Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in
the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded
around 5000 BC.
 Hindu texts state that the city Delhi used
to be referred to in Sanskrit as Hastinapur,
which means elephant-city
 Delhi has always been a convenient link
between Central Asia, the northwest
frontiers and the rest of the country.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
• The Indian capital city of Delhi has
a long history.
Raja Dhilu (King Dihlu) founded
ancient Delhi in 800 BC.
• The earliest architectural relics
date back to the Maurya Period
(300 BC); since then, the site has
seen continuous settlement
• In 1966, an inscription of the
Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236
BC) was discovered near
Srinivaspuri, which is near Noida.
• Two sandstone pillars inscribed
with the edicts of Ashoka were
brought to the city by Firuz Shah
Tughluq in the 14th century.
• The famous Iron pillar near the
Qutub Minar was commissioned by
the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the
Gupta dynasty (320-540) and
transplanted to Delhi during the
10th century.
The Tomar Rajput dynasty
founded Lal Kot in 736
near the Qutub Minar.
The Chauhan Rajput kings
of Ajmer conquered Lal Kot
in 1180 and renamed it
Qila Rai Pithora.
The Chauhan king Prithviraj III
was defeated in 1192
by the Afghan Muhammad
Ghori.
Anangpal Tomar, a Chandravan
-shi Rajput ruler of Delhi ,
often described as the founder
of Delhi, built the citadel
Suraj Kund around 731.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
City :- Indraprastha
Date :-1450 BC (approx.)
Site :- In Purana Qila
City :- Lal Kot or Qila Rai Pithora
Date :- 1060 AD; built by Rajput Tomaras.
Site :- QutubMinar-Mehrauli complex.
City :- Tughlaqabad
Date :- 1321-23 AD. Built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
Site :- 8km from the Qutub complex.
City :-Jahanpanah
Date :- Mid-14th century. Built by Mohammad- bin-Tughlaq,
Site :- Between Siri and Qutub Minar
City :- Siri
Date :-1304 AD; built by Alauddin Khilji.
Site :- Near Hauz Khas and Gulmohar Park
City :- New Delhi
Date :- 1920s. The formal announcement to move the seat
of power from Calcutta to Delhi of India.
Site :- Connaught Place and Rajpath.
City :-Ferozabad
Date :- 1354 AD; by Feroze Tughlaq.
Site:- Kotla Feroze Shah.
City :- Dilli Sher Shahi (Shergarh)
Date :- 1534; This Delhi was actually started by Humayun,
Site :- Opposite the zoo. Around Purana Qila.
City :- Shajahanabad
Date :- Mid-17th century. Shah Jahan,
Site :- The existing Old Delhi, the Red Fort, Jama Masjid
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
INTRODUCTION
The Delhi sultanate is a noble example for the
glory of medieval India. Its culture, art and
architecture that exists even today is
praiseworthy. The Sultans of Delhi ruled for
quite a long period of 320 years during which
there were achievements in different fields.
 The period between 1206 AD and 1526 AD in Indian
History is known as the Delhi Sultanate.
 During this period of over three hundred years five
dynasties, (32 kings) ruled in Delhi.
These were :
 The Slave Dynasty(1206 - 1290)
 The Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320)
 The Tughlak Dynasty (1320 - 1414)
 The Sayyad Dynasty (1414 - 1450)
 The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 - 1526)
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
THE SLAVE DYNASTY : 1206 AD
o Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-10 AD)
o Aram Shah Qutbuddin(1210-1211 AD)
o Iltutmish (1211-1236 AD).
o Rukhuddin Firoz Shah (1236 AD).
o Razziya Sultan (1236-1240 AD)
o Muizuddin Bahram ((1240-1242 AD)
o (Ghiyasuddin Balban. (1266-1286 AD)
o Muizuddin Kaiquabad(1287-1290 AD)
Conquest of North India
• The period from 1000-1200 AD saw many changes in Central
and Western Asia.
• There was a break in the Gujarat-Pratihara empire which
caused uncertainty and instability in North India.
• The Turks began by forming a new state at the north-western
border of the country.
• Due to increasing conflicts between the Khawarizmi rulers of
Iran and Ghurid rulers of Afghanistan, the latter were forced to
expand their rule in India.
• 2 battles- 1st Battle of Tarain in 1191 and the 2nd Battle of Tarain
in 1192 – were fought between the Ghurids and the
Chauhans,led by very ambitious rulers of these
empires,namely- Muizzuddin Muhammad and Prithviraj
Chauhan respectively.
• He also fought a war with Jaichandra of the Gahadavala
kingdom in 1194, which ended in the former’s defeat which
allowed the Ghurid rulers to move further towards Benaras
and Bihar establishing his rule North India.
• After the victory against the Chauhans, Muizzuddin
Muhammad moved back to Central Asia to defeat the ruling
Khawarizmi rulers.
• They suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the
Khawarizmis, but it allowed them to concentrate their efforts
in India.
• In India too Ghurids faced strong opposition from the
indigenous people, but Muizzuddin succeeded in
suppressing them by 1206.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
THE MAMELUK OR SLAVE
DYNASTY
(circa 1200-1526)
Mameluk, literally
'owned', was a
soldier of slave
origin who had
converted to Islam.
The phenomenon
started in 9th
century AD and
gradually the
mameluks became a
powerful military
caste in various
Muslim societies.
• The concept of equality in Islam and Muslim
traditions reached its climax in the history of
South Asia when slaves were raised to the
status of Sultan.
• The Slave Dynasty ruled the Sub-continent
for about 84 years. Qutbuddin Aibak, Shams-
ud-din Iltutmush and Ghiyas-ud-din Balban,
the three great Sultans of the era, were
themselves sold and purchased during their
early lives. The Slave Dynasty was the first
Muslim dynasty that ruled India.
• Muhammad Ghuri had no
son so he raised thousands
of slaves like his sons. He
would then train them in the
way royal children were
trained. During Ghuri's
regime, slaves occupied all
key positions in the
government machinery.
• Three favorite slaves of the
Sultan were Qutb-ud-din
Aibak, Taj-ud-din Ildiz and
Nasir-ud-din Qubachah. He
appointed them governors of
Delhi, Ghazni and Lahore,
respectively. Ghuri never
nominated his successor but
it was obvious that the
successor was to be one of
his slaves.
• After Ghuri died in 1206, Qutbuddin Aibak was
elected as the new Sultan.He was the first Muslim
ruler who ruled South Asia and had his
headquarters in the region as well. He was also
called "Lakh Baksh Sultan".
• However, because of his efficient administration
and farsighted vision, his name has become
inseparable from the history of South Asia.
• One of his biggest contributions is the famous
Qutub Minar in New Delhi which he constructed
firstly to announce the military and official arrival
of his faith Islam in the Indian Subcontinent and
secondly to announce his triumphant victory over
the Rajput forces whom he defeated in a huge
battle.
• Qutbuddin Aibak was a very
refined and inticrate builder.
He led the constructions of
the security towers, check
posts, tax posts and a few of
the forts in the most
important cities of his
empire to avoid plunderings
and loots.
• His devotion to Islam is
attested by two mosques
built by him at Delhi and
Ajmer.
• Aibak died in 1210, from the
injuries he received while
falling from his horse in a
game of polo and thus his
rule lasted only 4 years.
• He was succeeded by his son
Aram Shah, who proved to be
incompetent.The Turk nobles
invited Iltutmish, one of the
slaves and son-in-law of
Aibak, to assume charge of
the state affairs.
• Iltutmish ruled for around 26
years from 1211 to 1236 and
was responsible for setting
the Sultanate of Delhi on
strong footings.
• He was the Governor of
Badaun when he deposed
Qutub-ud-din's successor
Aram Shah and acceeded to
the throne of the Delhi
Sultanate in 1211.
• He remained the ruler until his
death.He is regarded as the
real consolidator of the Turkish
conquests in in North India.
• After ascending the throne, he
was engaged in a series of
battles and thus extended his
empire.
• In 1229 AD, he was honored
with the title of Sultan-I-Azam
(Great Sultan) from Ali
Mastansir Billah, the Khalifah
of Baghdad.
• During his reign, Iltutmish
averted the attack led by the
famous Mongol Chengiz Khan.
• Following the death of Iltutmish in 1236 there was a series
of weak rulers and a war of succession started between his
children. First Rukn-ud-din Firuz sat on the throne for
seven months. He was viewed as unfit to rule and was thus
murdered.
• He was replaced by Raziya Sultana(1236-1239). A shrewd
politician, Razia managed to keep the chiefs in check(they
had thought she would be a puppet on the throne whom
they could control), while enlisting the support of the army
and the people. Her greatest accomplishment on the
political front was to manipulate rebel factions into
opposing each other.
• Another son of Iltutmush, Bahram, took over from Raziya
Sultana in 1239. He declared himself king with the support
of the forty chiefs. Raziya tried to regain the throne with the
aid of her husband Altunia, a chief of Bathinda, but was
defeated and killed in a fight with bandits
• During Bahram's two years as king, the chiefs that had
originally supported him became disordered and
constantly fought with each other. It was during this
period of unrest that he was murdered by his own
army.
• Next, Masud, son of Rukn-ud-din Firuz, became Sultan
from 1242 to 1245.
• He was replaced by the youngest son of Iltutmush,
Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, who became Sultan in 1245.
Though Mahmud ruled India for around 20 years, but
throughout his tenure the main power remained in the
hands of Balban.
 On death of Mahmud, Ghiyas-ud-din
Balban directly took over the throne and
ruled Delhi. During his rule from 1266 to
1287, Balban consolidated the
administrative set up of the empire and
completed the work started by Iltutmush.
 Balban[1200-1287] was captured by the
Mongols when he was a child. They sold
him in Baghdad. Later he was brought to
Delhi where Iltutmush purchased him. He
was one of the Chalgan (a group of the
forty most important nobles of the court).
While Nasir-ud-din spent most of his time
engrossed in religious affairs, Balban was
the real ruler. Nasir-ud-din married
Balban's daughter, which made the latter
even more powerful. After the death of
Nasir-ud-din, Balban became the Sultan.
• Balban considered himself, the king, as the deputy of
God on earth. He organized his court on the pattern of
the courts of Irani kings. Nobody could even dare smile
in his court. Soldiers armed with unsheathed swords
marched along beside him wherever he went.
• Balban established the department of intelligence. He
spread his spies in all departments used them to gather
information about all political developments and
conspiracies. This helped him in taking action to stop
trouble before it started.
• In order to win the confidence of the people,he
administered impartial justice-not even the highest of the
land were spared if they had transgressed his authority
• As a Sultan, Balban adopted a blood and iron policy.He
knew the Chalgan did not like his growing power of and
were jealous of his ascent. After becoming Sultan,
Balban decided to crush them. He had some murdered
while others were banished to far off places.
• During Nasir-ud-din's rule, the Mongols had advanced
many times and plundered Lahore. In order to check the
Mongol invasion, Balban built new forts and ordered the
repair of the old ones.He deployed the best of his troops
on the northern borders to check the Mongols. His
policies paid off, as he managed to stop the Mongol
threat from advancing into his territories.
• The greatest setback for Balban in his entire life was the
death of his favorite son, Prince Muhammad, during the
war against the Mongols.
• He realized that without his son, the centralized
monarchy that had been built up with such care was
bound to dissolve again, as it had at the death of
Iltutmush. This realization probably broke him.
• He never recovered from the death of Prince
Muhammad and died in 1287.
Ghiyas ud din Tughlaq
• Real name-Ghazi Malik
• Was a slave to Ghiyas ud din Balban of
Turkey.
• Established Tughlaq Dynasty in 1320 A.D
• Built the 3rd city of Delhi, Tughlaqabad
• Was allegedly killed by his own son
The ideal Idiot-Muhammad bin Tughlaq
• His rule began from 1325AD
• Now for his brilliance, paired with eccentricity.
• Attempted at shifting his capital from Delhi to
Deogiri
• Renamed it Daulatabad
• Caused great deal of trouble to his subjects,
as also to the army and administration
• Many people found it intolerable and fell
home-sick.
Currency Change
• Switched currency from Silver to brass
and copper tokens
• Some say, it was to fill his own treasury in
a bid to conquer the whole world
• It may also have been due to the ongoing
shortage of silver at that time.
• Most historians believe he was influenced
from the paper currency in use in China
during his rule.
The Idealism
• He is said to be one of the most learned and
accomplished men of his age
• His scientific and literary acumen was
unmatched in his age
• He was a master in the subject of History.
• His favourite pastime was to sit next to
patients to learn proper diagnosis when
among with physicians.
• He was very liberal in natural and made
hospitals and alms-houses on a large scale
for the poor and widowed.
Qaim khan
Jalal ud din firuz khalji
Rukn-ud din ibrahim
(desposed)
Alauddin khalji.
Shahab-ud din umar Qutb-ud din
mubarak shah
KHALJI DYNASTY
The Khalji Dynasty
(1290-1320 AD)
• The Khaljis, wrongly believed to be Afghans
were actually Turks who had for a long time
settled in the region of Afghanistan, called
Khalj and adopted Afghan manners and
customs.
• The Ghaznavid and Ghurid invasions and
Mongol pressure from Central Asia and
pushed them into Hindustan.
• Jalal-ud-din Khalji (1290-1296 AD) was the
first Khalji ruler.
• He was succeeded by Ala-ud-din Khalji (1296-
1316 AD) who introduced several economic
and political reforms.
• Ala-ud-din’s successors, Shihab-ud-din Umar
, Mubarak and Khusro Khan ruled upto 1320
AD one after the other.
Jalal-ud-din Khalji
(1290-1320 AD)
• First ruler of The Khalji
Dynasty.
• Stated that India could not
be a truly Islamic state as
majority Indians were
Hindus.
• Allowed Turkish nobles to
keep their posts.
• Led an unsuccessful
expedition against
Ranthambor.
Ala-ud-din Khalji
• Alauddin was the second ruler of
the Khalji dynasty. He is considered
the most powerful ruler of the
dynasty, reigning from 1296 to
1316.
• Alauddin Khalji was the nephew
and son in law of Jalaluddin. He
entered Delhi with his uncle's head
on a pike and on October 3, 1296,
proclaimed himself the King of
Delhi.
• In 1297, Alauddin sent an army to
plunder Gujarat, under the
generalship of Ulugh Khan and
Nusrat Khan. This army looted the
temple of Somnath and
the Shivalinga was broken into
pieces and was being carried back
to Delhi.
• Alauddin who ordered him and Nusrat Khan to
conquer Ranthambore. In 1299 they started out with 80,000 cavalry
and a large infantry to attack Hammir Dev Chauhan. Hammir's army
repulsed the attack and killed Nusrat Khan. Ulugh Khan escaped
and reached Delhi. Khilji was taken aback by this defeat and wanted
revenge.
• He finally came himself in 1301, and there was a long siege. Hammir
was very well prepared. When the fort would not fall after repeated
bloody skirmishes, Khilji resorted to diplomacy.
• Alauddin then led an expedition towards the south of India. He was
said to be the first Muslim king who went to the south to expand his
territory.
• He made a slave named Malik Kafur the army chief. Kafur proved to
be a brave army chief and plundered many kingdoms in the south of
India.
• The constant successes in the battles made Malik Kafur very
powerful. At one point of time, Alauddin was reduced to a puppet
dancing to his tunes. Finally, Malik Kafur is said to have poisoned
Alauddin Khilji and murdered him.
• Alauddin Khilji is known for his war tactics when the Mongols
attacked Delhi.
• The Mongols attacked almost a dozen times during the reign of
Alauddin Khilji. Every time, some division of Alauddin's army
defeated them.
• However, in 1299, the Mongols came to Delhi not rob, but to
establish themselves. This time, Alauddin went with a huge army
and brutally defeated the Mongols.
• Alauddin died in January 1316, of oedema. His tomb
and madarsa dedicated to him, exists at the back of Qutb
complex, Mehrauli, in Delhi
The Madarsa of Ala-ud-din Khalji
The Tomb of Ala-ud-din Khalji
The Fall Of The Khaljis
• The last days of Ala-ud-din Khalji were embittered by troubles and
misfortunes. In the midst of these troubles Ala-ud-din died in 1316
AD.
• After his death Malik Kafur tried to become the Sultan of Delhi. He
became over ambitious. While trying to dispose off his rivals, he
was killed.
• Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah, the successor of Ala-ud-din Khalji,
came to the throne in 1316 AD.
• Khusro Khan was a Hindu slave of the Makwana sect of Gujarat
who resented his forcible conversion to Islam. He murdered Qutb-
ud-din in 1320 AD.
• Ghazi Tughlaq, the governor of the Frontier Province, murdered
Khusro Khan in 1320 AD and came to the throne. He assumed the
title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and became the founder of the
Tughlaq Dynasty.
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY
Rajab sipap
salar
Firuz shah
Fath khan
Ghiyas-ud-
din tughlaq ii
Nusrat shah
Zafar khan
Abu bakr
Muhammad
shah
Mahmud
shah
Sikandar
khan
ghiyas-ud din tughlaq
Muhammad juna.
Firuz shah Tughlaq (1309-
1388)
 Firuz shah tughlaq was
born in 1309.
 Firuz Tughlaq was
formally coronated
somewhere around 23rd
of march 1357.
 He enjoyed a reign of
thirty seven years (1357-
88).
 Firuz Tughlaq was by no
means a distinguished
military leader but was a
benevolent ruler who truly
cared for his subjects.
• He was keenly interested in the economic improvement of
the empire. He used the state resources for public welfare
activities.
• He led a campaign against the ruler of jajnagar and two
campaigns into Bengal and was unsuccessful. He thus
decided not to conquer the areas that had broken away
and maintain a strong hold over the areas still in his
hands.
• He decreed that whenever a noble died his son would
succeed him. This principle applied to the army as well.
• He imposed only 4 types of taxes on his subjects and
abolished the 24 which previoulsy existed.
• He banned inhumane punishments like cutting of hands
fingers etc. for small offences
• He employed kotwals to make a list of unemployed people
and provided them with employment. He also provided
dowries for the poor.
• Firuz Tughlaq opened a charitable hospital in the capital
(Daru sh shifa) for the benefit of all. Physicians were
appointed for indoor as well as outdoor patients who were
supplied free medicines and food.
• He set up a large department of public works which
worked for after his building program.
• He dug and repaired a number of canals. These canals
were built for irrigation as well as to for water supply.
• He built a number of new towns. A few still stand like
Hissar (now in Haryana) and Firuzabad (now in Uttar
Pradesh)
• Firuz shah tughlaq died around 20th September 1388.
Firuz Tughlaq was the last great ruler of the empire after
his death the decline of the empire began.
• All the six successors of Firuz Tughlaq including one son
and five grandsons were phantom rulers
• His successors:
 Ghiyas-ud din Tughlaq shah ii (his grandson) (1388-89)
 Abu bakr (1389-90)
 Nasir-ud-din muhammad shah iii (1390-94)
 Ala-ud-din sikandar shah i (1394)
 Nasir-ud-din muhammad shah Tughlaq (1394-1412)
 Nusrat-shah tughlaq (1412-14)
• The successors of Firuz being non- entities do not deserve
a place among the sovereign rulers of the great empire.
• The responsibility of degeneration of the empire cannot be
attributed to any one ruler.
Khizr khan
Mubarak
shah
Muhammad
shah
Ala-ud-din
alam shah
SAIYID DYNASTY
The Sayyid Dynasty ruled Delhi Sultanate in India
from 1414 to 1451. The succeeded the Tugluq
dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were
displaced by the Lodi dynasty.Their 37-year period of
dominance witnessed the rule of 4 different
members of the dynasty. The four rulers during this
very period were Khizr Khan(1414-1421), Mubarak
Shah(1421-1434), Muhammad Shah(1434-1445),
Alam Shah(1445-1451)
• Khizr Khan was the founder
ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty.
He mostly engaged himself
in keeping intact the
territory of the sultanate
which he had acquired in
the beginning of his reign.
The sultanate of Delhi
could not gain ascendancy
during this time and
therefore remained one of
the states among certain
other significant states of
the north.
Mubarak Shah ascended the throne without any
opposition after the death of his father Khizr Khan.
He did not accept suzerainty of any foreign power.
He also saved the Delhi sultanate from the nominal
suzerainty of a foreign power and issued coins in
his name. He fought for 13 years against his
external and internal enemies and thus kept the
territory intact.
• Muhammad Shah was the
nephew of Mubarak Shah
and was nominated as the
successor of his uncle. He
was an incapable ruler and
therefore paved the way
for the downfall of the
dynasty. Muhammad shah
failed to safeguard his
kingdom from internal
disruption and foreign
attacks. Thus he failed as a
ruler and the decline
began.
After the death of Muhammad Shah in 1444, his
son took over the throne under the title of Alam
Shah. During the year 1447, he visited a place called
Badaun and loved it so much that he decided to
stay there forever.He ruled Badaun till he died in
the year 1478, with his death the Sayyid dynasty
came to an end.
LODI DYNASTY
Bhalol lodi
Sikandar
lodi
Ibrahim
lodi
Lodi Dynasty
 The Lodi dynasty in India arose around 1451
after the Sayyid dynasty.
The Lodhi Empire was established by the Ghizlai
tribe of the Afghans.
 They formed the last phase of the Delhi
Sultanate.
 There were three main rulers in the history of lodi
dynasty:-
1) Bahlul lodi
2) Sikander lodi
3) Ibrahim lodi
Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodi 1489–1526, the
youngest son of Sikandar,who succeeded
him after his death.
He was a fearless military
leader and kept out the
opposition for almost a
decade.By the time Ibrahim
ascended the throne, the
political structure in the Lodi
Dynasty had dissolved due
to abandoned trade routes
and the depleted treasury.
Ibrahim’s Tomb
• In the late 15th century the supply lines of the
Deccan had collapsed.
• Sultan Ibrahim being the military man,
gathered military support and killed his
brother and reunited the kingdom by the end
of that same year in 1517.
• After this , he arrested Afghan nobles who
opposed him.
• The Afghan nobles tended to be loyal to the
Governor of Bihar, Dariya Khan because they
wanted him to rule Delhi, not Sultan Ibrahim.
Men who tried to take over the Lodi throne were extremely
common during Sultan Ibrahim’s time.
.
Due to the lack of this law of succession, Ibrahim was forced
to put down a great deal of these ambitious men
His own uncle, Alam Khan,betrayed Ibrahim because he wanted
to rule Delhi.
Khan pledged his allegiance to Babur as well.Sultan Ibrahim’s
death lead to the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India. He
was the last emperor of the Lodi dynasty.
 What was left of his empire was absorbed into the new Mughal
Empire. Babur continued to engage in more military campaigns.
 Due to the demands of the nobles, his younger brother Jalal
Khan was given a small share of the kingdom and was crowned the
ruler of Jaunpur.
Ibrahim was known to be a very stern ruler and was not liked
much by his subjects.
Ibrahim Lodhi was thus killed in a battle with Babur who was the
founder of the Mughal dynasty in India.
With the death of Ibrahim Lodhi, the Lodhi dynasty also came to
an end.
The lodi dynasty was not able to protect if warfare were to break
out on thre trade routes.
Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodi was easily threatened because his
region was surrounded by several other dynasties and territories
Did not fight against each other because of religious affairs.
Babur and Sultan Ibrahim were both Sunni Muslims.
o After Sultan Ibrahim’s tragic death on the
battle field, Babur named himself emperor over
Sultan Ibrahim’s territory, instead of placing
Alam Khan (Ibrahim’s uncle) on the throne.
o Babur continued to engage in more military
campaigns.
o Babar managed to boost the morale of his
troops, which enabled them to defeat the
Rajputs
The Period Of Decline Of The Delhi
Sultanate
Muhammad Tughlaq’s reign
• Rebellion in different parts of the country.
• He dashed from one part of the country to another to
suppress the rebellion.
• The Delhi Sultanate began to disintegrate following
the death of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. His successor
Firoz Shah was not able to rescue the Tughlaq
dynasty from its decline and eventually it was
overthrown.
• After Firoz Shah, the struggle for power between the
sultans and the nobles started once again.
• Eventually the governors of nobles became
independent and the sultan of Delhi was confined
virtually to a small area surrounding Delhi.
TIMUR’S INVASION
•The weakness of the Delhi Sultanate was made
worse by Timur’s invasion of Delhi(1398).
•His motive was to seize the wealth accumulated by
the sultans of Delhi over the last 200 years.
•Timur’s invasion once again showed the danger of
a weak government in India . It resulted in the drain
of large amount of wealth, gold, silver jewellery etc
from India.
•The invasion of Timur , may however be regarded
as making the end of the phase of strong rule by
Delhi sultans, although the Tughlaq dynasty itself
lingered on till 1412.
•One political reason for the decline of the sultanate
was the absence of any well established and
universally accepted law of succession.
•The nobles became the king makers and controlled
the weak sultans.
•The responsibility of the disintegration of the Delhi
sultanate cannot be ascribed to anyone ruler.
• There were some persistant problems during
the medival times, such as the –
1.Relations between the monarch and the
nobles.
2.The conflicts with the local rulers and
zamindars.
3.The pull of regional and geographical factors
etc.
• Feroz instituted a series of reforms aimed at
appeasing the nobles and the soldiers but
which , however weakened the central
machinery of administration.
Summary
• Ibrahim Lodi died on April 21, 1526, at Panipat. He
was the last Afghan sultan of Delhi. He was a
suspicious tyrant who increasingly alienated his
nobles during his reign.
• The son of Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim succeeded the
throne on his father’s death (Nov. 21, 1517) and was
quickly faced with continuing disputes between the
royal family and Afghan nobles. One noble, Dawlat
Khan Lodi, governor of Punjab, fearing for his own
safety, called in the Mughal king of Kabul, Babur,
who advanced toward Delhi and defeated and killed
Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat. This victory
led to the establishment of mughal rule in india.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
In 1538, the Mughal emperor
Humayun laid the foundations
of his city named Dinpanah,
or the Refuge of the Faithful.
The inner citadel of this city
is today called Purana Qila or
the Old Fort
The highest stone tower in
India, the Qutub Minar was
built by Qutbuddin Aibak,
the viceroy of Mohammed
Ghori in 1192.
It was built to celebrate Ghori's
victory over the Rajputs
The Red Fort, with a
circumference of over 2.2
kilometers,
was laid out by the banks of
the Yamuna river in the 17th
century.
The Mughal emperor Shajahan
built it with the ambition of
the Mughal power in one
monument.
is perhaps not the right word.
A mini-city is more like it.
This solemn monument was built
in memory of the 90,000 Indian
soldiers who died in World War I.
It was built in 1931, designed
by Lutyens, and was originally
called the All India War Memorial
The Jantar Mantar was built in
1710 by Raja Jai Singh II of
Jaipur (1699-1743) in Delhi.
This is an observatory consisting
of mason-built astronomical
instruments to chart the course
of the heavens. Jai Singh, who
was a very scholarly king with
a very keen interest in astronomy
and astrology.
The house that houses
the President of India and
the house that boasts of
having welcomed the most
powerful men in history.
The Rashtrapati Bhavan
was designed by Edwin
Lutyens and built in 1931,
to be the central point of the
British power in Delhi
The Teen Murti Bhavan housed
the first Prime Minister of India,
Jawaharlal Nehru.
It was designed by Robert
Tor Russel, the architect of
Connaught Place, the Eastern
and Western Courts on Janpath
On 31st Jan. 1948, Mahatma Gandhi's
last rites were performed here.
The memorial stone of Gandhi is
square in shape made of black stone
His last ward- 'Hey Ram' is inscribed
on it. Ordinary people, VIPs, foreign
tourists all come here at
to pay their homage to him
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's
last rites was performed here on
27 May, 1964. A tombstone has
been erected on his funeral place.
Next to it, the tomb of Sanjay Gandhi
who was died in a plane crash in 1980.
Built by Shah Jahan
in 1658, it is one of
the largest mosques
in India with a seating
capacity of more than
20,000
This is the tomb of the famous
sufi saint, Nizam-ud-din Auliya.
The tomb has been through
several renovations ever since
it was built. The present
mausoleum dates back to 1562.
Humayun's tomb is known as the first
example of the monumental scale that
would characterize subsequent Mughal
imperial architecture.The tomb is the
first to mark the grave of a Mughal
emperor; Humayun's father Babur,
who founded the dynasty,
Humayun's Tomb is now one
of the best-preserved Mughal
monuments in Delhi.
The temple represents the Bahai
faith which is broad in its outlook.
This gleaming lotus- like marble
structure is located on Bahapur Hills.
This structure, completed in 1986,
is a marvel of modern architecture.
Set amidst pools and gardens,
the view of the temple is very
spectacular just before dusk
when the temple is flood lit.
Also known as the Lakshmi Narayan
Temple, it is ideally located in central
Delhi (Mandir Marg). This temple
dedicated to the goddess of wealth,
Lakshmi and Lord Narayana
(Lord Vishnu) was built in 1938
by the prominent Indian industrialist
Raja Baldev Das Birla and inaugurated
by Mahatma Gandhi.
Built on a hilly place in 1998,
the ISKCON Temple is a complex
of temples. Dedicated to
Lord Krishna,
this elegant temple is one
of the largest temple complexes
in India. It has a large number
of Hare-Rama Hare-Krishna cult
followers.
Located very close to
Kashmere Gate in north
Delhi, St. James Church
is the oldest church in the
capital. It was built by
James Skinner and
consecrated in 1836
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
The famous Mughal Gardens
is located in the premises of the
Rashtrapati Bhavan - the official
residence of the President of India.
The building and gardens designed
by Sir Edwin Lutyens span an area of
about 320 acres that include colourful
flowering shrubs and European
flowerbeds.
It is one of the most important
Moghul gardens in the city.
The Shalimar Garden, which
lies in the suburbs of the city,
was once the first-night staging
post for the Moghuls on their
way to Kashmir and Lahore.
In 1658, Aurangzeb was crowned
emperor here.
The beautiful central pavilion
built by Shah Jahan is now in a
fairly advanced state of decay.
Some of the original painted
flower decoration has survived.
In these well-maintained gardens
are the domed tombs of Sayyid
and Lodi rulers..
In the middle of the garden is
Bara Gumbad (Big Dome),
a mosque built in 1494. The
garden has Sheesh Gumbad
Mohammad Shah's Tomb and
Sikander Lodi's tomb.
The Delhi zoological Park,
close to Purana Qila, near
ITO, was established in 1959
and is spread a massive area
of 214 acres is regarded as one
of the finest zoos in Asia and
efforts have been made to
provide an almost natural
habitat to the animals and
birds.
At Palam-bound Sardar
Patel Marg via Karol Bagh
opp. Assam House is
Buddha Jayanti Park
founded on the auspicious
eve of 2500 years of
completion of Buddhas Great
Salvation.
The grand, ancient-styled
Swaminarayan Akshardham
complex was built in only
five years through the blessings
of HDH Pramukh Swami Maharaj
of the Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar
Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha
(BAPS) and the colossal devotional
efforts of 11,000 and BAPS volunteers.
The complex was inaugurated on
6 November, 2005.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
Chandni Chowk meaning the Moonlight
Square, was designed and laid by
Jahanara Begum. There was Najafgarh
pond, the water of which glittered
while reflecting the moonlight.
The palace of the Begum, which
today has the biggest electrical
market of north India.
History says that the emperor thought
about founding this market in Old Delhi
to satisfy his daughter's shopping spree.
Connaught Place, built in 1931,
is one of Delhi's most popular
shopping centres...
The state emporia buildings are
also located in this area so are the
head offices of major banks, airlines
and other such things. The complex,
popularly referred to as CP.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
National Museum located on
Janpath is a treasure house of
India ’s glorious past. It has in
possession over 2,00,000 works
of exquisite art both of Indian and
Foreign origin covering more than
5,000 years of cultural heritage.
National Gallery of Modern Art,
housed in the residence of
Jaipur's
former maharajas near India
Gate,
has a superb collection of
paintings
dating from 150 years ago to the
present day.
Crafts Museum at Pragati Maidan
Grounds. It has galleries displaying
India 's rich tradition of handicrafts.
An added attraction is the presence
of craftsperson who are bought here
from different parts of the country to
demonstrate their skills.
Nehru Memorial Museum and
Planetarium
is located at Teen Murti house, the
residence of India 's first Prime minister
Jawaharlal Nehru. After his death the
house was converted into a memorial
The Nehru memorial has a collection
of gifts and many other items which
he possessed. Nehru Planetarium is
within the compound of Teen Murti.
This planetarium gives a overview of
the Indian Space program.
The Gandhi Memorial Museum has
a collection of memorabilia on
Mahatma Gandhi.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
The Parliament House is one of the
most magnificent buildings in New
Delhi which has one of the brightest
clusters of architectural gems
possessed by any country in the world.
The building was designed by two
famous architects – Sir Edwin Lutyens
and Sir Herbert Baker – who were
responsible for the planning and
construction of New Delhi.
The Supreme Court of India is the
highest court in the country and
moved to the current building in 1958.
The building is shaped to project the
image of the scales of justice with the
Central Wing (above) corresponding to
the centre beam of the scales. In 1979,
two new wings - the East Wing
and West Wing - were added to the
complex. In all there 15 Court Rooms in
various wings of the building. The Chief
Justice's Court is the largest of the
Courts located in the centre of the
Central Wing.
The Secretariat Building was designed by
the British Architect, Herbert Baker. The
building isinfluenced by both Moghul and
Rajputana styles of Architecture.The
building houses the Ministries of Defence,
Finance, External Affairs, Home
Affairs and The Prime Ministers Office.
There are two buildings: The North Block
and South Block which both flank
Rashtrapati Bhavan.
History of Delhi- Final.ppt
Established in 1951, and named in honour of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan .
One of the most chic and classy shopping markets of the capital city.
Some of the best things about this market is its interesting book shops and
lampshades.
Khan Chachas kebabs are worth a visit
KHAN MARKET
It is one of the narrowest, busiest and most prosperous trading centers of Delhi.
The lanes of Chandini Chowk are divided into bazaars with different areas of
specialization for fabrics, head to Katra Neel ,Dariba Kalan is Old Delhis ancient
silver market, full of silver jewelry. It is well known for typical Delhi foods
Chandini Chowk
Janpath is famous for silver and inexpensive jewellery . It is the perfect for
buying the latest fashion goods at cheap prices . One thing to remember
while shopping at Janpath is to bargain as much as you can. There is no
limit to how low you can get the prices.
Janpath
Dilli Haat is spread over an area of approximately 6 acres and has a typical
traditional Indian village look to boast of An exotic variety of handicrafts and
handlooms ranging from intricate woodcarvings to embellished camel hide
footwear, to sophisticated fabric and drapery, to gems and beads to metal crafts
offers an amalgamation of handicrafts, food and cultural activities
Dilli Haat
THE DELHI
FOOD
very delicious chaat, boiled potatoes (aloo) are cubed, fried, and
spiced up, then served hot with toothpicks.
This street chaat, or snack, is a golden-fried potato (aloo) patty,
often stuffed with something with peas and served with a
variety of spicy chutneys, and chole (chickpeas)
Chole bhature is a Punjabi concoction of spicy curried
chickpeas (chole) and puffy fried white-flour bread (bhature),
(it’s also known as chana bhatura).
The perfect cooling chaat—and stomach soother—on a hot Delhi
day, dahi bhalla consists of creamy dahi and bhalla, bready fried
lentil fritters (usually of urad dal).
This very popular chaat,spicy, crunchy, saucy, all in one explosive
bite-size package. Also widely known as pani puri, it consists of a
round hollow, crispy that’s filled with potato, chickpea, and flavored
water, usually tamarind and/or mint
A popular dessert A popular dessert gulab jamuns are little golden-
brown balls made of milk solids and flour, that are deep-fried,
coated in a sugary syrup, and served warm.
Moong dal halwa come in many shapes, flavors, and textures. It
is made from ground and sweetened mung beans cooked in ghee
A definitive street chaat of Delhi, papri chaat is called so for the
crispy-fried round wafers (papri) that give it its addictive crunch. In
the style of typical chaat, the papri is accompanied by boiled
potato, chickpeas, chaat masala, a yogurt sauce, and tamarind
and coriander chutneys, pomegranate seeds. An absolutely
perfect marriage of spicy, sweet, tangy, soothing, and crunchy
One of the most oldest and
progressive cities in the world,
Delhi is the capital of world's
largest democracy, India.
The city is a perfect
amalgamation of ancient
and modern. The history of India
is related to the history of Delhi.
THANK YOU !!
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History of Delhi- Final.ppt

  • 3.  Delhi is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded around 5000 BC.  Hindu texts state that the city Delhi used to be referred to in Sanskrit as Hastinapur, which means elephant-city  Delhi has always been a convenient link between Central Asia, the northwest frontiers and the rest of the country.
  • 5. • The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history. Raja Dhilu (King Dihlu) founded ancient Delhi in 800 BC. • The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya Period (300 BC); since then, the site has seen continuous settlement • In 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri, which is near Noida. • Two sandstone pillars inscribed with the edicts of Ashoka were brought to the city by Firuz Shah Tughluq in the 14th century. • The famous Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar was commissioned by the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the Gupta dynasty (320-540) and transplanted to Delhi during the 10th century.
  • 6. The Tomar Rajput dynasty founded Lal Kot in 736 near the Qutub Minar. The Chauhan Rajput kings of Ajmer conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. The Chauhan king Prithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by the Afghan Muhammad Ghori. Anangpal Tomar, a Chandravan -shi Rajput ruler of Delhi , often described as the founder of Delhi, built the citadel Suraj Kund around 731.
  • 8. City :- Indraprastha Date :-1450 BC (approx.) Site :- In Purana Qila City :- Lal Kot or Qila Rai Pithora Date :- 1060 AD; built by Rajput Tomaras. Site :- QutubMinar-Mehrauli complex. City :- Tughlaqabad Date :- 1321-23 AD. Built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Site :- 8km from the Qutub complex. City :-Jahanpanah Date :- Mid-14th century. Built by Mohammad- bin-Tughlaq, Site :- Between Siri and Qutub Minar City :- Siri Date :-1304 AD; built by Alauddin Khilji. Site :- Near Hauz Khas and Gulmohar Park
  • 9. City :- New Delhi Date :- 1920s. The formal announcement to move the seat of power from Calcutta to Delhi of India. Site :- Connaught Place and Rajpath. City :-Ferozabad Date :- 1354 AD; by Feroze Tughlaq. Site:- Kotla Feroze Shah. City :- Dilli Sher Shahi (Shergarh) Date :- 1534; This Delhi was actually started by Humayun, Site :- Opposite the zoo. Around Purana Qila. City :- Shajahanabad Date :- Mid-17th century. Shah Jahan, Site :- The existing Old Delhi, the Red Fort, Jama Masjid
  • 18. INTRODUCTION The Delhi sultanate is a noble example for the glory of medieval India. Its culture, art and architecture that exists even today is praiseworthy. The Sultans of Delhi ruled for quite a long period of 320 years during which there were achievements in different fields.
  • 19.  The period between 1206 AD and 1526 AD in Indian History is known as the Delhi Sultanate.  During this period of over three hundred years five dynasties, (32 kings) ruled in Delhi. These were :  The Slave Dynasty(1206 - 1290)  The Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320)  The Tughlak Dynasty (1320 - 1414)  The Sayyad Dynasty (1414 - 1450)  The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 - 1526)
  • 21. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : 1206 AD o Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-10 AD) o Aram Shah Qutbuddin(1210-1211 AD) o Iltutmish (1211-1236 AD). o Rukhuddin Firoz Shah (1236 AD). o Razziya Sultan (1236-1240 AD) o Muizuddin Bahram ((1240-1242 AD) o (Ghiyasuddin Balban. (1266-1286 AD) o Muizuddin Kaiquabad(1287-1290 AD)
  • 22. Conquest of North India • The period from 1000-1200 AD saw many changes in Central and Western Asia. • There was a break in the Gujarat-Pratihara empire which caused uncertainty and instability in North India. • The Turks began by forming a new state at the north-western border of the country. • Due to increasing conflicts between the Khawarizmi rulers of Iran and Ghurid rulers of Afghanistan, the latter were forced to expand their rule in India. • 2 battles- 1st Battle of Tarain in 1191 and the 2nd Battle of Tarain in 1192 – were fought between the Ghurids and the Chauhans,led by very ambitious rulers of these empires,namely- Muizzuddin Muhammad and Prithviraj Chauhan respectively.
  • 23. • He also fought a war with Jaichandra of the Gahadavala kingdom in 1194, which ended in the former’s defeat which allowed the Ghurid rulers to move further towards Benaras and Bihar establishing his rule North India. • After the victory against the Chauhans, Muizzuddin Muhammad moved back to Central Asia to defeat the ruling Khawarizmi rulers. • They suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Khawarizmis, but it allowed them to concentrate their efforts in India. • In India too Ghurids faced strong opposition from the indigenous people, but Muizzuddin succeeded in suppressing them by 1206.
  • 25. THE MAMELUK OR SLAVE DYNASTY (circa 1200-1526) Mameluk, literally 'owned', was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam. The phenomenon started in 9th century AD and gradually the mameluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies.
  • 26. • The concept of equality in Islam and Muslim traditions reached its climax in the history of South Asia when slaves were raised to the status of Sultan. • The Slave Dynasty ruled the Sub-continent for about 84 years. Qutbuddin Aibak, Shams- ud-din Iltutmush and Ghiyas-ud-din Balban, the three great Sultans of the era, were themselves sold and purchased during their early lives. The Slave Dynasty was the first Muslim dynasty that ruled India.
  • 27. • Muhammad Ghuri had no son so he raised thousands of slaves like his sons. He would then train them in the way royal children were trained. During Ghuri's regime, slaves occupied all key positions in the government machinery. • Three favorite slaves of the Sultan were Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Taj-ud-din Ildiz and Nasir-ud-din Qubachah. He appointed them governors of Delhi, Ghazni and Lahore, respectively. Ghuri never nominated his successor but it was obvious that the successor was to be one of his slaves.
  • 28. • After Ghuri died in 1206, Qutbuddin Aibak was elected as the new Sultan.He was the first Muslim ruler who ruled South Asia and had his headquarters in the region as well. He was also called "Lakh Baksh Sultan". • However, because of his efficient administration and farsighted vision, his name has become inseparable from the history of South Asia. • One of his biggest contributions is the famous Qutub Minar in New Delhi which he constructed firstly to announce the military and official arrival of his faith Islam in the Indian Subcontinent and secondly to announce his triumphant victory over the Rajput forces whom he defeated in a huge battle.
  • 29. • Qutbuddin Aibak was a very refined and inticrate builder. He led the constructions of the security towers, check posts, tax posts and a few of the forts in the most important cities of his empire to avoid plunderings and loots. • His devotion to Islam is attested by two mosques built by him at Delhi and Ajmer. • Aibak died in 1210, from the injuries he received while falling from his horse in a game of polo and thus his rule lasted only 4 years.
  • 30. • He was succeeded by his son Aram Shah, who proved to be incompetent.The Turk nobles invited Iltutmish, one of the slaves and son-in-law of Aibak, to assume charge of the state affairs. • Iltutmish ruled for around 26 years from 1211 to 1236 and was responsible for setting the Sultanate of Delhi on strong footings. • He was the Governor of Badaun when he deposed Qutub-ud-din's successor Aram Shah and acceeded to the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in 1211.
  • 31. • He remained the ruler until his death.He is regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in in North India. • After ascending the throne, he was engaged in a series of battles and thus extended his empire. • In 1229 AD, he was honored with the title of Sultan-I-Azam (Great Sultan) from Ali Mastansir Billah, the Khalifah of Baghdad. • During his reign, Iltutmish averted the attack led by the famous Mongol Chengiz Khan.
  • 32. • Following the death of Iltutmish in 1236 there was a series of weak rulers and a war of succession started between his children. First Rukn-ud-din Firuz sat on the throne for seven months. He was viewed as unfit to rule and was thus murdered. • He was replaced by Raziya Sultana(1236-1239). A shrewd politician, Razia managed to keep the chiefs in check(they had thought she would be a puppet on the throne whom they could control), while enlisting the support of the army and the people. Her greatest accomplishment on the political front was to manipulate rebel factions into opposing each other. • Another son of Iltutmush, Bahram, took over from Raziya Sultana in 1239. He declared himself king with the support of the forty chiefs. Raziya tried to regain the throne with the aid of her husband Altunia, a chief of Bathinda, but was defeated and killed in a fight with bandits
  • 33. • During Bahram's two years as king, the chiefs that had originally supported him became disordered and constantly fought with each other. It was during this period of unrest that he was murdered by his own army. • Next, Masud, son of Rukn-ud-din Firuz, became Sultan from 1242 to 1245. • He was replaced by the youngest son of Iltutmush, Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, who became Sultan in 1245. Though Mahmud ruled India for around 20 years, but throughout his tenure the main power remained in the hands of Balban.
  • 34.  On death of Mahmud, Ghiyas-ud-din Balban directly took over the throne and ruled Delhi. During his rule from 1266 to 1287, Balban consolidated the administrative set up of the empire and completed the work started by Iltutmush.  Balban[1200-1287] was captured by the Mongols when he was a child. They sold him in Baghdad. Later he was brought to Delhi where Iltutmush purchased him. He was one of the Chalgan (a group of the forty most important nobles of the court). While Nasir-ud-din spent most of his time engrossed in religious affairs, Balban was the real ruler. Nasir-ud-din married Balban's daughter, which made the latter even more powerful. After the death of Nasir-ud-din, Balban became the Sultan.
  • 35. • Balban considered himself, the king, as the deputy of God on earth. He organized his court on the pattern of the courts of Irani kings. Nobody could even dare smile in his court. Soldiers armed with unsheathed swords marched along beside him wherever he went. • Balban established the department of intelligence. He spread his spies in all departments used them to gather information about all political developments and conspiracies. This helped him in taking action to stop trouble before it started. • In order to win the confidence of the people,he administered impartial justice-not even the highest of the land were spared if they had transgressed his authority
  • 36. • As a Sultan, Balban adopted a blood and iron policy.He knew the Chalgan did not like his growing power of and were jealous of his ascent. After becoming Sultan, Balban decided to crush them. He had some murdered while others were banished to far off places. • During Nasir-ud-din's rule, the Mongols had advanced many times and plundered Lahore. In order to check the Mongol invasion, Balban built new forts and ordered the repair of the old ones.He deployed the best of his troops on the northern borders to check the Mongols. His policies paid off, as he managed to stop the Mongol threat from advancing into his territories.
  • 37. • The greatest setback for Balban in his entire life was the death of his favorite son, Prince Muhammad, during the war against the Mongols. • He realized that without his son, the centralized monarchy that had been built up with such care was bound to dissolve again, as it had at the death of Iltutmush. This realization probably broke him. • He never recovered from the death of Prince Muhammad and died in 1287.
  • 38. Ghiyas ud din Tughlaq • Real name-Ghazi Malik • Was a slave to Ghiyas ud din Balban of Turkey. • Established Tughlaq Dynasty in 1320 A.D • Built the 3rd city of Delhi, Tughlaqabad • Was allegedly killed by his own son
  • 39. The ideal Idiot-Muhammad bin Tughlaq • His rule began from 1325AD • Now for his brilliance, paired with eccentricity. • Attempted at shifting his capital from Delhi to Deogiri • Renamed it Daulatabad • Caused great deal of trouble to his subjects, as also to the army and administration • Many people found it intolerable and fell home-sick.
  • 40. Currency Change • Switched currency from Silver to brass and copper tokens • Some say, it was to fill his own treasury in a bid to conquer the whole world • It may also have been due to the ongoing shortage of silver at that time. • Most historians believe he was influenced from the paper currency in use in China during his rule.
  • 41. The Idealism • He is said to be one of the most learned and accomplished men of his age • His scientific and literary acumen was unmatched in his age • He was a master in the subject of History. • His favourite pastime was to sit next to patients to learn proper diagnosis when among with physicians. • He was very liberal in natural and made hospitals and alms-houses on a large scale for the poor and widowed.
  • 42. Qaim khan Jalal ud din firuz khalji Rukn-ud din ibrahim (desposed) Alauddin khalji. Shahab-ud din umar Qutb-ud din mubarak shah KHALJI DYNASTY
  • 43. The Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD) • The Khaljis, wrongly believed to be Afghans were actually Turks who had for a long time settled in the region of Afghanistan, called Khalj and adopted Afghan manners and customs. • The Ghaznavid and Ghurid invasions and Mongol pressure from Central Asia and pushed them into Hindustan. • Jalal-ud-din Khalji (1290-1296 AD) was the first Khalji ruler. • He was succeeded by Ala-ud-din Khalji (1296- 1316 AD) who introduced several economic and political reforms. • Ala-ud-din’s successors, Shihab-ud-din Umar , Mubarak and Khusro Khan ruled upto 1320 AD one after the other.
  • 44. Jalal-ud-din Khalji (1290-1320 AD) • First ruler of The Khalji Dynasty. • Stated that India could not be a truly Islamic state as majority Indians were Hindus. • Allowed Turkish nobles to keep their posts. • Led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambor.
  • 45. Ala-ud-din Khalji • Alauddin was the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty. He is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty, reigning from 1296 to 1316. • Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son in law of Jalaluddin. He entered Delhi with his uncle's head on a pike and on October 3, 1296, proclaimed himself the King of Delhi. • In 1297, Alauddin sent an army to plunder Gujarat, under the generalship of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan. This army looted the temple of Somnath and the Shivalinga was broken into pieces and was being carried back to Delhi.
  • 46. • Alauddin who ordered him and Nusrat Khan to conquer Ranthambore. In 1299 they started out with 80,000 cavalry and a large infantry to attack Hammir Dev Chauhan. Hammir's army repulsed the attack and killed Nusrat Khan. Ulugh Khan escaped and reached Delhi. Khilji was taken aback by this defeat and wanted revenge. • He finally came himself in 1301, and there was a long siege. Hammir was very well prepared. When the fort would not fall after repeated bloody skirmishes, Khilji resorted to diplomacy. • Alauddin then led an expedition towards the south of India. He was said to be the first Muslim king who went to the south to expand his territory. • He made a slave named Malik Kafur the army chief. Kafur proved to be a brave army chief and plundered many kingdoms in the south of India.
  • 47. • The constant successes in the battles made Malik Kafur very powerful. At one point of time, Alauddin was reduced to a puppet dancing to his tunes. Finally, Malik Kafur is said to have poisoned Alauddin Khilji and murdered him. • Alauddin Khilji is known for his war tactics when the Mongols attacked Delhi. • The Mongols attacked almost a dozen times during the reign of Alauddin Khilji. Every time, some division of Alauddin's army defeated them. • However, in 1299, the Mongols came to Delhi not rob, but to establish themselves. This time, Alauddin went with a huge army and brutally defeated the Mongols. • Alauddin died in January 1316, of oedema. His tomb and madarsa dedicated to him, exists at the back of Qutb complex, Mehrauli, in Delhi
  • 48. The Madarsa of Ala-ud-din Khalji
  • 49. The Tomb of Ala-ud-din Khalji
  • 50. The Fall Of The Khaljis • The last days of Ala-ud-din Khalji were embittered by troubles and misfortunes. In the midst of these troubles Ala-ud-din died in 1316 AD. • After his death Malik Kafur tried to become the Sultan of Delhi. He became over ambitious. While trying to dispose off his rivals, he was killed. • Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah, the successor of Ala-ud-din Khalji, came to the throne in 1316 AD. • Khusro Khan was a Hindu slave of the Makwana sect of Gujarat who resented his forcible conversion to Islam. He murdered Qutb- ud-din in 1320 AD. • Ghazi Tughlaq, the governor of the Frontier Province, murdered Khusro Khan in 1320 AD and came to the throne. He assumed the title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and became the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty.
  • 51. TUGHLAQ DYNASTY Rajab sipap salar Firuz shah Fath khan Ghiyas-ud- din tughlaq ii Nusrat shah Zafar khan Abu bakr Muhammad shah Mahmud shah Sikandar khan ghiyas-ud din tughlaq Muhammad juna.
  • 52. Firuz shah Tughlaq (1309- 1388)  Firuz shah tughlaq was born in 1309.  Firuz Tughlaq was formally coronated somewhere around 23rd of march 1357.  He enjoyed a reign of thirty seven years (1357- 88).  Firuz Tughlaq was by no means a distinguished military leader but was a benevolent ruler who truly cared for his subjects.
  • 53. • He was keenly interested in the economic improvement of the empire. He used the state resources for public welfare activities. • He led a campaign against the ruler of jajnagar and two campaigns into Bengal and was unsuccessful. He thus decided not to conquer the areas that had broken away and maintain a strong hold over the areas still in his hands. • He decreed that whenever a noble died his son would succeed him. This principle applied to the army as well. • He imposed only 4 types of taxes on his subjects and abolished the 24 which previoulsy existed. • He banned inhumane punishments like cutting of hands fingers etc. for small offences • He employed kotwals to make a list of unemployed people and provided them with employment. He also provided dowries for the poor.
  • 54. • Firuz Tughlaq opened a charitable hospital in the capital (Daru sh shifa) for the benefit of all. Physicians were appointed for indoor as well as outdoor patients who were supplied free medicines and food. • He set up a large department of public works which worked for after his building program. • He dug and repaired a number of canals. These canals were built for irrigation as well as to for water supply. • He built a number of new towns. A few still stand like Hissar (now in Haryana) and Firuzabad (now in Uttar Pradesh) • Firuz shah tughlaq died around 20th September 1388. Firuz Tughlaq was the last great ruler of the empire after his death the decline of the empire began.
  • 55. • All the six successors of Firuz Tughlaq including one son and five grandsons were phantom rulers • His successors:  Ghiyas-ud din Tughlaq shah ii (his grandson) (1388-89)  Abu bakr (1389-90)  Nasir-ud-din muhammad shah iii (1390-94)  Ala-ud-din sikandar shah i (1394)  Nasir-ud-din muhammad shah Tughlaq (1394-1412)  Nusrat-shah tughlaq (1412-14) • The successors of Firuz being non- entities do not deserve a place among the sovereign rulers of the great empire. • The responsibility of degeneration of the empire cannot be attributed to any one ruler.
  • 57. The Sayyid Dynasty ruled Delhi Sultanate in India from 1414 to 1451. The succeeded the Tugluq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of 4 different members of the dynasty. The four rulers during this very period were Khizr Khan(1414-1421), Mubarak Shah(1421-1434), Muhammad Shah(1434-1445), Alam Shah(1445-1451)
  • 58. • Khizr Khan was the founder ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. He mostly engaged himself in keeping intact the territory of the sultanate which he had acquired in the beginning of his reign. The sultanate of Delhi could not gain ascendancy during this time and therefore remained one of the states among certain other significant states of the north.
  • 59. Mubarak Shah ascended the throne without any opposition after the death of his father Khizr Khan. He did not accept suzerainty of any foreign power. He also saved the Delhi sultanate from the nominal suzerainty of a foreign power and issued coins in his name. He fought for 13 years against his external and internal enemies and thus kept the territory intact.
  • 60. • Muhammad Shah was the nephew of Mubarak Shah and was nominated as the successor of his uncle. He was an incapable ruler and therefore paved the way for the downfall of the dynasty. Muhammad shah failed to safeguard his kingdom from internal disruption and foreign attacks. Thus he failed as a ruler and the decline began.
  • 61. After the death of Muhammad Shah in 1444, his son took over the throne under the title of Alam Shah. During the year 1447, he visited a place called Badaun and loved it so much that he decided to stay there forever.He ruled Badaun till he died in the year 1478, with his death the Sayyid dynasty came to an end.
  • 63. Lodi Dynasty  The Lodi dynasty in India arose around 1451 after the Sayyid dynasty. The Lodhi Empire was established by the Ghizlai tribe of the Afghans.  They formed the last phase of the Delhi Sultanate.  There were three main rulers in the history of lodi dynasty:- 1) Bahlul lodi 2) Sikander lodi 3) Ibrahim lodi
  • 64. Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodi 1489–1526, the youngest son of Sikandar,who succeeded him after his death. He was a fearless military leader and kept out the opposition for almost a decade.By the time Ibrahim ascended the throne, the political structure in the Lodi Dynasty had dissolved due to abandoned trade routes and the depleted treasury.
  • 66. • In the late 15th century the supply lines of the Deccan had collapsed. • Sultan Ibrahim being the military man, gathered military support and killed his brother and reunited the kingdom by the end of that same year in 1517. • After this , he arrested Afghan nobles who opposed him. • The Afghan nobles tended to be loyal to the Governor of Bihar, Dariya Khan because they wanted him to rule Delhi, not Sultan Ibrahim.
  • 67. Men who tried to take over the Lodi throne were extremely common during Sultan Ibrahim’s time. . Due to the lack of this law of succession, Ibrahim was forced to put down a great deal of these ambitious men His own uncle, Alam Khan,betrayed Ibrahim because he wanted to rule Delhi. Khan pledged his allegiance to Babur as well.Sultan Ibrahim’s death lead to the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India. He was the last emperor of the Lodi dynasty.  What was left of his empire was absorbed into the new Mughal Empire. Babur continued to engage in more military campaigns.  Due to the demands of the nobles, his younger brother Jalal Khan was given a small share of the kingdom and was crowned the ruler of Jaunpur.
  • 68. Ibrahim was known to be a very stern ruler and was not liked much by his subjects. Ibrahim Lodhi was thus killed in a battle with Babur who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India. With the death of Ibrahim Lodhi, the Lodhi dynasty also came to an end. The lodi dynasty was not able to protect if warfare were to break out on thre trade routes. Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodi was easily threatened because his region was surrounded by several other dynasties and territories Did not fight against each other because of religious affairs. Babur and Sultan Ibrahim were both Sunni Muslims.
  • 69. o After Sultan Ibrahim’s tragic death on the battle field, Babur named himself emperor over Sultan Ibrahim’s territory, instead of placing Alam Khan (Ibrahim’s uncle) on the throne. o Babur continued to engage in more military campaigns. o Babar managed to boost the morale of his troops, which enabled them to defeat the Rajputs
  • 70. The Period Of Decline Of The Delhi Sultanate
  • 71. Muhammad Tughlaq’s reign • Rebellion in different parts of the country. • He dashed from one part of the country to another to suppress the rebellion. • The Delhi Sultanate began to disintegrate following the death of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. His successor Firoz Shah was not able to rescue the Tughlaq dynasty from its decline and eventually it was overthrown. • After Firoz Shah, the struggle for power between the sultans and the nobles started once again. • Eventually the governors of nobles became independent and the sultan of Delhi was confined virtually to a small area surrounding Delhi.
  • 72. TIMUR’S INVASION •The weakness of the Delhi Sultanate was made worse by Timur’s invasion of Delhi(1398). •His motive was to seize the wealth accumulated by the sultans of Delhi over the last 200 years. •Timur’s invasion once again showed the danger of a weak government in India . It resulted in the drain of large amount of wealth, gold, silver jewellery etc from India. •The invasion of Timur , may however be regarded as making the end of the phase of strong rule by Delhi sultans, although the Tughlaq dynasty itself lingered on till 1412.
  • 73. •One political reason for the decline of the sultanate was the absence of any well established and universally accepted law of succession. •The nobles became the king makers and controlled the weak sultans. •The responsibility of the disintegration of the Delhi sultanate cannot be ascribed to anyone ruler.
  • 74. • There were some persistant problems during the medival times, such as the – 1.Relations between the monarch and the nobles. 2.The conflicts with the local rulers and zamindars. 3.The pull of regional and geographical factors etc. • Feroz instituted a series of reforms aimed at appeasing the nobles and the soldiers but which , however weakened the central machinery of administration.
  • 75. Summary • Ibrahim Lodi died on April 21, 1526, at Panipat. He was the last Afghan sultan of Delhi. He was a suspicious tyrant who increasingly alienated his nobles during his reign. • The son of Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim succeeded the throne on his father’s death (Nov. 21, 1517) and was quickly faced with continuing disputes between the royal family and Afghan nobles. One noble, Dawlat Khan Lodi, governor of Punjab, fearing for his own safety, called in the Mughal king of Kabul, Babur, who advanced toward Delhi and defeated and killed Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat. This victory led to the establishment of mughal rule in india.
  • 77. In 1538, the Mughal emperor Humayun laid the foundations of his city named Dinpanah, or the Refuge of the Faithful. The inner citadel of this city is today called Purana Qila or the Old Fort
  • 78. The highest stone tower in India, the Qutub Minar was built by Qutbuddin Aibak, the viceroy of Mohammed Ghori in 1192. It was built to celebrate Ghori's victory over the Rajputs
  • 79. The Red Fort, with a circumference of over 2.2 kilometers, was laid out by the banks of the Yamuna river in the 17th century. The Mughal emperor Shajahan built it with the ambition of the Mughal power in one monument. is perhaps not the right word. A mini-city is more like it.
  • 80. This solemn monument was built in memory of the 90,000 Indian soldiers who died in World War I. It was built in 1931, designed by Lutyens, and was originally called the All India War Memorial
  • 81. The Jantar Mantar was built in 1710 by Raja Jai Singh II of Jaipur (1699-1743) in Delhi. This is an observatory consisting of mason-built astronomical instruments to chart the course of the heavens. Jai Singh, who was a very scholarly king with a very keen interest in astronomy and astrology.
  • 82. The house that houses the President of India and the house that boasts of having welcomed the most powerful men in history. The Rashtrapati Bhavan was designed by Edwin Lutyens and built in 1931, to be the central point of the British power in Delhi
  • 83. The Teen Murti Bhavan housed the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. It was designed by Robert Tor Russel, the architect of Connaught Place, the Eastern and Western Courts on Janpath
  • 84. On 31st Jan. 1948, Mahatma Gandhi's last rites were performed here. The memorial stone of Gandhi is square in shape made of black stone His last ward- 'Hey Ram' is inscribed on it. Ordinary people, VIPs, foreign tourists all come here at to pay their homage to him
  • 85. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's last rites was performed here on 27 May, 1964. A tombstone has been erected on his funeral place. Next to it, the tomb of Sanjay Gandhi who was died in a plane crash in 1980.
  • 86. Built by Shah Jahan in 1658, it is one of the largest mosques in India with a seating capacity of more than 20,000
  • 87. This is the tomb of the famous sufi saint, Nizam-ud-din Auliya. The tomb has been through several renovations ever since it was built. The present mausoleum dates back to 1562.
  • 88. Humayun's tomb is known as the first example of the monumental scale that would characterize subsequent Mughal imperial architecture.The tomb is the first to mark the grave of a Mughal emperor; Humayun's father Babur, who founded the dynasty, Humayun's Tomb is now one of the best-preserved Mughal monuments in Delhi.
  • 89. The temple represents the Bahai faith which is broad in its outlook. This gleaming lotus- like marble structure is located on Bahapur Hills. This structure, completed in 1986, is a marvel of modern architecture. Set amidst pools and gardens, the view of the temple is very spectacular just before dusk when the temple is flood lit.
  • 90. Also known as the Lakshmi Narayan Temple, it is ideally located in central Delhi (Mandir Marg). This temple dedicated to the goddess of wealth, Lakshmi and Lord Narayana (Lord Vishnu) was built in 1938 by the prominent Indian industrialist Raja Baldev Das Birla and inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • 91. Built on a hilly place in 1998, the ISKCON Temple is a complex of temples. Dedicated to Lord Krishna, this elegant temple is one of the largest temple complexes in India. It has a large number of Hare-Rama Hare-Krishna cult followers.
  • 92. Located very close to Kashmere Gate in north Delhi, St. James Church is the oldest church in the capital. It was built by James Skinner and consecrated in 1836
  • 94. The famous Mughal Gardens is located in the premises of the Rashtrapati Bhavan - the official residence of the President of India. The building and gardens designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens span an area of about 320 acres that include colourful flowering shrubs and European flowerbeds.
  • 95. It is one of the most important Moghul gardens in the city. The Shalimar Garden, which lies in the suburbs of the city, was once the first-night staging post for the Moghuls on their way to Kashmir and Lahore. In 1658, Aurangzeb was crowned emperor here.
  • 96. The beautiful central pavilion built by Shah Jahan is now in a fairly advanced state of decay. Some of the original painted flower decoration has survived.
  • 97. In these well-maintained gardens are the domed tombs of Sayyid and Lodi rulers.. In the middle of the garden is Bara Gumbad (Big Dome), a mosque built in 1494. The garden has Sheesh Gumbad Mohammad Shah's Tomb and Sikander Lodi's tomb.
  • 98. The Delhi zoological Park, close to Purana Qila, near ITO, was established in 1959 and is spread a massive area of 214 acres is regarded as one of the finest zoos in Asia and efforts have been made to provide an almost natural habitat to the animals and birds.
  • 99. At Palam-bound Sardar Patel Marg via Karol Bagh opp. Assam House is Buddha Jayanti Park founded on the auspicious eve of 2500 years of completion of Buddhas Great Salvation.
  • 100. The grand, ancient-styled Swaminarayan Akshardham complex was built in only five years through the blessings of HDH Pramukh Swami Maharaj of the Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) and the colossal devotional efforts of 11,000 and BAPS volunteers. The complex was inaugurated on 6 November, 2005.
  • 102. Chandni Chowk meaning the Moonlight Square, was designed and laid by Jahanara Begum. There was Najafgarh pond, the water of which glittered while reflecting the moonlight. The palace of the Begum, which today has the biggest electrical market of north India. History says that the emperor thought about founding this market in Old Delhi to satisfy his daughter's shopping spree.
  • 103. Connaught Place, built in 1931, is one of Delhi's most popular shopping centres... The state emporia buildings are also located in this area so are the head offices of major banks, airlines and other such things. The complex, popularly referred to as CP.
  • 105. National Museum located on Janpath is a treasure house of India ’s glorious past. It has in possession over 2,00,000 works of exquisite art both of Indian and Foreign origin covering more than 5,000 years of cultural heritage.
  • 106. National Gallery of Modern Art, housed in the residence of Jaipur's former maharajas near India Gate, has a superb collection of paintings dating from 150 years ago to the present day.
  • 107. Crafts Museum at Pragati Maidan Grounds. It has galleries displaying India 's rich tradition of handicrafts. An added attraction is the presence of craftsperson who are bought here from different parts of the country to demonstrate their skills.
  • 108. Nehru Memorial Museum and Planetarium is located at Teen Murti house, the residence of India 's first Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru. After his death the house was converted into a memorial The Nehru memorial has a collection of gifts and many other items which he possessed. Nehru Planetarium is within the compound of Teen Murti. This planetarium gives a overview of the Indian Space program.
  • 109. The Gandhi Memorial Museum has a collection of memorabilia on Mahatma Gandhi.
  • 112. The Parliament House is one of the most magnificent buildings in New Delhi which has one of the brightest clusters of architectural gems possessed by any country in the world. The building was designed by two famous architects – Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker – who were responsible for the planning and construction of New Delhi.
  • 113. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court in the country and moved to the current building in 1958. The building is shaped to project the image of the scales of justice with the Central Wing (above) corresponding to the centre beam of the scales. In 1979, two new wings - the East Wing and West Wing - were added to the complex. In all there 15 Court Rooms in various wings of the building. The Chief Justice's Court is the largest of the Courts located in the centre of the Central Wing.
  • 114. The Secretariat Building was designed by the British Architect, Herbert Baker. The building isinfluenced by both Moghul and Rajputana styles of Architecture.The building houses the Ministries of Defence, Finance, External Affairs, Home Affairs and The Prime Ministers Office. There are two buildings: The North Block and South Block which both flank Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • 116. Established in 1951, and named in honour of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan . One of the most chic and classy shopping markets of the capital city. Some of the best things about this market is its interesting book shops and lampshades. Khan Chachas kebabs are worth a visit KHAN MARKET
  • 117. It is one of the narrowest, busiest and most prosperous trading centers of Delhi. The lanes of Chandini Chowk are divided into bazaars with different areas of specialization for fabrics, head to Katra Neel ,Dariba Kalan is Old Delhis ancient silver market, full of silver jewelry. It is well known for typical Delhi foods Chandini Chowk
  • 118. Janpath is famous for silver and inexpensive jewellery . It is the perfect for buying the latest fashion goods at cheap prices . One thing to remember while shopping at Janpath is to bargain as much as you can. There is no limit to how low you can get the prices. Janpath
  • 119. Dilli Haat is spread over an area of approximately 6 acres and has a typical traditional Indian village look to boast of An exotic variety of handicrafts and handlooms ranging from intricate woodcarvings to embellished camel hide footwear, to sophisticated fabric and drapery, to gems and beads to metal crafts offers an amalgamation of handicrafts, food and cultural activities Dilli Haat
  • 120. THE DELHI FOOD very delicious chaat, boiled potatoes (aloo) are cubed, fried, and spiced up, then served hot with toothpicks. This street chaat, or snack, is a golden-fried potato (aloo) patty, often stuffed with something with peas and served with a variety of spicy chutneys, and chole (chickpeas) Chole bhature is a Punjabi concoction of spicy curried chickpeas (chole) and puffy fried white-flour bread (bhature), (it’s also known as chana bhatura). The perfect cooling chaat—and stomach soother—on a hot Delhi day, dahi bhalla consists of creamy dahi and bhalla, bready fried lentil fritters (usually of urad dal).
  • 121. This very popular chaat,spicy, crunchy, saucy, all in one explosive bite-size package. Also widely known as pani puri, it consists of a round hollow, crispy that’s filled with potato, chickpea, and flavored water, usually tamarind and/or mint A popular dessert A popular dessert gulab jamuns are little golden- brown balls made of milk solids and flour, that are deep-fried, coated in a sugary syrup, and served warm. Moong dal halwa come in many shapes, flavors, and textures. It is made from ground and sweetened mung beans cooked in ghee A definitive street chaat of Delhi, papri chaat is called so for the crispy-fried round wafers (papri) that give it its addictive crunch. In the style of typical chaat, the papri is accompanied by boiled potato, chickpeas, chaat masala, a yogurt sauce, and tamarind and coriander chutneys, pomegranate seeds. An absolutely perfect marriage of spicy, sweet, tangy, soothing, and crunchy
  • 122. One of the most oldest and progressive cities in the world, Delhi is the capital of world's largest democracy, India. The city is a perfect amalgamation of ancient and modern. The history of India is related to the history of Delhi.