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A hazard is anything with the potential to cause harmA Risk Assessment needs to recognise the likeliness and severity of the hazard to do harm ( which leads to the precautions to take to minimise the risk )Hazards are: Chemical, Biological, Physical & Ergonomic , Electrical
Hazard engineering is concerned withthe identification and treatment ofexceptional circumstances where thehazards need to be controlled usingspecialist skills
A control program consists of allsteps necessary to protectworkers from exposure to asubstance or system, and theprocedures required to monitorworker exposure and theirhealth to hazards such aschemicals, materials orsubstance, or other types suchas noise and vibration.
PHYSICALERGOMETRIC CHEMICAL ELECTRICAL BIOLOGICAL
Machinery malfunctionElectrical equipment leakageChemical contacts Slip/Fall While Handling and TransportingExcessive HeightsFailure to report breakagesFailure to follow instructions
ASSES RISKMONITOR MINIMISEREVIEW HAZARD PREVENT CONTROL HAZARD HAZARD
Asses Possible risk in Present system of Operation,Identify, characterize, and assess threatsassess the vulnerability of critical assets to specificthreatsDetermine the risk (i.e. the expected consequences ofspecific types of attacks on specific assets)Evaluating and selecting temporary and permanentcontrolsImplementing temporary measures until permanent(engineering) controls can be put in placeImplementing permanent controls when reasonablypracticable
Identify ways to reduce those risksPrioritize risk reduction measures based on astrategyIsolate the hazardStop work activitiesComply with instructionsEnsure safe access and egressUse guardsUse fume extractionUse PPEIncidence Report to SupervisorConsultation
PERSONAL PROTECTIONAdequate LightingStop/Start switchesOperating InstructionsPermit to WorkRisk AssessmentsSafety InformationSafety InspectionsHand on Training
ELIMINATE EngineeringPPE HAZARD Control ADMN. CONTROL
Elimination (including substitution): remove the hazard from theworkplace.Engineering Controls: includes designs or modifications toplants, equipment, ventilation systems, and processes that reduce thesource of exposure.Administrative Controls: controls that alter the way the work isdone, including timing of work, policies and other rules, and workpractices such as standards and operating procedures (includingtraining, housekeeping, and equipment maintenance, and personalhygiene practices).Personal Protective Equipment: equipment worn by individuals toreduce exposure such as contact with chemicals or exposure to noise.
Controls are usually placed:At the source (where the hazard "comes from")Along the path (where the hazard "travels")At the worker
Engineering controls are methodsthat are built into the design of aplant, equipment or process tominimize the hazard.Engineering controls are a veryreliable way to control workerexposures as long as the controls aredesigned, used and maintainedproperly.The basic types of engineeringcontrols are:Process control,Enclosure and/or isolation ofemission source, andVentilation.
Process control involves changing the way a job activity or processis done to reduce the risk.Monitoring should be done before and as well as after the changeis implemented to make sure the changes did result in lowerexposures.EXAMPLESUse wet methods rather than dry when drilling or grinding. "Wetmethod" means that water is sprayed over a dusty surface to keepdust levels down or material is mixed with water to prevent dust frombeing created.Use an appropriate vacuum or "wet method" instead of dry sweeping(e.g. with a broom) to control dust and reduce the inhalation hazard.Decrease the temperature of a process so that less vapour isreleased.Use automation - the less workers have to handle or use thematerials, the less potential there is for exposure.Use mechanical transportation rather than manual methods.
Isolation aim to keep the chemical "in" andthe worker "out" (or vice versa).An enclosure keeps a selected hazard"physically" away from the worker.Enclosed equipment, is tightly sealed andonly opened for cleaning or maintenance.Isolation keeps the hazardous processaway from the majority of the workers.Common isolation techniques are to createa contaminant-free booth around theequipment
oVentilation is a method of control thathelps in exchange of fresh air in place ofcontaminated air in the work environment.oVentilation can dilute an air contaminantbelow effective level if designed properly.oLocal exhaust ventilation is very goodand can be adapted to almost all chemicalsand operations.oIt removes the contaminant from the workenvironment so it cannot disperse into thework place
Administrative controls limit workers exposures by schedulingshorter work times in contaminant areasScheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations fortimes when few workers are present (such asevenings, weekends).Using job-rotation schedules that limit the amount of time anindividual worker is exposed to a substance.Strengthening of National policies for health at work anddevelopment of policy toolsDeveloping healthy working environmentDeveloping healthy work practices and promoting health at workPeriodic Medical examinationImmunisation
Work practices are also a form of administrative controls.Safe work practices are very important. Some elements of safework practices include: Developing and implementing standard operatingprocedures. Training and education of employees about the operatingprocedures as well as other necessary workplace training Establishing and maintaining good house keepingprogram Keeping equipment well maintained. Preparing and training for emergency response forincidents such as spills, fire or employee injury.Ergonomics: ``Adjustment of Man & Machine``Application of human biological sciences with engineering science to achieve optimum mutual adjustment of man & his work, The benefit being measured in terms of human efficiency and well being
Employee education and on machinetraining on how to conduct their work safelyhelps to minimize the risk of exposure and is acritical element of any complete workplacehealth and safety program.Training must cover not only how to do thejob safely but it must also ensure that workersunderstand the hazards of their job.It must also provide them with informationon how to protect themselves and co-workers.
Good housekeeping helps to prevent theaccumulation of hazardous or toxic materialsRegular sweeping, Wet mopping of the area.Once a week the work place to be washedproperly.
Use of Personal protective Equipments as per the needof the area/work environment.The contaminant(s) can accumulate on the skin, clothing or hair.Therefore personal hygiene is essential.Washing hands after handling material and before eating, drinking or smoking;Avoiding touching lips, nose and eyes with contaminated hands.No smoking, drinking, chewing gum or eating in the work areas – these activities should be permitted only in a "clean" area; andNot storing hazardous materials in the same refrigeratoras food items.
Some monitoring tools include :-Physical inspection,Testing, exposure assessment,Constant Observations,Injury and accident tracking,Employee feedback/input,Occupational health assessmentPeriodic health checkup.
It is done by asking certain questions as under:--Have the present inititive solved the problem?-Are any new hazards been expected?-Are monitoring processes adequate?-Have workers been adequately informed about thesafety conditions?-Have orientation and training programs been modifiedand staff trained to deal with the new situation/ machine?-What measures required for further improvement.?-Has the effectiveness of hazard controls beenaccepted by workers and followed.-All hazzards and accidents documentedAnd many more to satisfy.
hospiad Hospital Administration Made Easy http//hospiad.blogspot.com An effort solely to help students and aspirants in their attempt to become a successful Hospital Administrator. DR. N. C. DAS